The First World War left a big impression in the history of the world. The number of casualties and destruction of property that big raise awareness of the international community to establish an organization for ensuring world peace. Therefore, the League of Nations was established. However, the League of Nations failed to carry out the responsibilities entrusted to reply. The failure of the League of Nations proved when World War II broke out.
In August 1941, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Atlantic Charter, which later became the basis for the establishment of the United Nations. January 1942, the main leaders of the US, Britain, Russia and China have signed a document known as the Declaration of the United Nations [United Nations]. US, Britain, Russia, France and China appointed as permanent members of the Security Council and the veto power given.
United Nation is an international organization which is form in California, San Francisco on 24th October 1945 right after world war II. Its membership is open for all country all over the world. Its main purpose would be exactly like the the United Nation’s charter, that is to prevent the recurrence of great dispute, stressed that the main human rights, ensure respect for international law, as well as improving the living standards of people around the world. The United Nations has established solely to replace the League of Nations, which was dissolved after it failed to prevent World War II. The original UN headquarters is located in San Francisco, but the United Nations now operates in New York, which is the headquarters since 1946. The first General Assembly held in Church House, London on January 10, 1946 in London, United Kingdom participated by 51 countries. Currently, 195 countries have joined this organization. UN Charter assign six main tool, namely: General Assembly , Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and secretariat. However, there are also many special agency for specific purposes.
Apart from that, UN Secretariat headed by the Secretary-General, who is assisted by a team of international civil servants. The United Nations Charter requires that staff are selected from areas that are widespread throughout the world. Secretary-General himself only responsible for selecting staff.The United Nations Secretariat to provide research, information and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, United Nations agencies and others. The duties of the Secretary-General include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information about the implementation of the decisions of the Security Council and in consultation with the government members of various measures initiated by the United Nations.
However, considering Secretary-General as top international public servant who are having number of multiple and pressing challenges faced by the United Nation today, how should he play his role? What are the required qualities and discipline in a view of the practises and achievements of the successive Secretary Generals? We will go in depth in our further discussion.
United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 to enhance political and economic cooperation among member countries. The organization is working on a program of economic and social development, improve human rights and reduce global conflict. The UN is made up of the General Assembly (of the law), the Security Council (for the promotion of peace), the Economic and Social Council (economic development), Secretary (administration and information and the International Court of Justice (for matters of justice). It also responsible for the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and the World Food Programme. The United Nations was established following the Second World War as a way to reduce tension among nations and reduce the possibility of another large-scale conflict. Almost every state and a state representative and leader of the organization, Secretary-General, appointed by the General Assembly. Funding for the organization comes from its members, the United States accounted for the largest amount to the budget.
The latest UN headquarters building was built on the East River (East River), New York City in 1949. However, the building is not the property of the United States. It is built on land bought from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. with a donation of US $ 8.5 million, and designed by a team of international architects, including the Le Corbusier (France) famous, Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil), and representatives of many other countries. The team is led by Wallace K. Harrison, principal of Harrison & Abramovitz (NYC).
United Nation(UN) headquarters in New York was officially opened on January 9, 1951. While the main United Nations headquarters located in New York, there are major agencies located in Geneva, The Hague, Vienna, Montreal, Bonn and other places. UN headquarters address is 760, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA.
Since the main building of the UN has been a long time, the UN is in the process of renovating and enlarging the building. For use in the meantime, a headquarters designed by Fumihiko Maki was built between 41st Street and 42nd Street (41st and 42nd Street) in New York.
2.1 UNITED NATION MEMBER STATES
The number of member countries has often changed since the beginnings of the UN, with more countries joining, and some older ones leaving as they were broken up to form newer countries
The first General Assembly held in Church House, London on January 10, 1946 in London, United Kingdom participated by 51 countries. Currently, 195 countries have joined this organization. This list shows all the member countries up to the middle of 2006, showing the name of the country and the date on which it became a member.
Here are all the list of countries involve in United Nation: Afghanistan (19 November 1946), South Africa (November 7, 1945), Central African Republic (20 September 1960), Albania (14 Dec 1955), Algeria (8 Oct. 1962), United States (24 October 1945), The United Arab Emirates (UAE) (9 December 1971), Andorra (28 Jul 1993), Angola (1 Dec. 1976), Antigua and Barbuda (11 November 1981), Saudi Arabia (24 October 1945), Argentina (24 October 1945), Armenia (2 March 1992), Australia (November 1, 1945), Austria (14 Dec 1955), Azerbaijan (2 March 1992), Bahamas (September 18, 1973), Bahrain (21 September 1971), Bangladesh (17 September 1974), Barbados (December 9, 1966), Netherlands (10 December 1945), Belarus (24 October 1945) , Belgium (27 December 1945), Belize (25 September 1981), Benin (20 September 1960), Bhutan (21 September 1971), Bolivia (14 November 1945), Bosnia-Herzegovina (22 May 1992) , Botswana (17 Oct 1966), Brazil (24 October 1945), Brunei Darussalam (21 September 1984), Bulgaria (14 Dec 1955), Burkina Faso (September 20, 1960), Burundi (18 September 1962), Cameroon (20 September 1960), Cape Verde (16 September 1975), Chad (20 September 1960), Chile (24 October 1945), China (24 October 1945), Colombia (November 5, 1945), Comoros (12 Nov 1975), Republic of Congo (20 September 1960), Democratic Republic of Congo (20 September 1960) , Costa Rica (November 2, 1945), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (20 September 1960), Croatia (22 May 1992) , Cuba (24 October 1945), Cyprus (20 September 1960), Czech Republic (19 Jan 1993) , Denmark (24 October 1945), Djibouti (20 September 1977),Dominica (18 December 1978), Dominican Republic (24 October 1945), Ecuador (December 21st 1945), El Salvador (24 October 1945), Eritrea (28 May 1993), Estonia (17 September 1991), Fiji (October 13, 1970), Philippines (24 October 1945), Finland (14 Dec 1955), Gabon (20 September 1960), Gambia (21 September 1965), Georgia (31 July 1992), Ghana (8 March 1957), Grenada (17 September 1974), Guatemala (21 Nov. 1945), Equatorial Guinea (12 Nov 1968), Guinea (12 December 1958), Guinea-Bissau (17 September 1974), Guyana (20 September 1966), Abyssinia (Ethiopia) (13 November 1945), Haiti (24 October 1945), Honduras (17 Dec. 1945), Hungary (14 Dec 1955), Iceland (19 November 1946), India (30 October 1945), Indonesia (28 Sep 1950) , Iran (Islamic Republic of) (24 October 1945), Iraq (December 21st 1945), Ireland (14 Dec 1955), Israel (11 May 1949), Italy (14 Dec 1955), Jamaica (18 September 1962), Japan (18 December 1956), Germany (18 September 1973) , Jordan (14 Dec 1955), Canada (November 9, 1945), Kazakhstan (2 March 1992), Cambodia (14 Dec 1955), Kenya (Dec 16 1963), Marshall Islands (17 September 1991), Solomon Islands (19 September 1978), Kiribati (14 Sept. 1999), South Korea (17 September 1991), North Korea (September 17, 1991), Kosovo (17 February 2008), Kuwait (14 May 1963), Kyrgyzstan (March 2, 1992), Laos (People's Democratic Republic) (14 Dec 1955), Latvia (17 September 1991), Lesotho (17 Oct 1966), Liberia (November 2, 1945), Libya (Arab Jamahiriyah) (14 Dec 1955), Liechtenstein (18 September 1990), Lithuania (17 September 1991), Lebanon (24 October 1945), Luxembourg (24 October 1945), Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) (8 April 1993) , Madagascar (20 September 1960), Morocco (12 Nov 1956), Malawi (1 December 1964), Malaysia (17 September 1957) , Maldives (21 September 1965), Mali (28 Sep 1960), Malta (December 1, 1964), Mauritania (27 October 1961), Mauritius (24 Apr 1968), Egypt (Egypt) (24 October 1945) , Mexico (7 November 1945), Federated States of Micronesia (17 September 1991), Moldova (2 March 1992), Monaco (28 May 1993), Mongolia (27 October 1961), Montenegro (28 June 2006) , Mozambique (16 September 1975), Myanmar (Burma) (19 Apr 1948), Namibia (23 April 1990), Nauru (14 Sept. 1999), Nepal (14 Dec 1955), New Zealand (24 October 1945), Nicaragua (24 October 1945), Niger (20 September 1960), Nigeria (October 7, 1960), Norway (27 November 1945), Oman (October 7, 1971), Pakistan (30 Sep 1947), Palau (15 Dec 1994), Panama (November 13, 1945), Papua New Guinea (10 October 1975), Paraguay (24 October 1945), France (24 October 1945), Peru (31 October 1945), Poland (24 October 1945), Portugal (14 Dec 1955), Palestine (29 November 2012), Qatar (21 September 1971),Romania (14 Dec 1955), The Russian Federation (24 October 1945) , Rwanda (18 September 1962), Saint Kitts and Nevis (23 September 1983), Saint Lucia (September 18, 1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (16 September 1980), Samoa (Country) (15 Dec 1976), San Marino (2 March 1992), São Tomé and Príncipe (16 September 1975), Senegal (28 Sep 1960), Spain (14 Dec 1955), Serbia (November 1, 2000) , Seychelles (21 September 1976), Sierra Leone (27 September 1961), Singapore (21 September 1965), Slovakia (19 Jan 1993) , Slovenia (22 May 1992) , Somalia (20 September 1960), Sri Lanka (14 Dec 1955), Republic of Sudan (12 Nov 1956), South Sudan (July 9, 2011), Suriname (December 4, 1975), Swaziland (24 September 1968), Sweden (19 November 1946), Switzerland (10 September 2002), Syria (Arab Republic) (24 October 1945) , Tajikistan (2 March 1992), Tanzania (United Republic of) (14 Dec 1961) , Thailand (Dec 16 1946), Timor Leste (27 September 2002), Togo (20 September 1960), Tonga (14 Sep 1999), Trinidad and Tobago (18 September 1962), Tunisia (12 Nov 1956), Turkey (24 October 1945), Turkmenistan (March 2, 1992), Tuvalu (5 Sept. 2000), Uganda (25 October 1962), Ukraine (24 October 1945), United Kingdom (Great Britain and Northern Ireland) (24 October 1945), Uruguay (18 December 1945), Uzbekistan (2 March 1992), Vanuatu (Sep 15 1981), Venezuela (15 November 1945), Vietnam (20 September 1977), Yemen (30 Sep 1947) , Greece (25 October 1945), Zambia (December 1, 1964)and Zimbabwe (August 25, 1980).
Graphic 1: Number of UN Member States
2.2 CHALLLENGES FACED BY UNITED NATION
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has highlighted three key challenges facing United Nations peacekeeping.
In a speech at the China Peacekeeping Training Centre in Beijing on Wednesday, the Secretary-General said that the first challenge we face is to support the complex political process and protect civilians in high-risk environments characterized by asymmetric threats. He said although the asymmetric threats are not new to the United Nations, they are more intense.
He explained that although the UN mission we do not have a mandate to combat terrorism, the use of suicide bombings, improvised explosive devices and other tactics of irregular warfare threatens the security.
The second major challenge, the Secretary-General highlighted, anxiety ensure peacekeepers are trained and equipped to deal with new threats and to operate in an increasingly difficult.
"We need skills and specific variables, such as engineering units, field hospitals and I am very grateful for the support China in this field is important - .. Especially pledge our operations in China for the latest Mali We also need to improve the ability of peacekeeping forces us to react quickly. They will be able to collect and analyze the right information. "(28")
For the first time, he said, "we're using, unmanned aerial systems are not armed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo so that the peacekeeping force will have real-time, updated information on the situation in remote areas where fighters can threaten civilians."
And the third challenge to keep the peace is to maintain the unity and commitment of constituencies. He said, "demand that peacekeepers were sustained political and material support from the Security Council ... of countries that contribute troops and police ... and the people who donate to our operations."
China to provide more peacekeepers United Nations of all the other four permanent members combined. Secretary-General said he was very grateful for the support China in this important field, especially the recent Beijing oath to our operations in Mali.
3.0 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS
The world we live in today is one of promise and danger. This promise lies in the spread of freedom and democracy, free markets and trade, and the march of technology and modern medicine
For the United Nations to contribute to this promise, as we want it, it also has to grapple with danger.
3.1 PROPER ROLE OF SECRETARY GENERAL
Equal parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO, the Secretary-General is a symbol of the ideals of the United Nations and the spokesman for the interests of the peoples of the world, especially the poor and vulnerable among them. During the Secretary-General, and the eighth occupant of the post, Mr Ban Ki-moon of the Republic of Korea, who took office on January 1, 2007.
The Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, who shall act in that capacity and perform "such other functions as are entrusted" to him by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs -organ. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security". These guidelines both define the powers of that office and give it scope for action. Secretary-General would fail if he did not consider carefully the concerns of member countries, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time , challenged or disagreed with the member countries of the same.
That creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through the daily work includes attending the bodies of the United Nations; talks with world leaders, government officials, and others; and traveling around the world is to keep him in touch with the member countries of the Organization and informed about various issues of international interest in the agenda of the Organization. Each year, the Secretary of State issued a report on the work of United Nations to assess the activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary General also Chairman of the Board Chief Executive System United Nations for Coordination (CEB), which brings together CEOs of all UN funds, programs and specialized agencies twice a year for coordination and cooperation in the entire range of cross-cutting substantive and management issues facing the United Nations system.
One of the most important roles played by the Secretary-General is the use of "merit" of his - steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his independence, impartiality and integrity, to prevent international disputes from arising, the increase or spread.
Each Secretary-General also defines the roles and adjust to meet the challenges and opportunities in a specific time in office.
3.2 QUALITIES AND DISCIPLINE OF SECRETARY GENERALS.
The issues most pressing for the world community, whether trafficking in human or civil war, will continue to play a role. Emphasizes the link between climate change and conflict have priority Ban since he took office. Ban stressed that the Darfur conflict began as an ecological crisis in order to encourage countries to combat global warming in the interest of safety. Like Annan, Ban has also been made in the management structure of the United Nations reform priorities.
"Just about everything we do depends on the good management of limited resources entrusted to us," he said in a speech to the General Assembly in April 2008. The transmission, the Millennium Development Goals Annan, and human rights as well included in the agenda of the Secretary-General, although he left the execution of these programs so agencies such as the UN Development program and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Each of the Secretary-General to interpret different roles, however. Discuss the future of the organization, former CFR Senior Fellow Lee Feinstein put it as follows: ". A secretary is like a Supreme Court judge - you never know what you will get".
Graphic 2 : 17 Goals to Transform Our World
To succeed, the Secretary-General clearly must be strong and diplomatic. But with so many restrictions, post-holder can expect to make any difference?
"This is not a position of power, this is not a man who can lay down the law," said Sir Marrack.
"But he did not have a great influence, and he has a 'bully pulpit" He can tell the world that they really have to get to grips with what may - .. Aids, environmental Kofi Annan in particular has made a lot of influence.
"I think we should not underestimate the importance of the role. If you put into it someone who can not communicate properly, you will be missing a lot of tricks."
As members prepare to choose the eighth secretary-general, James Rubin said it was time for people around the world to reduce their expectations.
"If the major countries in the world are not ready to do something, the UN will not be able to do it either," he said."If people understand that, they will be less disappointed by the chief diplomat United Nations." But the fact that so many expectations continue to be invested - a challenge for anyone stamina, diplomatic skills, and courage.
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