The United Nations is a name that we usually heard in news, radio and many more. It is an international organization that established in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and vision of the United Nations are guided by the aim and values contained in its creation which is Charter (law). Due to the powers contain in its Charter, the United Nations can take act on the issues opposing humankind in the 21st century such as peace and security, human rights, climate change, sustainable development, demilitarization, terrorism, charitable and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, and more. The UN also provides a medium for its members to give their ideas and views in the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and other bodies and committees. Now after discussion with the other members, the Organization has become a device for governments to find an agreement and solve problems together.
Secretary-General of the United States (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat. The Secretary-General also acts as the de factor spokesperson and leader of the United Nations. Without this person, the job cannot be proceed. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who took office on 1 January 2007. His first term expired on 31 December 2011. He was re-elected, unchallenged, to a second term on 21 June 2011. His replacement will be appointed by the General Assembly in 2016. Ban Ki-Moon is the eighth Secretary-General since the United Nations was found.
The Charter is a law that must be follow by the Secretary-General and the other people in the organization. The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945 in San Francisco. at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization. It came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an essential part of the Charter. The latest Charter is change to Article 109, which relates to the first paragraph of that Article, provides that a General Conference of Member States for the purpose of reviewing the Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members (formerly seven) of the Security Council. Paragraph 3 of Article 109, which deals with the consideration of a possible review conference during the tenth regular session of the General Assembly, has been reserved in its original form in its reference to “vote, any seven members of the Security Council", the paragraph having been acted upon in 1955 by the General Assembly, at its tenth regular session and by the Security Council.
Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. His importance have been to mobilize world leaders around a set of new global challenges, from climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increasing pressures involving food, energy and water. He has required to be a bridge-builder, to give voice to the world’s poorest and most helpless people, and to strengthen the Organization itself. Mr. Ban took office on 1 January 2007. On 21 June 2011, he was totally re-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve until 31 December 2016.
2. THE ROLE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
Secretary-General as known as chief administrative officer, who must perform and act by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful justification of the concerns of Member States, but he must also maintain the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States. Even though it is a tough job, the Secretary-General must creative to prevent the tension accompanies through day-to-day work that includes attendance at sessions of United Nations bodies who are consultations with world leaders, government officials, and others; and worldwide travel intended to keep him in touch with the peoples of the Organization's Member States and informed about the huge plan of issues of international concern that are on the Organization's agenda. Each year, the Secretary-General issues a report on the work of the United Nations that reviews its activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary-General is also Chairman of the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), which brings together the Executive Heads of all UN funds, programes and specialized agencies twice a year in order to further coordination and cooperation in the entire range of functional and management issues facing the United Nations System. One of the most vital roles played by the Secretary-General is the use of his power by steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his independence, impartiality and integrity, to prevent international disputes from arising, escalating or spreading.
Each Secretary-General also defines and adapts the role to meet the challenges and opportunities of a particular time in office. The roles are may be different with the other former Secretaries-General. It depends on the environment and what happen in surrounding.
3. THE FORMER SECRETARY-GENERAL (KOFI ANNAN, 1997-2006)
Under the Charter, the Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. One of them was Kofi Annan (Ghana) who held office from January 1997 to December 2006. He was the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations. One of Mr. Annan's main priorities as Secretary-General was a comprehensive programmed of reform aimed at stimulating the United Nations and making the international system more effective. He was a constant supporter for human rights, the rule of law, the Millennium Development Goals and Africa , and required to bring the Organization closer to the global public by reproducing connections with civil society, the private sector and other partners.
The achievements for Mr. Annan is make the UN peacekeeping strengthened in many ways that enabled the United Nations to handle with a rapid rise in the number of operations and personnel. It was also at Mr. Annan's urging that, in 2005 the Member States established two new intergovernmental bodies which are the Peacebuilding Commission and the Human Rights Council. Mr. Annan likewise played a central role in the creation of the Global Fund to fight many type of diseases like AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Then, he did adoption of the UN's first-ever counter-terrorism strategy, and the acceptance by Member States of the people from killing, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. His “Global Compact” initiative was launched in 1999. It has become the world's largest effort to promote corporate social responsibility.
Mr. Annan undertook wide-ranging diplomatic initiatives. In 1998, he helped to ease the transition to civilian rule in Nigeria . Also at that year, he visited Iraq in an effort to resolve an impasse between that country and the Security Council over compliance with resolutions involving weapons inspections and other matters. It is an effort that helped to avoid an outbreak of hostilities. In 1999, he was deeply involved in the process by which Timor-Leste gained independence from Indonesia . He was responsible for certifying Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. In 2006, his efforts contributed to securing a end of hostilities between Israel and Hizbollah. Also the same year, he mediated a settlement of the dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria over the Bakassi peninsula through implementation of the judgement of the International Court of Justice. His efforts to strengthen the Organization's management, coherence and accountability involved major investments in training and technology, the introduction of a new whistleblower policy and financial disclosure requirements, and steps aimed at improving coordination at the country level.
In this case, we can see Mr. Annan was a good person in make a good relationship with the other countries and make a good solutions or win-win situations with the both parties. He also care about the health and environment which is he want to avoid the diseases before spreading.
4. THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF UNITED NATIONS
Through the years, many achievements that the UN was contributed to the world. One of the goals were the UN was able to restore calm to allow the negotiating process to go forward. Then the UN can saved millions of people from becoming casualties by having deployed 42 peace-keeping forces in 1996. There are presently 16 active peace-keeping forces in operation.
Second, since 1945, the United Nations has been credited with negotiating 172 peaceful settlements that have ended regional conflicts. Next, more than 30 million refugees escaping war, famine or persecution have received aid from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees since 1951. The UN agencies also have worked to make safe drinking water available to the 1.3 billion people in rural areas during the last 10 years.
The effort by the World Health Organization resulted in the complete extermination of smallpox from the planet in 1980 through 13 years. The extermination has saved an estimated $1 billion a year in vaccination and monitoring.
Other than that, UNEP led a major effort to clean up the Mediterranean Sea. It encouraged adversaries with a few countries such as Syria and Israel, Turkey and Greece to work together to clean up beaches. As a result, more than 50 per cent of the previously polluted beaches are now usable. Now the beaches are safe and clean from pollutions.
The UN Population Fund, on of the body under the UN made a family planning programs which has enabled people to make informed choices, and consequently given family especially for women with greater control over their lives. As a result, women in developing countries are having fewer children from six births per woman in the 1960s to 3.5 today.
5. BAN KI-MOON
As we know, Ban Ki-Moon is the current Secretary-General of the United States. For a few years in this position after re-election also, there are many achievements and projects that he done for the benefits to the world. Some of the achievements are from many aspects such as humanities, environment, securities and economics.
The achievements that Ban Ki-Moon contribute to the world since he hold the position of Secretary-General are from many aspects. Firstly, he promoting sustainable development. His first major initiatives was in the 2007, Climate Change Summit and followed by extensive diplomatic efforts. It did helped put the issue at the head of the global agenda. Following efforts to focus on the Millennium Development Goals which is a world’s main anti-poverty targets, have generated more than $60 billion in initiates, with a special emphasis on Africa and the new Global Strategy on Women’s and Children’s Health. The Secretary-General successfully appealed to the G20 for a $1 trillion financing package for developing countries and took other steps to guide the international response and protect the helpless and poor at the height of the food, energy and economics crisis in 2008.
Secondly, he did an idea to empower women. The Secretary-General pressed successfully created of UN Women, a major new agency that combines the UN’s work. His encouragement for women’s rights and gender equality has also included the "Unite to End Violence against Women" campaign, the "Stop Rape Now" initiative, the making of a "Network of Men Leaders" and the making of a new Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict. Within the UN itself, the effect of this campaign and initiative has increased the number of women in senior management positions by more than 40 per cent which is reaching the highest level in the Organization’s history.
Next he was support the countries facing crisis or instability around the globe. He has required to strengthen UN peace efforts including through the New Horizons peacekeeping initiative, the Global Field Support Strategy and the Civilian Capacity Review to improve the effect of the 120,000 United Nations peaekeeping operating in the world’s conflict zones for the peaceful of the countries. A mediation support unit, along with new capacity to carry out the Secretary-General’s good offices, have been set up to help prevent, manage and resolve tensions, conflicts and crises. Other than peace and security, responsibility for destructions of human rights has received high-level attention through inquiries related to Gaza, Guinea, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, legal processes in Lebanon and Cambodia. It also gives help for the new United Nations aimed at prevent and stop killing and other grave crimes. He has also sought to strengthen humanitarian response in the aftermath of mega-disasters in Myanmar (2008), Haiti (2010) and Pakistan (2010), and mobilized UN support for the democratic transitions in North Africa and the Middle East.
Other than looking for the world, he also made a new strategies and planning for the UN in their organization which is strengthening the UN. The Secretary-General introduced new measures aimed at making the United Nations more good, effective and efficient. These include heigh financial disclosure requirements, compacts with senior managers, harmonization of business practices and conditions of service, the adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards, and continued investments in information technology and staff development.
In the scope of environment, which is in 2007, on World Environment Day, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, made public his ambition to make the United Nations more efficient in its operations. In October 2007, at the meeting of the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB), the Executive Heads of UN agencies, funds and programs committed to move their respective organizations towards climate neutrality and developed the UN Climate Neutral Strategy. It more focuses on several things such as estimate the greenhouse gas emissions of UN system organizations consistent with accepted international standards, undertake efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and analyze the cost implications and explore budgetary modalities of purchasing carbon offsets to ultimately reach climate neutrality. After he expressed the wish, The UN Climate Neutral Strategy highlights the advantages of harmonization. A common approach across the UN system brings greater impact, lowers transactions costs, facilitates practical action on the ground through the development of common tools, ensures comparability of data across organizations, and pooling of results for better-informed decisions and knowledge-sharing.
After that, Greenhouse gas emissions of UN organizations and what we are doing to reduce them. The information provided by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sustainable United Nations team shows that the United Nations (UN) system has offset 17% of its reported greenhouse gas emissions for 2013. It is a positive step towards meeting Secretary General Ban Ki-moon’s ambitious target of the UN system to be climate neutral by 2020. The news comes as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launches its Climate Neutral Now initiative, which encourages and enables organizations, companies and individuals to measure, reduce and offset their emissions direct with UN-certified climate credits.
6. THE PRACTICES THAT UNTED NATIONS MUST DO
For the sake of the future and the entire all the countries in the world, the UN must do something different or keep their performance maintain. Especially in humanities and peaceful of the members. There are many ways or practices that the UN can do.
For the examples is he or she must be someone with great international influence and authority, and those could come from very diverse backgrounds. Whatever the case, deep understanding and knowledge in the fields of international politics, economy, history, security, diplomacy, and law are required (which are the subjects of the interdisciplinary studies of International Relations) so that they can contribute many ideas and something fresh for the world.
Next, achieving that is very time and effort consuming, which is why there aren't many individuals who posses additional prized attributes, such as accomplishments in literature, music, acting, or in any other kind of artistry. It is often that these last details end up being the subconsciously determining factors that capture preferences, and win votes and elections. He or she must do their job for sincere to help people and not for their names and positons.
Thirdly, he or she should be fluent in as many languages as possible of those that are essential to the processes of safeguarding international peace, and propelling political agreements and economical and social developments. If one speaks the languages of the major world powers, their representatives will treat him, or her, with more respect, which favors a good outcome in any process they could be involved with. If you speak in Russian with Putin or in Chinese with Xi Jinping, you can be sure they'll both like you more. When he or she can speak more languages, they can communicate easily with other people.
Lastly he or she must be a charismatic person able to inspire comfort and trustworthiness in everyone, from a little schoolgirl on the other side of the world to the world leaders who often shake his or her hand, and who dictate the directions and advancements in all the fields of international affairs. His or her characteristics must be good and must show the good one as a leader. He or she must be an example to the entire of the world. Not just on his or her ideas or time, he must be a charismatic person.
In my opinion, he or she must be a responsible person. He or she does not involved in cases that will drop him or her such as bribery and racism.
Then, Secretary-General can be elected from the people in other continent such as Africa. It does not mean only the people from United States can only hold the positions. Maybe they have many ideas, experiences and qualities that they have more than the others.
7. THE QUALITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS
1. Organized and detail oriented.
2. Puts the boss's and company's "best foot forward" since he/she will most likely come in contact with clients before the boss does.
3. Always answers the phone and greets visitors with a smile on his/her face and in his/her voice.
4. Has up-to-date skills and the ability to learn new skills and procedures with ease.
5. Knows when to keep his/her mouth shut and when not to. Doesn't quibble over the small stuff.
6. Listens well and presents solutions rather than dwell on problems.
7. Presents a professional appearance and attitude at all times. Doesn't bring personal problems to work.
8. Follows through quickly and efficiently with all tasks.
9. Terrific spelling and grammar skills, and knows how to interpret the boss's hieroglyphics!
10. Remembers the pressures the boss is under and doesn't bother the boss with every little problem.
8. THE CHALLENGES THAT UNITED NATIONS FACES
The challenges that the United Nations may be faces are outdated structure. The permanent countries such as Russia and China are powerful and have veto power which has led to near-paralysis at the council on some major crises like Syria and Ukraine. It seen like doesn’t represent the world today. At its beginning, the U.N. had 51 member states and now has 193, many of them clamouring for more whack. All countries are represented in the General Assembly but it can only pass nonbinding resolutions. The big five countries are no signs the big five intend to give up any power or share it with more countries.
Next is the unwieldy organization. The U.N. has become a extensive system with 15 autonomous agencies, 11 semi-autonomous funds and programs, and numerous other bodies. There is no central entity to oversee them all. The secretary-general can try to coordinate their actions but he has no authority over many of them. The awkward structure was blamed for the World Health Organization’s delay in recognizing the Ebola widespread. The WHO’s country directors in Africa report to the Africa regional director not WHO headquarters in Geneva. And the WHO’s director in Geneva does not report to the Secretary-General in New York.
After that is the increasing demands The U.N. is almost constantly asking its member states to contribute troops for its extensive peacekeeping missions, currently numbering 16. The number of peacekeepers has risen to a record 130,000 compared to 11,000 at the end of the Cold War but the system is under simple strain. More than 100 peacekeepers have died this year and dozens have been taken imprisoned. The world’s refugee population has soared among a growing list of humanitarian crises. The U.N. refugee agency is trying to help over 51 million people forced from their homes and displaced inside or outside their country is the highest figure since the U.N. began collecting those data in the early 1950s. The U.N. humanitarian office is tackling a record of four top-level emergencies in Africa and the Mideast as well as Ebola.
Next is unreliable funding. Raising money is a problem with so many crises competing for the world’s attention. Many U.N. agencies and humanitarian operations are funded by voluntary contribution, and appeals aren’t getting enough donations. All 193 member states contribute some budget and a separate peacekeeping budget but some countries are frequently behind on their payments. Some members owed about $3.5 billion for regular operations and peacekeeping.
After that is the political horse-trading. There is widespread behind-the-scenes riding for top jobs in the U.N. Secretariat and U.N. agencies like the Human Rights Council and the Security Council. Every country belongs to a regional group that entrances to ensure it is well represented. There is criticism that those who get the seats are not the best qualified such as dictatorships elected to the rights council.
From a speech from the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, he has highlighted three major challenges facing UN peacekeeping. He said the first challenge that UN faces is to support complex political processes and protect citizens in high-risk environments characterized by distorted threats. He said while these situations are not new to the UN, they are more strong. He explained that while UN mission does not have a counter-terrorism mandate, the use of suicide bombs, improvised explosive devices and other tactics of irregular warfare threaten the security.
The second major challenge, the Secretary-General highlighted the concerns ensuring that peacekeepers are trained and equipped to trace new threats and operate in increasingly difficult environments. The UN need specialized skills and enablers such as engineering and field hospitals. Mr. Ban Ki-Moon deeply grateful for China’s support to the UN. He said also that UN developing an unarmed aerial system in the Democratic Republic of the Congo so the peacekeepers will have real time, first-hand information on conditions in remotes area that may be threaten the people.
And, the third challenge is to maintain the commitment and unity of its communities. He said the successful peacekeeping demands sustained political and material support from the Security Council and the from countries that contribute troops and police personnel. Also that from those who contribute funds to UN operations. China provides more peacekeepers to the United Nations than all of the four other permanent members combined. The Secretary-General said he was deeply grateful for China's support in these important areas which is Beijing's most recent recruit to the operation in Mali.
My suggestions are that member states that understand the revolutionary power of markets and the rule of law should consider creating an economic freedom committee. A partnership between such developed and developing countries at the UN would make the global body work better on the key economic challenges in the poorest parts of the world.
Another idea whose time has arrived is the establishment of a democracy committee. No two democracies are alike but they often have more in common than with their neighbors. Democratic countries could consult and combine their energies to advance freedom around the world. They could begin the long process of rescuing the Commission on Human Rights from its decline so that one day it helps the millions of victims of cruelty who look to it for hope.
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