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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Honduras: External analysis 2

DESTEP-Analysis 2

Demographic: 2

Economic: 3

Social/cultural: 3

Technological: 3

Ecological: 4

Political/judicial: 4

Honduras: External analysis

The external analysis of Honduras will be described with the help of DESTEP-method. The abbreviation of DESTEP is


E= Economic

S= Social/cultural



P=Political/Judicial factors.



0n 5th of September 1821, Honduras became an independent state in the province of Central America and later in 1840 became an independent republic with the demise of the union. Ranked 101th in the world in terms of area, the total area of Honduras is 112,090km2 and negligible percentage of water. The total population is 8,598,561(2014) with the density of 90/km2.The natural population growth rate is 1.74% in 2014.Birth rate is 23.66 per 1000 inhabitants and the death rate is about 5.13 per  1000 inhabitants with the life expectancy of 70.9 years in average( men 69.2 and women 72.7)

The official language of Honduras is Spanish but along the northern coast are communities of English speakers (Bay Islands) who have maintained their culture since Honduras was part of the British Empire. The population of Honduras is predominantly of Mestizo descent and Roman Catholic faith. There are several Evangelical denominations also. There are also groups of Garifuna living along the northern coast. With them there are also many Afro-Latin Americans living there. Many families have their backgrounds from Lebanon and Palestine, in Middle Eastern families called “Turcos”.

Honduras joins the borders with Caribbean Sea on the north coast and the Pacific Ocean on the south, through the Gulf of Fonseca. Their climate varies from tropical in the lowlands to the temperature in the mountains. The central part and the southern part is considered to be the hotter part of Honduras and less humid than the northern coast. 80% of Honduras terrain consists of mountains and the remaining 20% are narrow plains along the coasts, a large undeveloped low land in the northeast and the highly populated low land valley in the northwest.

The once great city-state of Copan was overrun by the jungle. The Pre-Columbian city of Copan is a locale in western Honduras, near to the Guatemalan border. It is the site of a major Mayan kingdom of the Classic era. When the Maya civilization decayed, and by the time the Spanish came to Honduras. After the Spanish discovery and subsequent conquest, Honduras became part of Spain’s vast empire in the New World. The Spanish ruled Honduras for approximately 3 centuries.

In 1969, The Honduras fought a football war with El Salvador which lasted for approximately 100 days. During the early 1980s, Honduras was used by anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Nicaraguan government. In 1998, Hurricane Mitch devastated the country and wrecked its economy. Again, in 2005, the Honduras was hit by three back to back major hurricanes. Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Wilma, and Hurricane Beta, once again, left many of the country’s crops in ruin. Honduras has Natural resources which include timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, and fish.



Honduras, one of the poorest country in the Americas with only 5% economic growth. The distribution of wealth remain polarized and the average wages remain really very low, which forced many peoples to live below the poverty line. According to an estimated calculation more than 1.2 million people are unemployed in Honduras. The currency of Honduras is Lempira. After years of declining against the US dollar, the Lempira has stabilized at around 22.61 Lempiras per dollar.

The World Bank and the International monetary fund (IMF) has found Honduras as eligible for debt relief due to the fact that Honduras is one of the heavily indebted poor country. The so-called "Turcos" along with the Jewish minority population, dominate the Honduran economy and Honduran politics by having the highest income. Many others have connections to Spain, the United States (especially New Orleans, Florida and Texas) and the Cayman Islands. Even with all the "new-comers" in the country, the indigenous people of Honduras are widely scattered throughout the country.

Government monopolies always runs the Electric services and land line telephone services. The government also provides heavy subsidies because of their worse financial problems. There are price controls around the price of petrol and other temporary price controls of basic commodities are often passed for short period by congress. For the most, these tribes lives in extremely poor conditions with the poverty level remains at extreme point because of the remote locations and uninterested government. Lack of interest shown by government in this part dents their hope for survival and living a better life.



According to a report about Honduras, with a population of more than 8 million in which half of the population is youth (under 19 years old). Honduras is a young, energetic country which traces its culture back to ancient beginnings. Honduras was given its name by Christopher Columbus, but nowadays it is the turn of cruise ship hordes to make landfall around the northern Bay Islands and discover the beaches and Mayan archaeology inland. The visitor who substitutes a whistle-stop tour of the country for a longer stay, however, will discover an ethnically diverse nation which is gradually embracing tourism and developing a more outward-looking perspective.

A Honduran can be called a Catracho or Catracha. The world renowned scientist Salvador Moncada who has 12 highly cited papers to his name which also include his work on nitric oxide. Development of Viagra which helped in heart related drugs. Honduras national football team represents the country internationally, soccer is a national pass time for players and fans. The official language is Spanish. English is used as the second most spoken language in Honduras, especially in northern Honduras. The more important Amerindian languages include Miskito, Paya and Zambo.



The Honduran Academy (founded in 1949), the Honduran Coffee Institute, and the National Agriculture Institute are all located in Tegucigalpa. There are many universities in Honduras which has worked and improved technological field in the country. National Autonomous University of Honduras founded in 1847 has faculties of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and engineering. Jose Cecilio Del Valle University which was founded back in 1978 has engineering and computer science departments, and the Pan-American Agricultural School (founded in 1942) has students from almost 20 Latin American countries. The National Museum in Tegucigalpa has natural history exhibits. In the past in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 24% of college and university enrollments and later on it improved in the later years.

In 2000, there were 74 researchers and 261 technicians per million people were actively engaged in research and development activities. For the year 2000, Research and development spending by Honduras total $8.346 million, or 0.05% of GDP. In 2002, high technology exports by Honduras total $5 million, accounting for 2% of that country's manufactured exports.



Ecology of Honduras is fully enriched of biological resources. Having coast on both Caribbean Sea and pacific and a massive area of tropical rainforest, it makes Honduras special in the field. Honduras is known for being a Biodiversity Hotspot because it is significance to regional and indeed world ecology is recognized. Because plant life in the country is vastly varied, many of the plants which grows in rainforest. Most of the forest in Honduras is known as cloud forest. Almost 40% or a little more of the total land is forested but deforestation is still an issue. Common trees are cedar, balsa, rosewood, kapok, mahogany, lignum vitae. A very diverse wildlife can be found in Honduras. The massive diverse life includes Tapirs, armadillos, sloths, butterflies and the national animal the white tailed deer. The bird population of Honduras boost over 700 different species including the very colourful scarlet macaw and more than half of the mammal species are bats. Dolphins, whale sharks, parrot fish and rays who makes their homes In the Mesoamerican Barrier reef system are also a part of varied marine life of both coasts. Importance of ecology of Honduras has been recognized and there are large areas of national parkland and conservation/preservation programmes.



Politics in Honduras is a presidential representative democratic republic framework in which the presidents are both, the head of state and head of government as well. Multi-party system is being used in Honduras. Executive powers is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the national congress of Honduras. With having close ideologies, both the Conservative National party and Liberal party of Honduras dominates the party system. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Under the jurisdiction of the local government, the municipal land is granted to peasants in the district in a section which is known as “ejidos”. The ejidos system has become an important function of local administration as it is designed to aid landless peasants.

Hurricane Mitch hit the country and all indications of economic growth were washed out in a period of 5 days. In 2004, separate ballots were used for mayors, congress, and president. Many more candidates were registered for 2005’s election. In Honduras, when hundreds of human rights violations were committed, and alleged political crimes were common place, Roberto Suazo Cordova ruled the country at that time which was so called “Lost Decade” in the history of Honduras.

The Nationalist and Liberal parties are distinct political parties with their own dedicated band of supporters, but according to research and opinions of public the interest and policy measures of 23 years prolong unbroken-able democracy has been remained same and it does not change. The main focus remained in the serving of their own members rather than the public. The members got jobs when their party is in power but once the other party came in force they lose their jobs. Both were seen as supportive of the elite who own most of the wealth in the country. Neither of them promote socialist ideals, even though in many ways Honduras is run like a democratic version of an old socialist state, with price controls and nationalized electric and land-line telephone services


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