Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver Campus
Report on Motivation and how it helps in Productivity
MADS 6602 V3 – Personnel Administration
Vivek Kalapala, BDS, MAS (Candidate)
Student ID: 1733043
Instructor: Jay Ariken Ph.D.
8th March 2016
The success of every organization is dependent upon the employee’s work performance, loyalty, commitment etc. The best way to ensure employees commitment & loyalty is motivation.
Several management scholars have given several definitions of motivation. According to Middle Most and Hit (1981), motivation is the willful desire to direct one’s behavior towards goals. The three key elements in this definition are willful desire, (person’s choice) behavior and goal - directed purpose of behavior. 1
Flippo (1982) defined motivation as a psychological process initiate by the emergence of needs involving a good directed action and behavior aimed at satisfying a particular desire. It is inducement given to workers for higher output.1
Joena Agbato (1988) says motivation is an important determination of human behavior; it is that which moves one towards a goal, thus, motivation results in performance. Motivation is an art targeted to getting people work willingly, and an art of inducing one to behave in a particular manner to achieve a task. 1
. Luthans (1998) motivation is a process which starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior at a drive that is aimed of a goal or incentive.1
Pinder (1998) describes motivation as ‘‘a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration’’.3
Lakin Folajin (2001), spoke at motivation as term used generally when somebody is stimulated, the interest of a worker so as to be able to work and bring or breeds efficiency in his work.1
Robbins (2001) defines motivation as the forces that energizes, direct and sustains a person’s effort.1
Mee-Edoiye and Andawei (2002) viewed motivation as a human engineering approached being triggered by the individual needs
Nnabuife (2009), define motivation as the internal or external driving force that produces the willingness to perform an act to a conclusive end. This first aspect of motivation we choose to describe as internal motivation because the driving force comes from within an individual. The second aspect is external motivation, is applied by the organization. This is because employees are motivated to identify with organization in order to satisfy their varied and variegates needs and desires. 1
Most employees need motivation to feel good about their jobs and perform optimally. Motivation levels within the workplace have a direct impact on employee productivity. An incentive is a motivating influence that is designed to drive behavior and motivate employees to be produce quality work.2
CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION:-
The word motivate is frequently used in the context of management as a transitive verb: motivation is by implication something done by one person or group to another.
Motivation concerns that “psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of behavior” 4
Motivation is concerned with why people do what they do. It answers such questions as why do managers or worker go to work and do a good job. This tries to explain what motivates people to act the way they do, with primary focus on the work place. It is the primary task of the manager to create and maintain an environment in which employees can work efficiently and realize the objectives of the organization.5
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS WHICH HELPS IN PRODUCTIVITY
They are broadly classified into internal and external motivating factors
Internal would comprise of Improved production and productivity rates, Decreased sick leave and absenteeism, Presentism ,Improved job satisfaction and organizational commitment, Reduced staff turnover and intention to quit , Improved morale and employee loyalty, Enhanced organizational culture and employee retention, Reduced costs of accidents and occupational risks, Cost-effectiveness and return on investment for WHP programs.10
External motivating factors would include improved customer loyalty, improved corporate image and chance to realize company strategy, Support programs by national or local government, Support programs by insurance companies, and other external incentives.10
Salaries or wages: Salaries or wages is one of the most important motivational factors. Reasonable salaries must be paid on time. While fixing salaries the organization must consider such as: • Cost of living • Company ability to pay • Capability of company to pay etc.
Bonus: It refers to extra payment to employee over and above salary given as an incentive. The employees must be given adequate rate of bonus.
Incentives: The organization may also provide additional incentives such as medical allowance, educational allowance, hra, allowance, etc.
Special individual incentives: The Company may provide special individual incentives. Such incentives are to be given to deserving employees for giving valuable suggestions. 6
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
The Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy Needs: Abraham Maslow developed a need based theory of motivation. People are extraordinary complex creatures with many motives for behaviors on and off the job. Maslow (1954) identified and analyzed five basic needs which he believed underlay all human behaviors, these needs relate to physiology (the needs for food water, air, shelter, clothing and sex) security (safety, the absence of illness), society or affiliation (friendship, interaction, love) esteem (respect and recognition), and self-actualization (the ability to reach one’s potentials). These are perceptions for higher performance and productivity of individuals. Before Maslow, most managers assumed that money primarily motivated people. With Maslow’s work, managers can evaluate their own actions, their companies conduct and their individual philosophies about people. Maslow’s needs theory presented a workable motivation framework for managers.
Mc Gregory’s Hygiene Theories X and Y An unmet need can frustrate an employee and make him unproductive. Douglas McGregor published the human side of enterprise in 1960. In it, he explained that managers operate from one or two basic assumptions about human bahaviour. Theory X and Y The first theory, the view traditionally held about employees, portrayed workers in organization as being lazy and needing to be coerced, controlled and directed. The second described people as McGregor thought them to be:, responsible, willing to learn and given the proper incentives inherently motivated to exercised ingenuity and creativity Mc Gregory holds the view that the traditional way of treating people regarding them as unthinking, uncertain robots – must changes. Indeed McGregor stressed that only changing these assumptions could managers tap workers or laborer’s vast talents. He emphasized that what matters was how people were treated and valued in their work setting. He went further by advising managers to give employees a chance to contribute, take, control and responsibility familiarity with theories of motivation allows a manager an educated view point from which to consider how to develop workers, captive commitment and develop a positive work environment.
Table 1. Assumption about workers according to theory X and Y
Theory X Theory Y
Human being basically dislike to Most human beings find work as
Work and avoid it whenever possible. National as play or rest and develop an attitude towards work based on their experience with it.
Because most people dislike working, they have to be closely supervised threatened with punishment to reach objectives. Most people have little creativity. They are not capable of solving problems. Rather they must be directed. People do not need to be threatened with punishment; they will work voluntarily towards organizational objectives to which they are committed.
The cores of theories X and y is that a management philosophy influences the type of work climate the manager endeavors to create and ultimately, how the managers treat people.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Brought Quantitative into Motivation Theory. It brought together many of the elements of the previous theories. It combines perceptual aspects of equity theory with the behavioral aspects of the other theories; it gives the equation
M = E x I x V
Where: M = MOTIVATION
E = EXPECTANCY
I = INSTRUMENTALITY
V = VALENCE
This shows that motivational force is related to expectancy, instrumentality and valence in a multiplicative manner. The summary is that people tend to sustain behavior that results in the satisfaction of their needs.
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Frederick Herzberg, Work and the Nature of Man (Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1974) states two different facets of motivation, the first being ‘hygiene’ factors or job context. The second factor is ‘satisfiers’ or job content, i.e. the intrinsic qualities of the job.
Hygiene factors include: Company policies, working conditions, Salary, Status, and Security
Satisfiers include: Achievement, The work itself, Responsibility, Recognition, Advancement and Personal growth
Herzberg argues that hygiene factors can act only as ‘dissatisfiers’, i.e. if they are not fulfilled, they will dissatisfy. However, the elimination of dissatisfaction is not enough to motivate: only the ‘satisfiers’ can motivate. So, not only must dissatisfaction be prevented, but employees must also be allowed to realize their personal needs and aspirations.7
Problems managers, employee’s face regarding motivation and its productivity are:
One of the biggest problems facing manager in the organizations is how best to get employees committed to their work and put in their best towards the accomplishment of organization’s objectives. Motivation is concerned with why people do what they do. It answers such questions as why do managers or worker go to work and do a good job. This tries to explain what motivates people to act the way they do, with primary focus on the work place. It is the primary task of the manager to create and maintain an environment in which employees can work efficiently and realize the objectives of the organization.
Employees differ not only in their ability to work but also in their will to do so (motivation). To motivate is to induce, persuade, stimulate, even compel, an employees to act in a manner which fulfilled the objectives of an organization.
Motivation has two important characteristics as a form of energy which directs and determines human behaviors. Firstly, motivation is a form of energy that directs people to behave in a certain way. Secondly, motivation is effective in inclining towards aims. 9
MOTIVATION VS PRODUCTIVITY
Motivation leads to productivity or is the reverse true that productivity leads to motivation. There is a positive and direct relationship between personnel productivity & employee productivity. Motivation and productivity are twin concepts in organizational development. Effective motivation increase the employee’s productivity, helps boost group morale, encourages discipline among the employees. They get more satisfaction from their work or job. Motivation plays an essential role to employee to be motivated in doing their task. The best way to ensure employee commitment and loyalty is to empower employees, to motivate them and involve them in making decisions of the day- to-day functioning of the organization. Effective motivation can be instrumental in increasing productivity. Motivation is the best cause to reach productivity as a favorable effect.8
The major findings of this survey are as follows:
• Employee motivation is directly linked to employee commitment, personnel productivity & business profits.
• Motivation levels within the workplace have a direct impact on employee productivity.
• Most employees need motivation to feel good about their jobs and perform optimally.
• Unmotivated employees are likely to spread little or no effort in their job.
• The employees were highly motivated due to intrinsic motivational factors like : Recognition, self-satisfaction, etc. 8
Suggestions for increasing personnel productivity through motivation are:
• Consistently provide career advancement & development opportunities of employees.
• Paying performance related bonuses and financial incentives or rewards.
• Run employees personalize recognition programs, such as: Gift vouchers, tickets to a concert.
• Given more responsibility and make all employees feel their jobs are important.8
‘‘Human beings are reciprocal. If you treat them well, they’ll treat you well and if you treat them bad, they’ll treat you bad ’’ (According to Karen Oman). Most researches proved that, there is a positive relationship between motivation and productivity.11 more motivated employees are more productive, more loyal and more committed. If employees got opportunities for self-actualization then they are likely to remain with the organization and the company image is consequently improved and enhanced. The employees were positively affected by toward higher productivity with the provision of job security, salary fixation, reward for good work, recognition etc. It is suggested that in order to motivate employees, an especially tailored compensation plan would be more effective. Well perceived fringe benefits make the employee more loyal & committed. The manager must understand the nature of employee behavior and how best to motivate them so that they work willingly and effectively. 11
Hence motivation and productivity are correlated every individual should possess fair amount of motivation from the organization so as to provide consequent results and productivity to the organization and vice versa .
1. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research ,Volume 2, Issue 7, August 2014, PP 137-147
2. Vinay chaitanya; November 2014, Volume 2 Issue 6
3. Lundberg,, Gudmundson and Andersson 2009, p. 891
4. Ilgen and Klein, 1988
5. Chukwuma et al; International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research ,Volume 2, Issue 7, August 2014, PP 137-147
6. International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education - 2013, volume 2, issue 1
7. Working in Health Resource, 2009 https://www.cna-aiic.ca/en/on-the-issues/better-value/health-human-resources
8. Şimşek, Akgemici and Çelik, 2001, p.115):
9. www.abhinavjournal.com . Bruce, A. Pepitone; J.S. (1999), Motivating Employees, MC Graw-Hill International , http://www.smallbusiness.chron.com
10. Motivation for employers to carry out workplace health promotion, page no 29,30,31
11. www.abhinavjournal.com VOLUME NO.2, ISSUE NO.6
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