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The First World War left a big impression in the history of the world. The number of casualties and destruction of property that big raise awareness of the international community to establish an organization for ensuring world peace. Therefore, the League of Nations was established. However, the League of Nations failed to carry out the responsibilities entrusted to reply. The failure of the League of Nations proved when World War II broke out.

In August 1941, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Atlantic Charter, which later became the basis for the establishment of the United Nations. January 1942, the main leaders of the US, Britain, Russia and China have signed a document known as the Declaration of the United Nations [United Nations]. US, Britain, Russia, France and China appointed as permanent members of the Security Council and the veto power given.

United Nation is an international organization which is form in California, San Francisco on 24th October 1945 right after world war II. Its membership is open for all country all over the world. Its main purpose would be exactly like the United Nation’s charter, that is to prevent the recurrence of great dispute, stressed that the main human rights, ensure respect for international law, as well as improving the living standards of people around the world. The United Nations has established solely to replace the League of Nations, which was dissolved after it failed to prevent World War II. The original UN headquarters is located in San Francisco, but the United Nations now operates in New York, which is the headquarters since 1946. The first General Assembly held in Church House, London on January 10, 1946 in London, United Kingdom participated by 51 countries. Currently, 195 countries have joined this organization. UN Charter assign six main tool, namely: General Assembly ,  Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and secretariat. However, there are also many special agency for specific purposes.

 Apart from that, UN Secretariat headed by the Secretary-General, who is assisted by a team of international civil servants. The United Nations Charter requires that staff are selected from areas that are widespread throughout the world. Secretary-General himself only responsible for selecting staff.The United Nations Secretariat to provide research, information and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, United Nations agencies and others. The duties of the Secretary-General include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information about the implementation of the decisions of the Security Council and in consultation with the government members of various measures initiated by the United Nations.

However, considering  Secretary-General as top international public servant who are having number of multiple and pressing challenges faced by the United Nation today, how should he play his role? What are the required qualities and discipline in a view of the practises and achievements of the successive Secretary Generals? We will go in depth  in our further discussion.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 to enhance political and economic cooperation among member countries. The organization is working on a program of economic and social development, improve human rights and reduce global conflict. The UN is made up of the General Assembly (of the law), the Security Council (for the promotion of peace), the Economic and Social Council (economic development), Secretary (administration and information and the International Court of Justice (for matters of justice). It also responsible for the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and the World Food Programme. The United Nations was established following the Second World War as a way to reduce tension among nations and reduce the possibility of another large-scale conflict. Almost every state and a state representative and leader of the organization, Secretary-General, appointed by the General Assembly. Funding for the organization comes from its members, the United States accounted for the largest amount to the budget.

The latest UN headquarters building was built on the East River (East River), New York City in 1949. However, the building is not the property of the United States. It is built on land bought from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. with a donation of US $ 8.5 million, and designed by a team of international architects, including the Le Corbusier (France) famous, Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil), and representatives of many other countries. The team is led by Wallace K. Harrison, principal of Harrison & Abramovitz (NYC).

United Nation(UN) headquarters in New York was officially opened on January 9, 1951. While the main United Nations headquarters located in New York, there are major agencies located in Geneva, The Hague, Vienna, Montreal, Bonn and other places. UN headquarters address is 760, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA.

Since the main building of the UN has been a long time, the UN is in the process of renovating and enlarging the building. For use in the meantime, a headquarters designed by Fumihiko Maki was built between 41st Street and 42nd Street (41st and 42nd Street) in New York. 

2.1 UNITED NATION MEMBER STATES

The number of member countries has often changed since the beginnings of the UN, with more countries joining, and some older ones leaving as they were broken up to form newer countries

The first General Assembly held in Church House, London on January 10, 1946 in London, United Kingdom participated by 51 countries. Currently, 195 countries have joined this organization. This list shows all the member countries up to the middle of 2006, showing the name of the country and the date on which it became a member.

Here are all the list of countries involve in United Nation:

Country or State Date of Joining the United Nations

  Afghanistan 19 Nov. 1946

  Albania 14 Dec. 1955

  Algeria 08 Oct. 1962

  Andorra 28 July 1993

  Angola 01 Dec. 1976

  Antigua and Barbuda 11 Nov. 1981

  Argentina 24 Oct. 1945

  Armenia 2 Mar. 1992

  Australia 01 Nov. 1945

  Austria 14 Dec. 1955

  Azerbaijan 02 Mar. 1992

  Bahamas 18 Sep. 1973

  Bahrain 21 Sep. 1971

  Bangladesh 17 Sep. 1974

  Barbados 09 Dec. 1966

  Belarus (formerly Byelorussia) 24 Oct. 1945

  Belgium 27 Dec. 1945

  Belize 25 Sep. 1981

  Benin 20 Sep. 1960

  Bhutan 21 Sep. 1971

  Bolivia 14 Nov. 1945

  Bosnia and Herzegovina (note 1) 22 May 1992

  Botswana 17 Oct. 1966

  Brazil 24 Oct. 1945

  Brunei Darussalam 21 Sep. 1984

  Bulgaria 14 Dec. 1955

  Burkina Faso 20 Sep. 1960

  Burundi 18 Sep. 1962

  Cambodia 14 Dec. 1955

  Cameroon 20 Sep. 1960

  Canada 09 Nov. 1945

  Cape Verde 16 Sep. 1975

  Central African Republic 20 Sep. 1960

  Chad 20 Sep. 1960

  Chile 24 Oct. 1945

  China 24 Oct. 1945

  Colombia 05 Nov. 1945

  Comoros 12 Nov. 1975

  Congo (Republic of the) 20 Sep. 1960

  Costa Rica 02 Nov. 1945

  Cote d'Ivoire 20 Sep. 1960

  Croatia (note 1) 22 May 1992

  Cuba 24 Oct. 1945

  Cyprus 20 Sep. 1960

  Czech Republic (note 2) 19 Jan. 1993

  Democratic People's Republic of Korea 17 Sep. 1991

  Democratic Republic of the Congo (note 3) 20 Sep. 1960

  Denmark 24 Oct. 1945

  Djibouti 20 Sep. 1977

  Dominica 18 Dec. 1978

  Dominican Republic 24 Oct. 1945

  Ecuador 21 Dec. 1945

  Egypt (note 4) 24 Oct. 1945

  El Salvador 24 Oct. 1945

  Equatorial Guinea 12 Nov. 1968

  Eritrea 28 May 1993

  Estonia 17 Sep. 1991

  Ethiopia 13 Nov. 1945

  Fiji 13 Oct. 1970

  Finland 14 Dec. 1955

  France 24 Oct. 1945

  Gabon 20 Sep. 1960

  Gambia 21 Sep. 1965

  Georgia 31 July 1992

  Germany (note 5) 18 Sep. 1973

  Ghana 08 Mar. 1957

  Greece 25 Oct. 1945

  Grenada 17 Sep. 1974

  Guatemala 21 Nov. 1945

  Guinea 12 Dec. 1958

  Guinea-Bissau 17 Sep. 1974

  Guyana 20 Sep. 1966

  Haiti 24 Oct. 1945

  Honduras 17 Dec. 1945

  Hungary 14 Dec. 1955

  Iceland 19 Nov. 1946

  India 30 Oct. 1945

  Indonesia (note 6) 28 Sep. 1950

  Iran (Islamic Republic of) 24 Oct. 1945

  Iraq 21 Dec. 1945

  Ireland 14 Dec. 1955

  Israel 11 May 1949

  Italy 14 Dec. 1955

  Jamaica 18 Sep. 1962

  Japan 18 Dec. 1956

  Jordan 14 Dec. 1955

  Kazakhstan 02 Mar. 1992

  Kenya 16 Dec. 1963

  Kiribati 14 Sept. 199

  Kuwait 14 May 1963

  Kyrgyzstan 02 Mar. 1992

  Lao People's Democratic Republic 14 Dec. 1955

  Latvia 17 Sep. 1991

  Lebanon 24 Oct. 1945

  Lesotho 17 Oct. 1966

  Liberia 02 Nov. 1945

  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 14 Dec. 1955

  Liechtenstein 18 Sep. 1990

  Lithuania 17 Sep. 1991

  Luxembourg 24 Oct. 1945

  Madagascar 20 Sep. 1960

  Malawi 01 Dec. 1964

  Malaysia (note 7) 17 Sep. 1957

  Maldives 21 Sep. 1965

  Mali 28 Sep. 1960

  Malta 01 Dec. 1964

  Marshall Islands 17 Sep. 1991

  Mauritania 27 Oct. 1961

  Mauritius 24 Apr. 1968

  Mexico 07 Nov. 1945

  Micronesia (Federated States of) 17 Sep. 1991

  Monaco 28 May 1993

  Mongolia 27 Oct. 1961

  Montenegro (note 8) 28 June 2006

  Morocco 12 Nov. 1956

  Mozambique 16 Sep. 1975

  Myanmar 19 Apr. 1948

  Namibia 23 Apr. 1990

  Nauru 14 Sept. 1999

  Nepal 14 Dec. 1955

  Netherlands 10 Dec. 1945

  New Zealand 24 Oct. 1945

  Nicaragua 24 Oct. 1945

  Niger 20 Sep. 1960

  Nigeria 07 Oct. 1960

  Norway 27 Nov. 1945

  Oman 07 Oct. 1971

  Pakistan 30 Sep. 1947

  Palau 15 Dec. 1994

  Panama 13 Nov. 1945

  Papua New Guinea 10 Oct. 1975

  Paraguay 24 Oct. 1945

  Peru 31 Oct. 1945

  Philippines 24 Oct. 1945

  Poland 24 Oct. 1945

  Portugal 14 Dec. 1955

  Qatar 21 Sep. 1971

  Republic of Korea 17 Sep. 1991

  Republic of Moldova 02 Mar. 1992

  Romania 14 Dec. 1955

  Russian Federation (note 9) 24 Oct. 1945

  Rwanda 18 Sep. 1962

  Saint Kitts and Nevis 23 Sep. 1983

  Saint Lucia 18 Sep. 1979

  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 Sep. 1980

  Samoa 15 Dec. 1976

  San Marino 02 Mar. 1992

  Sao Tome and Principe 16 Sep. 1975

  Saudi Arabia 24 Oct. 1945

  Senegal 28 Sep. 1960

  Serbia (note 10) 01 Nov. 2000

  Seychelles 21 Sep. 1976

  Sierra Leone 27 Sep. 1961

  Singapore 21 Sep. 1965

  Slovakia (note 11) 19 Jan. 1993

  Slovenia (note 12) 22 May 1992

  Solomon Islands 19 Sep. 1978

  Somalia 20 Sep. 1960

  South Africa 07 Nov. 1945

  Spain 14 Dec. 1955

  Sri Lanka 14 Dec. 1955

  Sudan 12 Nov. 1956

  Suriname 04 Dec. 1975

  Swaziland 24 Sep. 1968

  Sweden 19 Nov. 1946

  Switzerland 10 Sep. 2002

  Syrian Arab Republic (note 13) 24 Oct. 1945

  Tajikistan 02 Mar. 1992

  Thailand 16 Dec. 1946

  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (note 14) 08 Apr. 1993

  Timor-Leste 27 Sep. 2002

  Togo 20 Sep. 1960

  Tonga 14 Sep. 1999

  Trinidad and Tobago 18 Sep. 1962

  Tunisia 12 Nov. 1956

  Turkey 24 Oct. 1945

  Turkmenistan 02 Mar. 1992

  Tuvalu 05 Sept. 2000

  Uganda 25 Oct. 1962

  Ukraine 24 Oct. 1945

  United Arab Emirates 09 Dec. 1971

  United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland 24 Oct. 1945

  United Republic of Tanzania (note 15) 14 Dec. 1961

  United States of America 24 Oct. 1945

  Uruguay 18 Dec. 1945

  Uzbekistan 02 Mar. 1992

  Vanuatu 15 Sep. 1981

  Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 15 Nov. 1945

  Viet Nam 20 Sep. 1977

  Yemen (note 16) 30 Sep. 1947

  Zambia 01 Dec. 1964

  Zimbabwe 25 Aug. 1980

Source: UN Press Release ORG/1360/Rev.1 (10 February 2004)

Graphic 1: Number of UN Member States

2.2 CHALLLENGES FACED BY UNITED NATION

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has highlighted three key challenges facing United Nations peacekeeping.

In a speech at the China Peacekeeping Training Centre in Beijing on Wednesday, the Secretary-General said that the first challenge we face is to support the complex political process and protect civilians in high-risk environments characterized by asymmetric threats. He said although the asymmetric threats are not new to the United Nations, they are more intense.

He explained that although the UN mission we do not have a mandate to combat terrorism, the use of suicide bombings, improvised explosive devices and other tactics of irregular warfare threatens the security.

The second major challenge, the Secretary-General highlighted, anxiety ensure peacekeepers are trained and equipped to deal with new threats and to operate in an increasingly difficult.

"We need skills and specific variables, such as engineering units, field hospitals and I am very grateful for the support China in this field is important - .. Especially pledge our operations in China for the latest Mali We also need to improve the ability of peacekeeping forces us to react quickly. They will be able to collect and analyze the right information. "(28")

For the first time, he said, "we're using, unmanned aerial systems are not armed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo so that the peacekeeping force will have real-time, updated information on the situation in remote areas where fighters can threaten civilians."

And the third challenge to keep the peace is to maintain the unity and commitment of constituencies. He said, "demand that peacekeepers were sustained political and material support from the Security Council ... of countries that contribute troops and police ... and the people who donate to our operations."

China to provide more peacekeepers United Nations of all the other four permanent members combined. Secretary-General said he was very grateful for the support China in this important field, especially the recent Beijing oath to our operations in Mali.

3.0 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS

The world we live in today is one of promise and danger. This promise lies in the spread of freedom and democracy, free markets and trade, and the march of technology and modern medicine

For the United Nations to contribute to this promise, as we want it, it also has to grapple with danger.

3.1 PROPER ROLE OF SECRETARY GENERAL

Equal parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO, the Secretary-General is a symbol of the ideals of the United Nations and the spokesman for the interests of the peoples of the world, especially the poor and vulnerable among them. During the Secretary-General, and the eighth occupant of the post, Mr Ban Ki-moon of the Republic of Korea, who took office on January 1, 2007.

The Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, who shall act in that capacity and perform "such other functions as are entrusted" to him by the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other United Nations organs -organ. The Charter also empowers the Secretary-General to "bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security". These guidelines both define the powers of that office and give it scope for action. Secretary-General would fail if he did not consider carefully the concerns of member countries, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time , challenged or disagreed with the member countries of the same.

That creative tension accompanies the Secretary-General through the daily work includes attending the bodies of the United Nations; talks with world leaders, government officials, and others; and traveling around the world is to keep him in touch with the member countries of the Organization and informed about various issues of international interest in the agenda of the Organization. Each year, the Secretary of State issued a report on the work of United Nations to assess the activities and outlines future priorities. The Secretary General also Chairman of the Board Chief Executive System United Nations for Coordination (CEB), which brings together CEOs of all UN funds, programs and specialized agencies twice a year for coordination and cooperation in the entire range of cross-cutting substantive and management issues facing the United Nations system.

One of the most important roles played by the Secretary-General is the use of "merit" of his - steps taken publicly and in private, drawing upon his independence, impartiality and integrity, to prevent international disputes from arising, the increase or spread.

Each Secretary-General also defines the roles and adjust to meet the challenges and opportunities in a specific time in office.

3.2 QUALITIES AND DISCIPLINE OF SECRETARY GENERALS.

The issues most pressing for the world community, whether trafficking in human or civil war, will continue to play a role. Emphasizes the link between climate change and conflict have priority Ban since he took office. Ban stressed that the Darfur conflict began as an ecological crisis in order to encourage countries to combat global warming in the interest of safety. Like Annan, Ban has also been made in the management structure of the United Nations reform priorities.

"Just about everything we do depends on the good management of limited resources entrusted to us," he said in a speech to the General Assembly in April 2008. The transmission, the Millennium Development Goals Annan, and human rights as well included in the agenda of the Secretary-General, although he left the execution of these programs so agencies such as the UN Development program and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Each of the Secretary-General to interpret different roles, however. Discuss the future of the organization, former CFR Senior Fellow Lee Feinstein put it as follows: ". A secretary is like a Supreme Court judge - you never know what you will get".

Graphic 2 : 17 Goals to Transform Our World

To succeed, the Secretary-General clearly must be strong and diplomatic. But with so many restrictions, post-holder can expect to make any difference?

"This is not a position of power, this is not a man who can lay down the law," said Sir Marrack.

"But he did not have a great influence, and he has a 'bully pulpit" He can tell the world that they really have to get to grips with what may - .. Aids, environmental Kofi Annan in particular has made a lot of influence.

"I think we should not underestimate the importance of the role. If you put into it someone who can not communicate properly, you will be missing a lot of tricks."

As members prepare to choose the eighth secretary-general, James Rubin said it was time for people around the world to reduce their expectations.

"If the major countries in the world are not ready to do something, the UN will not be able to do it either," he said."If people understand that, they will be less disappointed by the chief diplomat United Nations." But the fact that so many expectations continue to be invested - a challenge for anyone stamina, diplomatic skills, and courage.

4.0 CONCLUSION

First and foremost, it is such a pleasant I am able to prepare this assignment. From here, I can conclude that  I have learn a lot throughout my findings and discussion. After a lot of research,  I have found what United Nations is all about and how it helps worldwide. As we can see, altogether United Nations consist of 6 UN Charter assign six main tool, namely: General Assembly ,  Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and secretariat. However, there are also many special agency for specific purposes. This really show how well organize they are. Apart from that, one of the major advantages a country gets from being part of the United Nations organization. In the event that the country is plagued with a major disaster such as a major earthquake, tsunami or flood, the UN would not hesitate for a moment sending help to the country. A nation that is a member of the United Nations will get benefit from the United Nation’s  special agencies, the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF). For example, a country that is part of the United Nations can have access to loans from the World Bank that can help boost the country’s economy while others country except the members can not. The IMF also gives UN member nations emergency loans. This is mostly given to indebted countries. Besides that, UN really take good care of human right of the membership country too. Why do I say so? This because one of the most basic rules and principles of the UN is that all member countries must respect the fundamental human rights of all. This in result will lead to greater strength of human rights in those country. Hence I think that many benefits  that a country can derives from being a member of the UN.

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