1. Describe the principal objectives that a construction engineer should have when carrying out a construction project.
Clear goals and objectives provide the project team with the appropriate boundaries necessary to make decisions about the project and to expand the number of alternatives available to achieve the objectives (Steyer 2000).
There are lots of reasons why you’d set objectives for a project, not least because they help you establish what it is you are doing and when you are going to do it by. If you don’t have objectives, you can spend a lot of time working on things that really aren’t all that relevant to your project and that can be a massive waste of effort.
The objectives of a construction project planning should be:
1. Proper planning:
Before starting any project its planning is done with great care, as the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning. While planning each and every detail should be worked out in anticipation and should be considered carefully. Planning of a construction project involves deciding about the extent of mechanization, equipment planning, and execution planning etc.
2. Construction Methods:
Plans should include construction methods to be adopted for different construction activities and tools and planning for tools and tackles for each activity so that they can be made available whenever required.
3. Selection of Construction Equipments and Machinery:
Proper selection of equipment for a construction project is of vital importance for its speedy and economical completion. Cost of a construction varies greatly with the use of construction equipments and heavy machinery as their renting cost could be very high per day. So, planning and scheduling for such equipments and machinery should be done in advance so that project activities goes on smoothly without keeping these equipment’s in waiting
4. Procurement of materials:
Project planning should also include procurement planning for materials. It is not advisable to keep the material unused for site for long time. This can degrade the material as well as much of the cost is spent on such materials. So, proper planning of material procurement also helps to complete the project within budget.
5. Planning for employee skills:
Some of the construction activities requires availability of skilled person to execute that work. It is not necessary to employ such person throughout the project, so proper planning of such work can reduce the cost of operation for that activity.
6. Planning for required documents and drawings:
Construction projects are executed based on the drawings and specifications. It is necessary to track and make available these drawings at site on time so that the construction activities are not stopped. Thus construction project planning should also include the schedules of drawings, specifications and other documents to be made available at site for review and execution without delaying the project.
7. Financial Planning:
Financial objectives are normally relatively easy to put together and you will find your sponsor is keen to make sure that if your project is going to make the company any money that this is record adequately in the project objectives. Your project may deliver a clear financial return (for example, launching a new product to the consumer market) or make a financial saving (such as closing an underperforming office).
2. Recognizing the importance of construction quality control, what steps do you suggest an owner take to assure delivery of a satisfactory facility?
Considering the limited resources in Pakistan, considering the social and economic conditions and aiming to produce and present the highest yield, quality control and quality assurance are gaining considerably large importance. In order to satisfy the customer following steps should be taken by an owner or a construction company.
The Construction Company/owner/ Contractor which is responsible for QC will provide or employ professional people who have good training and have experience in construction. All matters concerning the quality control of the project will be reported in written to the Client and Site Engineer.
The Construction Company/owner/ Contractor should provide proper equipment and machinery to carry out the site work.
The quality of materials and standard of workmanship should be controlled by the contractor on site by implementing a quality plan. The plan establishes the resources required and associated documents (lists, purchasing documentation, machinery, equipment, etc.) and the control activities.
The standard of workmanship can be improved by providing adequate training, appropriate instructions and clear checklists as well as ensuring there is on-site supervision and monitoring and an ongoing process of feedback to ensure continuous improvement.
According to the material cost estimation should be satisfactorily.
3. Briefly explain the difference between construction utilizing a conventional construction contract and construction utilizing a construction management contract.
Conventional construction contract relies upon the owner first contracting with the consultant, who is responsible for the project’s design, including detailed drawings and specifications, preparation of the bid package or Request for Proposals (where appropriate) and, in some part, for the supervision and administration and certification of the work performed under the construction contract. The consultant’s contract is most often a fixed price and date certain contract. Through the consulting agreement, the owner gains the benefit of the consultant’s experience and expertise. Once the design has been completed and the work offered for tender or proposal, the owner will retain the general contractor, who is wholly responsible for the construction of the project in accordance with the consultant’s design. The contractor under this procurement method accepts the responsibility and risks for the construction means and methods and for the performance of the various subcontractors that it retains.
In construction management contract difference comes by way of the introduction of the construction manager, who takes the place of the general contractor and has a modified role. In a “pure” construction management structure, the owner again contracts with a consultant to prepare a design and contract documents. Simultaneously, or subsequent to the completion of the design the owner will also contract with a construction manager as its agent for the management of the project. The construction manager’s role is predominantly one of advisor and administrator. In addition to assisting the owner with tendering and the selection of the various contractors who will complete the work, the construction manager will also administer the trade contracts (a role assumed by the contractor in a traditional project). The construction manager may be responsible for creating the project schedule and may assist the owner in developing the project budget. The owner relies on the technical knowledge of the construction manager. Depending on the expertise and experience of the owner, the construction manager may perform many of these functions with minimal oversight from the owner.
The key difference between a conventional construction project and a construction management project is that the owner retains privity with the trade contractors and therefore retains the risk for ensuring their contractual obligations are fulfilled. The construction manager acts as the owner’s agent and is typically paid for the cost of its work together with an agreed fee. This structure means less risk for the construction manager, particularly in relation to defects and deficiencies within the subcontracted work.
4.Describe three specific construction applications of a personal computer that you believe would be valuable to a construction professional.
APPLICATONS OF A PERSONAL COMPUTER:
Very rapid progress has been achieved in the last few years in the development of general-purpose engineering software. General characters desired in computers are speed, accuracy, reliability, versatility and diligence.
1. Computer softwares:
There are many software packages available in the market. They can be put to use for many uses like design of huge structures, virtual reality, solving equations for optimization of resources tender bidding, earth-work estimation, cost estimation, project management, structural drawing predictive model making and much more.
2. Satellite surveying:
Satellite surveying is conducted for map preparation and other projects like highway alignment. Satellite surveying without computers is quite difficult to imagine. Since most of the work is done by the host of computers on board and in ground station.
3. Analysis of data:
It can store huge volumes of data and with the aid of many input and output devices data of different forms can be fed in to and taken out. Data transfer, its interpretation and analysis are all done by computers.
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