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Abstract

On an emotional level, studying United Nations (UN) is a motivational experience. It’s fun to pretend being a world leader solving the world’s most important problems in 48 hours or less. In this era of globalization, learning about the world is more important than ever. No matter what field or profession we enter, we will interact with people from different countries and diverse backgrounds. Problems take place halfway around the globe impact our lives, country, and communities. As a results, we are able to handle all the problems smoothly without stressor.

With most of the challenges faced by UN, it taught me a lot. Even they faced a lot of hardship, but they are able to serve nation till now. Up to 2016, it has been 71 years United Nations are form from a Nations history to intended future. I get to know how things function, from monetory aid to military sanctions. I also learn how to live in a world, where diplomacy rules. The United Nations is a valuable organization as it brings together diverse members of an increasingly interdependent world to make collective decisions for the betterment of all. By having diverse members, all of their voices are clearly heard and action can take place.

Besides, knowing how the Secretary- General solved the countries problems make me know how to be a good leader. This is really helping me to shine my future with these knowledge in mind. I got the chance to  discover my futures with a different way of approach. It is really cool. Knowing the futures make me know what I should do to polish and handle it. Despite future, I got to learn my strength and weaknesses which I can improve them.  

In addition, knowing UN has help me to  become confident in myself. This would help to add value and give some extra advantages. Not to forget that we are able to form lasting friendships with people from all over the world by joining UN and get to exchange feelings, knowledge and opinion. Thus, it help to get know what others think. Being in a multiculture community, sensitive  to the cultural differences will be critically important. Itis really interesting to be many and different cultures.the must thing is to know about other cultures and also when travelling abroad, one will find ount new things that is different from his cultures. Moreover, when people discover a new culture in another country, that will help to connect between the people and different culture.

 Lastly, people are more likely to have travelled abroad by young age and have easy access to a world of information through the internet. However, they still need to be guided through the process of discovery so that a deeper understanding of their own place in the word is developed.  

Introduction

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization founded in 24 October 1945 after the Second World War. It consist of 51 countries at that time and now there are 193 countries. Each countries will send people to the headquarters to hold meetings and pass resolutions (make decisions) about global issues. It committed to maintain the countries in  peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. The mission and work of the United Nations are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter.

   

The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.  All were established when  the UN was founded which is in 1945. The Secretariat, one of the main organs of the UN is organized along departmental lines, with each department or office having a distinct area of action and responsibility. Offices and departments communicate with each other to ensure cohesion as they carry out the day to day work of the Organization in offices and duty stations around the world.  At the head of the United Nations Secretariat is the Secretary-General.

1. Challenges faced by united nation today.

1.1 Refugees

Refugees are persons fleeing armed conflict or persecution. UN General Assembly enstablished the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR’s work involve with three human goals which are saving lives, restoring hope to those who have lost everything, and helping people to find their way ‘home’ again.

UNHCR did their job to save lives of refugees. Basic survival is usually uppermost in a refugee’s mind upon being forced to flee conflict or persecution. The same is true of those who have been suddenly displaced by natural disasters. Traumatized and in strange surroundings, they often flee with nothing. They need help immediately if they are to survive. They need food, water, shelter, medical care and security. With some 7,000 staff in more than 120 countries, UNHCR is one of the world’s most field-oriented humanitarian agencies. UNHCR can quickly respond to emergencies, at any given time to provide immediate life-saving assistance to up to 500,000 people anywhere in the world.

On the other hand, UNHCR do ensures refugees receive the protection and assistance they need over the intermediate term while solutions are sought to end their exile. Unfortunately, this can sometimes take years. Long after the initial crisis has ended and the world’s media have turned their attention elsewhere, the plight of refugees continues with no end in sight. Here, it is UNHCR’s job to make a difficult situation as safe and as dignified as possible. Often, refugees have lost everything but hope. UNHCR does all it can to keep that hope alive, including by continually seeking long-term solutions. It promotes a safe environment for refugees, protecting them from violence and exploitation. It works to ensure the provision of medical care and legal and psycho-social support, as well as basic education.

Finally, UNHCR’s main goal is to help refugees find a way home so they can begin upgrading  their lives. Usually, this means going back to their original homes once it is safe to do so through voluntary repatriation operations overseen by UNHCR. The agency also stays on to help them get a new start. Sometimes, however, repatriation is not possible and a new home in a new country must be found. Here, there are two options, local integration in the initial country of asylum or resettlement to a third country.

1.2 Peacekeeping issues

Peacekeeping operates within a changing physical, social, economic and political environment. It is to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace. They need to be flexible to address a changing set of issues. The first challenge UN face is to support complex political processes and protect civilians in high-risk environments characterized by asymmetric threats. The use of suicide bombs, improvised explosive devices and other tactics of irregular warfare threaten the security.

The second major challenge, the Secretary-General highlighted, concerns ensuring that peacekeepers are trained and equipped to address new threats and operate in increasingly difficult environments. They  need specialized skills and enablers, such as engineering units and field hospitals. Besides, they need to improve  peacekeepers' capacity to react rapidly. They should be able to gather and analyze accurate information.

The third challenge to peacekeeping is to maintain the commitment and unity of its constituencies. The current Secretary-General said "Successful peacekeeping demands sustained political and material support from the Security Council, from countries that contribute troops and police personnel, and from those who contribute funds to our operations." China provides more peacekeepers to the United Nations than all of the four other permanent members combined. The Secretary-General said he was deeply grateful for China's support in these important areas, particularly Beijing's most recent pledge to our operation in Mali.

1.3  Hunger

UN are facing challenges to help people who live in poverty and who cannot afford good food. This people  are weak and less able to earn the money for helping them escape from poverty and hunger. Too many developing countries lack key agricultural infrastructure, such as enough roads, warehouses and irrigation. The results are high transport costs, lack of storage facilities and unreliable water supplies.This is more dangerous to the children as it can affect their future income, condemning them to a life of poverty and hunger. All conspire to limit agricultural yields and access to food. For two decades, leading up to the millennium, global demand for food increased steadily, along with growth in the world’s population, record harvests, improvements in incomes, and the diversification of diets.

As the food prices reached extraordinary levels, countries find ways to prevent themselves from food shortages and price shocks.  What they can do is by restrict export. By restrict export, they are able to have a larger amount of foo to eat. Some  importers begin purchasing grains at any price to maintain domestic supplies.This resulted in panic and volatility in international grain markets.  It also attracted speculative investments in grain futures and options markets.  

On the other hand, economic transformation, involving not only growth but also changes in the structure of the agricultural, industrial and service sectors that generate and sustain jobs that are adequately remunerated and accessible to all, regardless of income or class status, gender, ethnicity or location. Social transformation, accomplished through comprehensive social protection and services that are grounded in universal rights and supportive of social cohesion and democratic politics. Political transformation, including the protection of civic rights, activism and political arrangements that ensure states are responsive to citizens’ needs and that the poor have influence in how policies are made. The report argues that reducing poverty takes more than having employment-centred growth strategies, or pursuing universal social policies, or getting the politics correct. To deliver maximum impact all three must work together, the report stresses.

2. Role of the Secretary-General as top international public servant.

The Secretary-General is a symbol of United Nations ideals and a spokesperson for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable among them. The current Secretary-General, and the eighth occupant of the post, is Mr. Ban Ki-moon of the Republic of Korea, who took office on 1 January 2007. Each Secretary-General also defines and adapts the role to meet the challenges and opportunities of a particular time in office.

Overall, the role of Ban Ki-moon is to maintain peace between the countries that join United Nation. He assists governments in assuming their responsibility for the overall protection of refugees. He also intervenes on behalf of asylum-seekers and refugees threatened with deportation. Besides, he monitors borders and detention facilities, and offers training to border police, immigration officials and other humanitarian agencies involved in protecting refugees. Ban also manages sprawling refugee camps while also helping those who live on the local economy. Furthermore, he works with governments to find alternatives to detention of refugees and asylum-seekers. He  helps governments to register asylum-seekers and refugees and to issue identity documents. In countries where national asylum systems are not in place or not working, it determines who has refugee status.

Secretary General also need to put attention in infantry soldier. These skilled soldiers include engineers, who for example were able to help with the post-earthquake reconstruction in Haiti. We also need helicopters and their crews, as they enable us to extend our area of influence and be much more visible. Other specialist enablers include transport companies, communicators and medical personnel. Modern peacekeeping operations are often very complex, and place high demands on the personnel we deploy. High levels of training are required before deployment, and the UN works closely with Troop-Contributing Countries to provide the best help and advice possible. Troops must know what to do if they find themselves in an ambush. The secretary-general's office shoulders responsibility for overseeing peacekeeping missions and appoints the under-secretary in charge of that department.

As former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, the UN is “the only fire brigade in the world that has to wait for the fire to break out before it can acquire a fire engine.” A standing reserve sounds logical, but it would be immensely costly to have a force of several thousand people on permanent standby. It would require training, accommodating, feeding, etc. and then might not even be used. Although it takes time, it is much more practical to generate the military personnel once the go-ahead has been given. This also ensures we recruit personnel with the appropriate background, training and language skills.

Research by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization shows that investment in agriculture is five times more effective in reducing poverty and hunger than investment in any other sector. Therefore as Secretary General of UN, Ban Ki Moon should focus more on this. So that hunger can be reduce. Good nutrition is first defence against disease and source of energy to live and be active. Nutritional problems caused by an inadequate diet can be of many sorts, and when they affect a generation of youths, they can lower their learning capacities and thus compromising their futures. While young children are the most vulnerable to malnutrition, the right to adequate food is universal and good nutrition is essential for all.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) works with governments and other UN and international agencies to help developing country governments respond to the global food crisis.  It helps governments prepare strategies to expand sustainable agricultural production and productivity, and helps design safety nets for the vulnerable.  It clarifies issues and policy options to foster informed decision-making, and conducts in-depth analyses on the impact of the crisis at the regional and country levels.  It also mobilizes resources to meet those needs.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) helps developing countries, especially the least developed, enhance their food security.  It offers assistance in attracting domestic and foreign investment, and in developing sustainable agricultural practices.  It helps identify markets for organic agricultural and biotrade products, and promotes the removal of non-tariff barriers.  It provides farmers with market information to obtain the best prices for their products.  It mobilizes support for new financial instruments to manage risk, reduce transaction costs, and improve access to food. It facilitates smallholder farmers' access to credit for seeds and fertilizer, the streamlining of customs procedures and improved transport logistics.

3. Qualities & discipline of a Secretary-General in view of the practices and achievements of the successive Secretary-General.

As a  Secretary-General, one should have vision which they can see into the future. They also will have a clear, exciting idea of where they are going and what they are trying to accomplish to make United Nations success. Having a clear vision turns UN into a special type of organization. great Secretary-General are able to tap into the emotions of their employees. Besides, he should also imposed courage. The quality of courage means that he is willing to take risks in the achievement of your goals with no assurance of success. Because there is no certainty in life or business, every commitment you make and every action you take entails a risk of some kind.

The most pressing issues for the world community, whether human trafficking or civil wars, will continue to play a role. Emphasizing the link between climate change and conflict has been Ban's top priority since he took office. Ban has stressed that the Darfur conflict began as an ecological crisis in an effort to encourage countries to combat global warming in the interest of security. Like Annan, Ban has also made reform of the UN management structure a priority. "Just about everything we do hinges on sound management of the limited resources entrusted to us," he said in a speech to the General Assembly in April 2008. Nonproliferation, Annan's Millennium Development Goals, and human rights are also included on the secretary-general's hefty agenda, though he leaves the implementation of these programs up to agencies such as the UN Development Program and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Each secretary-general interprets the role differently, however. Discussing the organization's future, former CFR Senior Fellow Lee Feinstein put it as follows: "A secretary-general is like a Supreme Court justice--you never know what you're going to get." Investments in improving land management, using water more efficiently and making more resistant seed types available can bring big improvements.

The next UN Secretary- General should have diplomatic-related experience such as proven leadership, managerial ability and extensive international relations experience. Moreover, diplomatic and communications skills, experience in the United Nations, diplomatic record and linguistic ability are also crucial. The next Secretary-General need to focus on the real issues happening among the countries. This could prevent the problems to spread and become worse. Gro Harlem Brundtland as the Deputy Chair of the organisation  Security Council suggest that vision, leadership and independence should be among the most important personal qualities. The need to secure the best possible candidate to lead the United Nations is not to neglect the importance of ensuring that Secretary-Generals should be reflective of the world’s peoples they are seen to represent. All this while, eight male Secretary-Generals have showed their role, she believe it is the time for a woman to be chosen. Member States should therefore put forward women candidates.

Ernesto Zedillo said to have an effective United Nations we need the right leadership which we need the most visionary, the most effective person to lead the organisation. We need somebody with vision and the capacity to steward the decisions that have to be taken in this place. It should not be business as usual, it should be a mandate in which a true transformation of the system for international peace and security is constructed by the members of the organisation. Without vision, country has no direction. Therefore, where there is no direction confusion will get to start which is hard to be solve. Vision also need to be specific and detailed. Thus, the target is easily to be achieve.

A secretary general is enthusiastic about their work or role as leader. People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able to be a source of inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. Although the responsibilities and roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part of the team working towards the goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their sleeves and get dirty.

A good leader as well as keeping the main goal in focus is able to think analytically. Not only does a good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it down into sub parts for closer inspection. Not only is the goal in view but a good leader can break it down into manageable steps and make progress towards it.  Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head.

Conclusion

When disaster attacks, an organization is the only hope. People tend to look for help, leadership, and coordi¬nation. This is what the United Nations does. When there is peace to keep between warring factions, the world asks the UN to mobilize peacekeepers, manage elections, and create stability. In the face of challenges such as climate change, disease or poverty, the United Nations provides the place for international cooperation. The destruction of their property and the loss of their assets will render most of them a charge upon the communities in which they have sought refugee for a minimum period of one year. the refugees, on return to their homes, are entitled to adequate safeguards for their personal security, normal facilities for employment, and adequate opportunities to develop within the community without racial, religious or social discrimination.

The United Nations is the one international organization with the reach and vision capable of resolving world-wide problems. The United Nations Foundation links the UN’s work with others around the world, rallying the energy and knowledge of business and non-governmental organizations to help the UN tackle issues comprising climate change, global health, peace and security, women's empowerment, poverty suppression, energy access, and U.S.-UN relations. The United Nations Foundation is honored to work with you and the United Nations to foster a more peaceful, wealthy and just world.

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