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A Research Paper

Presented to the Faculty of the

University of Cebu – Banilad

Cebu City, Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Information Technology


Nikki Anne Alenton Jontoe Arboleda

Lynette Aton Aljoe Luis Bacus

Ariane Christelle Ycot

March 2016




IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, this paper entitled: “GIYASUGBO APP” prepared and submitted by Nikki Anne Alenton, Jontoe Arboleda, Lynette Aton, Aljoe Luis Bacus and Ariane Christelle Ycot are hereby recommended for ORAL EXAMINATION



ACCEPTED AS Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology


Dean – College of Computer Studies

APPROVED by the tribunal at the Oral Examination with the grade of___



Date : March 2016






Approval Sheet i

Acknowledgment ii

Dedication iii

Abstract iv




Rationale of the Study

Conceptual Framework


Statement of the Problem

Significance of the Study




Research Design

Research Environment

Research Respondents

Research Instrument

Research Procedure






Summary of Findings





A – Transmittal Letter

B – Research Instrument

C – Location Map




1 Effectiveness of methods of presenting information

related to PUV details

2 Factors in choosing routes and rides

3 Usefulness of features to PUV commuters


1 Throwaway Prototyping

2 Iterative Development

3 GiyaSugbo App Conceptual Framework

4 Research Flow





Urban residents must travel from place to place to earn a living, and to acquire the goods and services necessary to life and that make life more enjoyable (Ramming, 2002).  

Transportation has always been important in the living arrangements of every human being. As time passes by, countless contributions to the development of different fields such as social, economics and politics have been made by transportation. In this world where change is constant, transportation as well has been evolving and changing for the better, extending to different types to cater the needs of the human civilization.

For the last couple of years, individuals have been using public transportation in order to move from one place to another. At present, the most widely used mode of transportation in the Philippines is land. It contributes more than five times the combined gross value added (GVA) of water and air transportation with a 2.6 percent share of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008 (Virola, 2009).  From 2007 to 2012 in the Philippines, there has been an increase in the registration of land vehicles for hire from 887,023 to 969,784 (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2012).

 With the development of humanity and advanced technology, information systems of varied forms have been introduced in order to make the lives of different people comfortable. In the field of transportation, there is the development of an ITS (intelligent transportation system). As the world progresses, different travel patterns and public transports have emerged and many intricate transport patterns may be too much for an individual especially if in an unfamiliar environment.

The Philippines is not an exemption when it comes to intricate Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) routes, travel patterns, and payment system. The routes are almost impossible to decipher for non-locals and the payment system is completely different than anything in the west (Asia Travel Bug, 2012). The same is true in Cebu where there are different PUV routes that could confuse the commuters. To respond to the problem, the government agency, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) has extended means to reduce the confusion and required jeepneys to secure a fare rate (Felicitas, 2016). However, fare rates displayed inside the PUV or in the jeepney, for example, wouldn’t be enough for an individual especially if they are not familiar with the existence of the said rate and especially if they do not know which and where to access a PUV.

In order to reduce problems with access and selection of public transport, public commuters can make use of an ITS, which is being used in developed countries for the past two decades, but is still a new concept when developing countries like India, Brazil, China, South Africa etc. are concerned (Singh & Gupta, 2015).

The advantage here is that pre-trip information availability enhances the self-belief of the drivers to use freeways and allows commuters to make better-informed transit choices (Campbell, Carney & Kantowitz, 2003). Categories of ITS namely ATIS (advanced traveler information system) and APTS (advanced public transportation system) serve to further this benefit by helping travelers and drivers make informed decisions, providing both en route and pre-trip information (Singh & Gupta, 2015). Providing information regarding routes, fare rates and even rerouting of public utility vehicles will help commuters choose the best mode of a route and ride to take to reach their respective destinations. There are also tools and applications (mobile and/or web) that provide scaled maps to guide travelers the path or route they could take to reach their destinations. However, these maps, and the distance to travel they show the travelers are not the actual route and/or distance traveled by public utility vehicles. Perhaps, some roads that are shown on the web or mobile maps may not be available to the public.

Hence, with the importance and prominence of land public transportation, this study is undertaken to obtain knowledge on the panel routes and fare rates of land PUV’s, and on the problems of PUV commuters and drivers, for the development of an ATIS mobile application called “GiyaSugbo”.

Conceptual Framework

The framework for this study is based on a combination of throwaway prototyping and iterative development, both of which are approaches on the Rapid Application Development (RAD) methodology.



The iterative development approach is the root of the framework for this study because it allows for more features to be included as they are developed and updated information & details to be inserted as they become relevant.

Because the user interface for the application can be somewhat tricky to present in an understandable manner for average Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) commuters, throwaway prototyping is used to explore design ideas that will ultimately lead to a user-friendly program.


Figure 3: GiyaSugbo App conceptual framework


In the daily lives of every person, transportation has always been vital. Since ancient times, transportation has always been done by people when doing their day-to-day endeavors. Transport modes have played several different historic roles in the rise of civilizations, in the development of societies and also in national defense. Furthermore, several contributions have also been made by transportation including but not limited to economic, social and political sectors. When transport systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers effects such as better accessibility to markets, employment and additional investments (Rodrigue, Comtois & Slack 2013).

 As time passed by, everyday businesses and endeavors done by a person has evolved and has become more complicated that people need to travel to and fro, from one distant place to another. The invention and spread of wheeled chairs and boats also made it easier for people to migrate over long distances (Lockard, 2008). Nowadays, the vital tasks needed to be done by a functioning member of the humanity would be hard, if not impossible, without transportation.  From the corner grocery stores to large complex factories, efficient and effective transportation is the lifeblood of their ability to operate and compete (Coyle, Norvack & Bardi, 2016). To cater to the ever-growing needs of the people, transportation eventually, has advanced from simple ways such as walking and running to using machines such as cars, ships, airplanes, and other modes of transportation.

 Transport modes are the means by which people and freight achieve mobility (Rodrigue et. al., 2013). Transport modes could extensively be different ways to perform transport to achieve different goals which could vary from day-to-day on a case-to-case basis. Common-carrier urban passenger transport mode is known as transit, mass transit, or mass transportation. These are transport systems with fixed rules and schedules, available for use by all persons who pay the establish fares (Verma & Ramanayya, 2015). In the Philippines, transits are common among the citizens. Nationwide, urban public transport is dominated by jeepneys, motorbike, taxis, and tricycles (Asian Development Bank, 2012). With the growing population in the Philippines which would be projected to reach 111,784.6 Million in the year 2020 according to Philippine Statistics Authority, it would be impossible for a country to function in a productive way if the transport system would be left unorganized. A road transport system requires a level of labor organization and administrative control that could only be provided by a form of governmental oversight offering some military protection over trade routes (Rodrigue et al., 2013). Fortunately, there is a government agency in the Philippines which is the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) under Department of Transportation and Commissions (DOTC) which is responsible for promulgating, administering, enforcing, and monitoring compliance with policies, laws, and regulations of public land transportation services (Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board, n.d.). Naturally, with the large number of people who use the public transportation in the Philippines, there would also be numerous public utility vehicles (PUV) to cater the needs of the people which eventually resolved to numerous developed regulations of public land transportation services such as fares, panel routes, etc. which could be deemed too much foreign and difficult for a person or a commuter who is not that familiar with the transportation system in a particular area in the Philippines. Furthermore, knowledge regarding public transportation could be one of the factors, among several, as to how the commuter would choose the PUV that would fit their needs.

Along the advancements in technology, there are systems that have been developed to help in the information dissemination concerning public transportation and the several information needed in order to utilize a public transportation and ride a PUV. The systems would be the following:

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

Among several developments in transportation is the ITS or Intelligent Transportation System. ITS is a global phenomenon, attracting worldwide interest from transportation professionals and engineers, automotive industry and even political decision makers. ITS covers all modes of transport and considers all elements of the transportation system – the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together dynamically (World Road Association Mondiale De La Route, n.d.). Advanced communication, information and electronics technology are being applied by the ITS to solve today’s transportation problems such as traffic congestion, commuting hours and distance, public transport inadequacy, land consumption, freight distribution, safety and also environmental conservation (Figueiredo, Machado & Ferreira, 2004)

The overall function of ITS is to improve decision making, especially in real time, by transport network controllers and other road users, hence improving the operation of the entire transport system. ITS road users such as motorists, freight and commercial fleet operators and public transport commuters can make better judgments on their travel decisions. (World Road Association Mondiale De La Route, n.d.). While motorists and drivers can check out on the traffic of the route they will take, public transport commuters can also choose which route to take and what vehicle to ride on.

Furthermore, people and businesses want a transport that is safe, cost-effective, reliable, convenient and respectful of their environment. ITS also offers functionalities to help save time, money and lives and protects public health, townscapes, and landscapes – if they are properly planned and implemented with those benefits in mind. It does this through the application of information processing and communication processing technologies to road transport – car, truck, bus, train – and the road/rail transport infrastructure (World Road Association Mondiale De La Route, n.d.).

ITS is divided into six major categories (Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, n.d.).  Two of which includes the functionalities discussed previously and will be furtherly presented hereafter - Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and Advanced Public Transportation System (APTS).

Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)

According to the U.S. Department of Transportation (n.d.), effective ITS are multimodal and can support many categories of drivers and travelers. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) is a variety of technologies, including Internet websites, phone hotlines, and television and even radio, which allow users to make better decisions and judgment regarding trip departures, routes, and mode of travel.

Advanced Traveler Information Systems are aimed at providing users of the transportation system with more information (pre-trip and en route) with which to make decisions about route choices, estimate travel times, and avoid congestion. Specific information can be provided through electronic panels, portable systems connected to the Internet, radio systems or in-vehicles systems (displaying the map with information of its location, the state of the neighborhood traffic, traffic delays or accidents) (Central Federal Lands Highway Division, n.d.). While this may be costly, its benefits will surely provide road users with ease in traveling by land.

Advanced Public Transportation System (APTS)

The second major category of ITS is the APTS or Advanced Public Transportation System. APTS is mostly directed to public transportation commuters. APTS seek to apply transportation management and information technologies to public transit systems to increase their efficiency of operation and improve the safety of public transportation riders.

APTS systems use technologies from ATMS and APTS (Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, n.d.). ATMS or Advanced Traffic Management System is another category of the ITS, however, it will not be thoroughly discussed in this paper for its major focus is on traffic management. Information and technologies from these two systems help improve the mass transport service, allowing route information, travel schedules and costs, and real-time information about changes in transport systems. With provided information, commuters will be aided with multiple routes and choose which route will be more efficient to take time-wise and cost-wise. Also, this information is of great help to those who are new in a particular place and do not know which and where to ride public transport vehicles to reach their destinations.

Existing Systems and Technologies

In the Philippines, tourism is growing rapidly year by year and many tourists would love to travel the country.  Although taxis can be found anywhere, there is no guarantee that it is available given the public commuter population in the country. However, many tourists still opt to ride taxis rather than other means of land transportation for it is easier. Aside from beaches and attractions, the country’s undisputed “King of the Philippine Roads”, the jeepney, is among the things tourist most aspire to experience (Philippine Department of Tourism, 2016). Surely, it is not the only experience they want to gain for visiting the country. Riding jeepneys will be a hassle especially if the tourist-commuter does not know where the jeepney is headed to or if it will pass by his destination. Hence, figuring out which jeepney and where to take will consume a considerable amount of time and might lessen the opportunities of the tourist-commuter to experience more of the country.

However, not only tourist-commuters face the trouble of riding the country’s public transportation vehicles (PUVs). Due to the complexity of roads and routes, several Filipino commuters, who needed to take PUVs (jeepneys, buses or taxis), also, face the dilemma of which jeepney to take - especially those who are not used to it. Given these situations, efforts to develop transport and travel applications have been made to address the land public transportation problems.

For taxis, the popular application GrabTaxi, now known as GRAB, is an automated smartphone based booking and dispatch platform for the taxi industry in six Southeast Asian countries including the Philippines. It offers the public taxi commuters to book a ride and choose their own GRAB taxi driver. It also provides information about the taxi driver. The commuter will also be able to review and share his experience with other GRAB users (Grab, n.d.).

Google Maps and Waze are also fairly popular in the Philippines. Google Maps offers users detailed maps of any place in the world. Waze, also from Google company is a (Global Positioning System) GPS-based geographical navigation application program for smartphones and tablets. Waze provides turn-by-turn information and user-submitted travel times and route details, allowing users to share road and traffic information across networks. (World Public Library, n.d.). is a web service and application that helps people use jeepneys, buses, and trains in Metro Manila, similar to Google Maps or Waze, but is targeted to commuters instead of (mostly) private users (Sakay, n.d.).

For cost-wise applications, Viaje offers to calculate commuting costs to any destination in the Metro. It is designed to help commuters by presenting them with alternative routes that can help them save money, travel with the least distance or take a route with the least traffic jam. However, the application is limited to some parts of Luzon, Philippines (University of the Philippines, 2015).

Transport applications have also been made for commuters in Cebu, Philippines. Cebu Jeepney Map, developed by Infinite Points Co., Ltd., provides users what jeepneys to ride to their destination in Cebu. Another application of the same name, developed by Cebu Location Service, offers similar functionalities but is in Japanese language and is offered to Japanese living or visiting Cebu. Go with Jeepney in Cebu is another of these applications that suggest shortest jeepney routes. The aforementioned applications are available for Android users and can be found and downloaded from Google Play Store for free.

Related Studies

Several studies have been conducted to help resolve various social issues caused by modern transportation environment through the adoption of aforementioned innovative technologies.

According to Nagaraj, Wakade, Gaware, Dhame & Alhat (2011) in their paper Intelligent Public Transport Information System, “to increase the usability of a public transport system it needs to go under revolutionary changes in its operating procedure.” Their attempt is to make increase usability of public transport systems using recent computer technology, mobile computing advancements, and Wi-Fi or GPRS. They have specifically developed an Intelligent Public Transport Information System for Bus Transport. In their system, passengers can get information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops on any particular route. They have presented two phases: one is for the user and other for an administrator. At the user side, the user can request for information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route using Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) or GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) technology from his mobile or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). For administrators, they are given full rights to database operations -  they can update, delete and insert information about all buses, routes, timings of buses, all stops in any particular route and helpline numbers. In conclusion, they have presented a wireless Public Transport System based on web services over a wireless integrated wide area network, which will implement wireless data access to the servers and system functions through both desktop computers and mobile devices. They have also expressed that the system will be based on secure web service architecture and can increase efficiency for transport system by reducing human errors and by providing higher quality customer service.

In the research article Web-based Passenger Information System for Ahmedabad City, the authors Jain, Jain & Parida (2014) also showcase a study similar to the previous one. Their study is about a web-based passenger information system for the cities in developing countries with a case study of Ahmedabad city, India, incorporating the spatial and non-spatial information available from multiple sources such as transit timetables, city atlases, and high-resolution satellite data. Transportation network of the study area is mapped at 1:10,000 scale including private, public, and pedestrian modalities. The spatial data is organized in Oracle database and is served using Oracle Maps web-mapping client providing high-performance interactive maps. A web-interface is developed to locate transit stops using text-based and map-based searches. Furthermore, a study of 1081 addresses located in Ahmedabad city indicated that 58% of addresses contained locality names as compared to merely 11% addresses containing nearest bus stop names, the locality-based search functionality was also implemented. They have utilized a Model-View-Controller Architecture driven website so as not to limit the information that will be provided to users. It will provide more information on transit routes and schedules and would also support multi-modal transit trip planning using the regular fixed-route and rapid transit bus services.

Indeed, the importance of transportation is evident and cannot be more emphasized ever since the first development of civilizations until the modern times. It [transportation] is necessary for the progress and well-being of all citizens (Coyle et al., 2016).  With the intricacies and numerous laws and regulations such as fare matrices and panel routes, an Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and Advanced Public Transportation System (APTS) would be helpful for tourists and commuters who are not very familiar with the public transportation of the current place he is in and would desire to utilize and ride the public utility vehicle available.



Statement of the Problem

This study determines the panel routes and fare rates concerning land Public Utility Vehicles (PUV) as well as the commuters’ problems in choosing and getting the best mode of land public transportation in Cebu City, Philippines as bases for the development of a proposed mobile application called “GiyaSugbo”.

Specifically, this study seeks to address the following:

1. What are the various PUV panel routes and fare rates?

2. How can information regarding PUV panel routes and fare rates be presented in an effective way?

3. What are the factors that influence the PUV commuters’ vehicle selection and choice of ride / route?

4. What application can be designed in choosing the best mode of land public transportation?

Significance of the Study

The outcome of the study will be beneficial to the following stakeholders:

Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) Commuters. Commuters of public utility vehicles (PUV) benefit the most from this study. These commuters are from local and non-local areas who wish to travel within Cebu City. Given a list of routes and fare rates as per PUV type (e.g. jeepney, taxi), commuters will have it easy to choose which PUV and route to take, and how much they have to pay.

Government Agencies. Government agencies, such as Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB), will benefit from this study. Information dissemination through a mobile application is another means to reach the commuters easily.

Researchers. The researchers will benefit from this study because this will determine the needed data for the mobile application to be developed.

Future Researchers. Future researches would also benefit from this study because the data gathered can be used as bases for improvements and for future researches.


Research Design

This study utilizes the descriptive developmental method. The researchers devised an interview guide and a questionnaire to gather data for the development of the proposed mobile application called “GiyaSugbo”.

The interview guide was devised to gather data from the research informant which is the government agency, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) through their respective representative. The researchers aim to determine, through the devised interview guide, the various panel routes and fare rates of land Public Utility Vehicles (PUV) and how the information would be disseminated to the commuters within Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines.

The questionnaire was devised to gather data from the research respondents which are the land PUV commuters within Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines. The researchers intend to identify, through the devised questionnaire, the various ways for effective information dissemination and presentation of panel routes and fare rates and the factors that influence commuters in their respective PUV selection.

Figure 4: Research Flow

Research Environment

This study was conducted at Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines. Cebu City is the capital city of the province of Cebu. Cebu City is located in the central eastern part of Cebu Province, an island at the center of the Visayas in Southern Philippines. As defined by the Bureau of Land Location Monument (BLLM) No. 1, Cebu Cadastral Survey, it is 10 degrees 17 minutes North Latitude and 123 degrees 54 minutes East Longitude.

Research Respondents

The respondents were the commuters within Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines. The respondents were determined using convenience sampling. Convenience sampling is a sampling technique which involves getting participants wherever you can find them and normally where it is convenient. The respondents were students, employees and other commuters in the Cebu City. The research informant in this study is Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) through a representative from the said government agency.  There would be a total of 100 respondents from various places in Cebu City and 1 representative from LTFRB.

Research Instrument

The instruments used in this study were mainly interview and surveys. The archival method was also used.

Interviews were conducted with a certain government agency through their representative to obtain more direct and in-depth information on public transportation and how it works.

Surveys, specifically questionnaires, were used in order to acquire information from a large number of respondents specifically the land public utility vehicle commuters with efficiency and timeliness.

Research Procedures

The researchers chose to propose the development of a mobile application called “GiyaSugbo”. The aspects to be tackled and inputs needed for the application were outlined and specific questions were developed from this. An interview guide containing the questions to be asked of the informant was made. A questionnaire containing the compiled questions for the respondents was also made. The respondents were selected through convenience sampling. An interview with the representative from LTFRB was then conducted. The questionnaires were distributed to the commuters in Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines, then collected by the researchers, and the answers given were tabulated and analyzed.


Commuters – the people who travel or commute via public land transportation.

Fare rate – a record of fares of a certain unit of public transport.

Land transportation – a particular method of transporting people, animals or goods from one location to another on land.

Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) - an

agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Transportation and Communications which is responsible for promulgating,

administering, enforcing, and monitoring compliance with policies, laws, and regulations of public land transportation services.

Panel routes – a list of areas/places a PUV will pass by

Public Commuters  - travelers or commuters concerning the people as a


Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs) – utility vehicles that are for public use

Routes – the way that is taken by a PUV in getting from a starting point to a destination.

Route marks – shows the first and last destination of a PUV that follows specific panel routes.

Transit choices – the options for transportation.

Travel patterns – repeated behaviors connected to how people choose their way of traveling.

Travelers – the people who are traveling or who often travel.

Urban residents – the people who live in a town or city permanently or on

a long-term basis.


A. Books

Asian Development Bank. (2012). Philippines: Urban sector assessment, strategy, and road map. Philippines: Author. Retrieved from

Coyle, J., Novack, R., Gibson B., & Bardi, E. (2016). Transportation: A global supply chain perspective (8th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from mxgEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Transportation:+A+gl bal+ supply+chain+perspective&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Transportation%3A%20A%20global%20supply%20chain%20perspective&f=false

Lockard, C. (2008). Societies, networks and transitions: A global history. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from http://tinyurl. com/zfe2r27

Rodrigue, J.P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2013). The geography of transport systems. New York: Routledge. Retrieved from

Verma, A. & Ramanayya, T.V. (2015). Public transport planning and management in developing countries. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. Retrieved from

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Figueiredo, L., Machado, T. & Ferreira, J.R. (2004). Fractional-order dynamics in freeway traffic. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 13(2), 167-169. Retrived on February 17, 2016 from

Singh, B. & Gupta, A. (2015). Recent trends in intelligent transportation system: a review. The Journal of Transport Literature, 9(2), 30-34. Retrieved on January 20, 2016 from

Nagaraj, U., Wakade, R., Gaware, R., Dhame, R. & Alhat, D. (2011). Intelligent Public Transport Information System. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 3(7), 2635-2641. Retrieved on February 28, 2016 from http://www.enggjournals .com/ijcse/doc/IJCSE11-03-07-168.pdf

Jain, G., Jain, S. & Parida, M. (2014). Web-based Passenger Information System for Ahmedabad City. International Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, 3(2), 18-29. Retrieved on February 28, 2016 from RSG3203.pdf

C. Periodicals

Felicitas, P. D. (2016, February 8). LTFRB asked to provide fare matrix to jeepney drivers. SunStar Cebu. Retrieved from

D. Other Sources

Asia Travel Bug (2012). My first jeepney ride: 5 tips to get you started. Retrieved from


Campbell, J. L., Carney, C & Kantowitz, B. H. (2003). Human factors design guidelines for advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and commercial vehicle operation (CVO). (Rep FHWA-RD-98-057-2). 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101-2296: Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D, Federal Highway Adminstration.

Central Federal Lands Highway Division (n.d.). Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from htm

Grab (n.d.). Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from

Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved on February 15, 2016 from: aboutus#sthash.nf1PSkVI.dpbs

Philippine Department of Tourism (2016). It’s more fun in the Philippines. Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from pages/industryperformance.aspx

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2012). Transportation and communication. Retrieved on January 20, 2016 from d_trans.asp

Ramming, M.S. (2002). Network knowledge and route choice. (Doctor’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA). Retrieved on January 20, 2016 from default/files/documents/ramming_phd_final.pdf (n.d.) Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from

Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau (n.d.). Brief introduction to intelligent transportation systems, ITS. Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from A1%20Brief%20introduction%20to%20Intelligent%20transportation%20System, %20ITS.pdf

University of the Philippines (2015). Transport/travel apps to make life easier. Retrieve on February 17, 2016 from transporttravel-apps-to-make-life-easier/

Virola, R. A., (2009). Land transport in the Philippines: retrogressing towards motorcycles? Retrieved on January 20, 2016, from http://www.nscb. raab_trans.asp

World Public Library (n.d.) Waze. Retreived on February 17, 2016 from

World Road Association Mondiale De La Route. (n.d.). Intelligent transport systems - the basics. Retrieved on February 17, 2016 from http://rno-its.

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