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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Paste Microstructure is the small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a organized surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification. The microstructure of a material (such as metal, polymer, ceramic or composites) can intensely influence physical properties such as strength, ductility, hardness, toughness, corrosion resistance, any temperature behaviour or wear resistance. These characteristics in turn governs the application of these materials in industris. Microstructure at scales minnor than can be viewed with optical microscopes is often called nanostructure, while the structure in which discrete atoms are arranged is known as crystal structure. The nanostructure of biological samples is referred to as ultrastructure

Macrostructures are distinguished from societal microstructures consisting of the situated social interaction of social actors, often designated in terms of agency. This difference in sociology has given rise to the well-known macro-micro debate, in which micro sociologists claim the primacy of interaction as the constituents of societal structures, and macro sociologists the primacy of given social structure as a general constraint on interaction.


a solid material which is normally hard, shiny, malleable, ductile, and fusible, with good electrical and thermal conductors (e.g. Gold, silver, iron)

Characteristics of metals are as follow  

 Lustre

 Malleable

 Ductile

 Conductor of heat and electricity

 With one exception, all are solid at room temperature

 Valence electrons are held loosely

 Tend to lose electrons


A polymer is a large molecule composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their wide range of characteristics, both synthetic and natural polymers govern an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. [Polymers range from aware synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and performance. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are origenated via polymerization of many minor molecules, known as monomers. Their subsequently large molecular mass relative to minute molecule compounds produces unique physical properties,

 Characteristics of polymers are

 Highest elasticity

 High toughness

 Compact microstructure

 Simple to manufacture

 Cheaply available


Microstructure, which is too small to be seen with the naked eye, plays an significant factor in the final property of a material. For ceramics, the microstructure is generated up of small crystals called grains. the smaller the grain size, the more stronger and more denser is the ceramic material. In the case of a glass  the microstructure is non-crystalline. ThuWhen these two materials are uniting (glass-ceramics), the glassy phase usually surrounds minor crystals, bonding them organized.

The wide variety of applications for ceramic materials results from their unique properties. In many aspects, these properties cannot be achieved by other materials. along the many properties that ceramic products take advantage of include:

 High hardness

 High mechanical strength

 Dimensional stability

 Resistance to wear

 Resistance towards corrosion or chemical effects

 weathering resistance

 high working temperature

 low or high thermal conductivity

 good electrical insulation

Dielectric and ferroelectric properties

Depending on the composition and the processing of the raw materials, along with the fabrication and firing conditions, the characteristics of the material can often be closely tailored to the desired application


A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when unites, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The specific components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be favoured for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when evaluated to traditional materials. More recently, scientists have also begun to actively include sensing, actuation and communication into composites, which are also known as  Robotic Materials.

normally engineered composite materials include:

Composite building materials, are cements, concrete

Reinforced plastics, such as fibre-reinforced polymer

Metal composites

Ceramic composites

Composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges, and structures such as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, race car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks, storage tanks and countertops. The most advanced perform routinely on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments.


Composite materials include some of the most advanced engineering materials today. The addition of high strength fibres to a polymer matrix can greatly improve mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, flexural modulus, and temperature opposition

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