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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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  • Number of pages: 2

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Computer Numerical control is the mechanisation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands programmed on a storage medium, as conflicting to controlled manually by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. Most Numeric Control today is computer or computerized numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the controller.

In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands required to operate a particular machine by use of a post processor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any specific component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines habitually combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other installations, a number of different machines are rummage-sale with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In moreover case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.

This machine is replacing lathe, miller or shaper machines because of it precision, automation and remotely controller.

Possibilities in CNC machine compared to normal.

• Motion is controlled along multiple axes, usually at least two (X and Y) and a tool spindle that moves in the Z (depth). The position of the tool is driven by direct-drive servo motor or steeper motors in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in older designs, motors concluded a series of step down gears. Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and speeds are comparatively low. On commercial metalworking machines, closed loop controls are standard and required in order to deliver the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded.

• But in normal machines man force is needed for changing directions for multiaxial job. And every now and then operator has to change the fittings of the machine, which is time consuming.

• As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation. Most new CNC systems built today are 100% electronically controlled. Which also ensures precision and reliability.

• As normal lathe and miller are not electronically power, man force is needed which also does not ensure in safety operations. And is not reliable and precise.

CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations. These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, hole-punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fibre placement, routing, picking and placing, and sawing.

Task 2(b) the benefit and development process of mechatronic laboratory apparatus.

Digital multimeter

A multimeter is used to make numerous electrical measurements, such as AC and DC voltage, AC and DC current, and resistance. It is so-called a multimeter because it associations the functions of a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Multimeters may also partake other functions, such as diode and continuity tests.

It flows a system of electrical, electronics, digital, and computer(plc) it is with maximum resolution levels from 5½ to 8½ digits and basic accuracy levels down to 0.0010%, there's sure to be that it delivers the combination of speed, accuracy, and flexibility your application demands.

Limitation solved by digital multimeter.

Now because of mechatronic measuring instruments more precise readings and the chance of error are less compared to normal instruments, calculation are also error free and precise and has more accuracy with less management of time.

Digital calliper (matt, 2010)

The Digital Calliper (sometimes incorrectly called the Digital Vernier Calliper) is a precision instrument that can be used to measure internal and external distances extremely accurately. Earlier versions of this type of measuring instrument had to be read by looking carefully at the imperial or metric scale and there was a need for very good eyesight in order to read the small sliding scale. Digital callipers are easier to use as the measurement is clearly displayed

Limitation for normal callipers to digital calliper.

Digital callipers don't have any rack/pinion/gear system. This makes them more shock-proof which we like.

Digital callipers can also easily convert from inches to mm and back which we really like since a lot of electronics is mixed-units.

Normally easier to read. Particularly important as your eyesight diminishes getting older. But, possibly important to some users, the distinctive LCD display is difficult or impossible to read in direct sunlight or bright daylight. Instant read, so faster to use (particularly when compared to Vernier callipers).

More accurate than dial or Vernier, sort of. Disregard what you hear to the conflicting, they are more precise in practice than dial callipers; this isn't to do with the build accuracy or better machining of the gearing, it's simply a by-product of the digital display of the measurement. Re-zero function at any opening size allows easier comparison measurements (both positive and negative).

They are retaining the basic marked scales that a Vernier calliper has, and the housing for the digital display is intentionally sized do that you can use its edge to read the measure.

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