Book. (The History of Motorcycling.)
Ayton, Cyril, Bob Holliday, Cyril Posthumous and Mike Winfield. The History of Motorcycling. London: Orvis Publishing, 1979. Lear, George Lynn S. Mosher, Motorcycle Mechanics for automotive engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
The primary raw materials used in the manufacture of the body of motorcycles are metal, plastic and may be rubber.
The motorcycle frame is composed almost complet of metal, as are the wheels. The frame may be covered with plastic. The tires are made of rubber. The seat is composed from a synthetic material, such as polyurethane. The power system includes of a four-stroke engine, a carburettor to transform incoming fuel into vapour, a choke to control the air-fuel ratio, and drum brakes and transmission. The transmission system includs a clutch, consisting of steel ball flywheels and metal plates, pulleys, rubber belts a crankshaft, gears or metal chains, and also sprocket.
The Motorcycle electrical system contains a battery, ignition wires and coils, diodes, spark plugs, head-lamps and taillights, turn signals and a horn.
A cylindrical piston, made of aluminium alloy (preferred because it is lightweight and conducts heat), is an important component of engine. It is fixid with piston rings made with cast iron. The crankshaft and crankcase are manufactured using alluminium. The engine also includes a cylinder barrel, normally made of cast iron or light alloy.
The Manufacturing Process
Raw materials as well as parts and components arrive at the manufacturing plant by truck and rail, usually on a daily basis. As part of the just-in-time delivery system on which many plants are arranged, the materials and parts are delivered at the place where they are used or installed.
Manufacturing begins in the weld department with computer-controlled fabrication of the frame from high strength frame materials. Components are formed out of tubular metal and/or hollow metal shells fashioned from sheet metal. The various sections are welded together. This process involves manual, automatic, and robotic equipment
Clay/ Wax Modelling
Besides soft modelling, many companies also prepare clay or wax models of vehicle. These models are used to judge the bulk and to predict aerodynamic characteristics of vehicle. Generally, clay models are prepared for expensive rides. It is just like a hard copy or printout of any softcopy from the computer.
Robots are used to create these types of model. Robots help to get precision and reduce process time. Before technical revolution in computers, this was only method used for modelling of any vehicle.
Designing is a complex synthesis and analysing process of forces and stresses on any component. Each and every component of vehicle is analysed with the help of software’s. Designing software works with that model which is generated in modelling software. This is done with the help of Interface facilities. Engineer can check any component under static, dynamic, thermal, or cyclic loads and can predict component’s life.
Particularly for automobiles, simulation software’s are computer logics for vehicle’s dynamic conditions. Simulation software’s can generate identical road and wind conditions which an original vehicle is going to face.
This helps engineers and designers to predict and modify any of the dynamic characteristic of vehicle before actual production. Just like analysis software’s, simulation software also reduces cost and time for testing a vehicle. Different road profiles like smooth road, bumps, pit holes etc. can be generated and vehicle model can be tested without original vehicle.
No one can remain dependable on software’s when safety comes into pictureThat’s why each and every company tests it’s each vehicle before starting its production.These vehicles are used for different road tests, rollover tests and crash tests. Experience test drivers are allowed to drive these vehicles up to extreme conditions on the testing tracks. This testing period is kept long enough to get exact idea about any failures. Many a times new failure arises which is not exposed by the analysis or simulation software’s.
Finally production starts after completing all the required modifications in manufacturing facilities. These modifications includes testing rigs, testing tracks, material handling methods, material handling racks, manpower, production of subassemblies, assembly lines, quality testing, paint shop, vendor management etc. Company announces official launch of vehicle and starts distributing fix numbers of produced vehicle amongst each dealers.
Then sales department studies the market demand through dealers. New production schedule is introduced according to demand and supply chain. Each vehicle is tested according to minimum standards decided by country’s governing body (As ARAI in India). Vehicles are distributed in different numbers to different dealers according to their regional demand.
Reference from classes.bus.oregonstate.edu(book)
According to the above reference from website www.madehow.com is the best suitable data, because it perfectly explain the process from raw materials to the final product
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