In 24 October 1945 after the World War II end, the United Nations (UN) which is an intergovernmental organization was established to promote international co-operation. United Nations also was a replacement to the ineffective League of Nation due to the failure to prevent the World War II. It was also established to prevent another such conflict that might be happen. At first, United Nations only have 51 member states but nowadays they got almost 193 member states all over the world. Those member states were also the member of General Assembly. Besides, there were also 6 main organs in United Nations which are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.
After that, United Nations have their own purposes which written in their Charter. Some of their purposes are to maintain international peace and security. For example, by preventive diplomacy and meditation, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, countering terrorism and disarmament. Next, to protect human rights such as human rights for students, women and children. In addition, to deliver humanitarian aid to the needs such as helping refugees, feeding the hungry, helping children, and healing the sick.
Last but not least, Ban Ki-moon is the current Secretary-General of the UN, and also was the eight Secretary-General of the UN. Ban Ki-moon was also the first Asian to be elected as the Secretary-General of United Nation after more than 30 years. He was also a symbol to the organization and a spokesman for the entire peoples in this world. Before he became the Secretary-General of the UN, he was a career diplomat in South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the United Nations. He also active in diplomatic service, right after he graduated from university and chooses New Delhi, India as his first post. Ban Ki-moon was also being describes as ”chief administrative officer” of the organization by the UN Charter.
2. The Challenges Faced Today by United Nations
2.1 Climate Change.
Climate change was one of the problem faces by world today. Climate change was defined as a long-term changes in the earth’s climate due to the increase in the average of atmospheric temperature. Nowadays, as many people can see the extremely changes in climate all over the world for example El Nino and Equinox phenomenon makes the United Nations become more challenging in order to keep the world in peace. This climate changes can cause the rising of sea levels, decreasing of snow and ice cover, and also causes the changes of rainfall patterns and growing seasons.
For example, the past two decades had shown the most hottest years on world record. The heat wave in the summer of 2003 in Europe killed over 30,000 of people. In India, temperatures reached about 48.1 degrees Centigrade. This climate changes cause the UN Secretary-General paying more attention on preventing this climate changes from happen again. For others example on 19 March 2016, the Secretary-General of United Nations Ban Ki-moon said in Earth Hour event organize by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) that all the world’s Governments should come across to adopt the Paris Agreement on climate change. This event was held to promote people to save energy and maintain the sustainability of the earth.
The Secretary-General of United Nations, Ban Ki-Moon said at the Council on Foreign Relations in February 2013 that the increase in global temperature to 2 degrees must be limit. We currently still far away from that, and even we are getting more worst. If all of us still continue to doing the same thing, we are closing to achieve 6 degrees increase. Ban Ki-moon also said that most of the leader seem to ignore this climate changes problem. Only a few amount of them that pay an attention about the need to bring this problem to the centre of global security, economic and financial management. It is the most accurate time to find a huge number of solutions to avoid the damage, and to make sure their investments is worth it for them and to the earth sustainability.
2.2 The Plight Of Refugees.
One of the challenges faced today by the United Nations was the plight of refugees. In 2010, about 43.3 million forcibly displaced people worldwide recorded by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) which is the highest number since the mid-1990s. 27.1 million of them were internally displaced persons (IDPs), 15.2 million of them were refugees and 983,000 of them were asylum-seekers. Among the 15.2 million of refugees, 10.4 million of them were under the responsibility of UNHCR. While the other 4.7 million were Palestinian refugees which under the responsibility of the United Nation Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in Near East (UNRWA).
According to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres in his statement, the number of problems of protracted refugee situations has reached vast amounts. According to UNHCRS’s also, about six million of people (excluding the four million of Palestinian refugees in special case) have now been living in exile for more than five years. This has been record in recent statistics. Moreover, about more than 30 same situation are recorded throughout the world, the huge majority of them are struggling to meet their necessities of their own citizen which come from African and Asian countries.
2.3 Spread of Ebola Virus Diseases.
Ebola virus diseases (EVD) is a severe, even fatal illness in humans which commonly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. On 19 September 2014, the first-ever United Nations emergency mission (UNMEER) was established and closed on 30 July 2015. It was established right after the unanimous adoption of General Assembly resolution 69/1, and the adoption of Security Council resolution 2117 (2014) to stop against the spreading of Ebola virus diseases that currently active spreading in Africa country which are Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone which causes many deaths. Others objective was to treat the infected, ensure essential services, preserve stability and prevent future outbreaks. The spreading of Ebola in Africa form a threat to international peace and security. The main objective of United Nations emergency mission (UNMEER) is to collect the response from the ground and to form a unity of purpose among the respondents to find ways to prevent the spreading of Ebola virus diseases.
As in 1 August 2015, World Health Organization (WHO), under the direct authority of the WHO Director-General led the oversight of the United Nations system’s Ebola emergency response. Necessary steps have been taken by United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations Mission in Liberia and national and international partners to enable this transition.
3. The Proper Role of Secretary-General as Top International Public Servant.
The Secretary-General handles one of the most important jobs in the world. It is because, he acts as a spokesman for the world, maintaining peace for the world, and seeking for a brilliant idea to overcome any unwanted conflict from happened to this world. U.S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt visualize that Secretary-General as a “world moderator”. Secretary-General has facing many challenges throughout their entire jobs as a peacekeeping for example challenges in climate changes, the plight of refugees and the rise of extremism, and the spreading of Ebola virus diseases. He has shown a great solution and patience on handling those challenges. Besides, the Secretary-General of the United Nations also plays a crucial role in international relations. The Secretary-General was also known as the “chief administrative officer” of the United Nations which also responsible for a huge range of managerial, administrative and substantive tasks and serves as the head spokesman for the United Nations.
Besides, Secretary-General also play a vital roles for carrying out functions entrusted to him by the Security Council, General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and the other United Nations organs. Next, the other vital roles as a Secretary-General of United Nations is the ability of him to serve as a mediator in any conflict situation by using their “good offices” which also known as his power as the head of global organization to prevent any conflict. For example, Secretary-General play an important role to keep on engaging with others conflicting parties while the Security Council stay with their peacekeeping missions and the General Assembly approves funds.
In addition, Secretary-General also play a crucial role as a peacekeeping. Peacekeeping has shown as the most effective tools to eliminate the hardest path from conflict to peace. For example in the remarks at China’s Peacekeeping Training Centre in Beijing, Ban Ki-moon the Secretary-General of United Nations said that specialized skills and enablers, such as engineering units and hospitals are needed for us. He was deeply grateful that these important areas being support by China’s. He also mention that we must improve our peacekeeper’s capacity for a better action in peacekeeping.
Moreover, Secretary-General also acts as a administrative which oversees the United Nations Secretariat. United Nations Secretariat was entrusted to handle United Nations operations, for example, translation, media relations and research. The United Nations Secretariat has about close to nine thousand people of staff from about 170 countries all over the world. Secretary-General has to handle all their administrative responsibilities accordingly.
Last but not least, all these roles are very crucial for the Secretary-General of United Nations as he is visualize as a “world moderator”. Every conflicts happened on this world depends on the action of the Secretary-General of United Nations to prevent or to stop it from spreading so that all people can live peacefully.
4. Qualities and Discipline of A Secretary-General of United Nations to Become A Successive Secretary-Generals.
Being a good and successful leader is not like teaching in kindergarten. It is the most serious and most challenging jobs when it is related to world issue. So, what are the qualities and discipline that can be follow to become a good and successful leader.
Great leader find a purpose to improve mankind and work for the best of others person.
As a great leader, they should not
In order to become a good world leader or a successive Secretary-General, those person must be honest to what they have to do in the next mission or what they have done before. This is very crucial as they work as a representative of the world. People put trust on them so that they have to make sure that all the work or mission that they have
To become a good and successful leader also, they should become a creativity person. This is because they have to think critical while there are conflicts happened to the people on this world.
As a conclusion, since the establish of United Nations on 24 October 1945, they have done many humanitarian mission to maintain international peace and security for example, by preventive diplomacy and meditation, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, countering terrorism and disarmament. Besides they also deliver humanitarian aids to the needs such as helping refugees, feeding the hungry, helping children, and healing the sick. feeding the people, helping children, and helping refugees. Next, they also help to protect human rights such as human rights for students, women and children. Even though they have many challenges along their mission such as climate changes, the plight of refugees and the spreading of Ebola virus diseases, they maintain their jobs as a international organization that help to maintain peace and security for the world. The present of good leader as the Secretary-General of United Nations, Ban Ki-moon also a great ways to achieve a better peace.
Overall in my opinion, Ban Ki-moon should takes more better actions to improve his administration in United Nations organizations.
United Nations. (n.d). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 27 March, 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations
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