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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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) Investigate and assess the quality of suitable data obtained from three different sources and then decide which data is more suitable. Data for the particular product. Product is of learner’s choice.

Product selected

Motorcycle

   

From book

Book. (The History of Motorcycling.)

Ayton, Cyril, Bob Holliday, Cyril Posthumous and Mike Winfield. The History of Motorcycling. London: Orvis Publishing, 1979. Lear, George and Lynn S. Mosher, Motorcycle Mechanics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Raw Materials

The primary raw materials used in the manufacture of the body of motorcycle are metal, plastic and rubber.

The motorcycle frame is composed almost completely of metal, as are the wheels. The frame may be overlaid with plastic. The tires are composed of rubber. The seat is made from a synthetic substance, such as polyurethane. The power system consists of a four-stroke engine, a carburettor to transform incoming fuel into vapour, a choke to control the air-fuel ratio, transmission, and drum brakes. The transmission system contains a clutch, consisting of steel ball flyweights and metal plates, a crankshaft, gears, pulleys, rubber belts or metal chains, and a sprocket.

The Motorcycle electrical system contains a battery, ignition wires and coils, diodes, spark plugs, head-lamps and taillights, turn signals and a horn.

A cylindrical piston, made of aluminium alloy (preferred because it is lightweight and conducts heat well), is an essential component of the engine. It is fitted with piston rings made of cast iron. The crankshaft and crankcase are made of aluminium. The engine also contains a cylinder barrel, typically made of cast iron or light alloy.

The Manufacturing Process

Raw materials as well as parts and components arrive at the manufacturing plant by truck or rail, typically on a daily basis. As part of the just-in-time delivery system on which many plants are scheduled, the materials and parts are delivered at the place where they are used or installed.

Manufacturing begins in the weld department with computer-controlled fabrication of the frame from high strength frame materials. Components are formed out of tubular metal and/or hollow metal shells fashioned from sheet metal. The various sections are welded together. This process involves manual, automatic, and robotic equipment.

In the plastics department, small plastic resin pellets are melted and injected into molds under high pressure to form various plastic body trim parts. This process is known as injection moulding.

Plastic and metal parts and components are painted in booths in the paint department using a process known as powder-coating (this is the same process by which automobiles are painted). A powder-coating apparatus works like a large spray-painter, dispersing paint through a pressurized system evenly across the metal frame.

Painted parts are sent via overhead conveyors or tow motor (similar to a ski lift tow rope) to the assembly department where they are installed on the frame of the motorcycle.

A motorcycle engine. The engine is mounted in the painted frame, and various other components are fitted as the motorcycle is sent down the assembly line.

Wheels, brakes, wiring cables, foot pegs, exhaust pipes, seats, saddlebags, lights, radios, and hundreds of other parts are installed on the motorcycle frame. A Honda Gold Wing motorcycle, for example, needs almost as many parts to complete it as a Honda Civic automobile.

Quality Control

At the end of the assembly line, quality control inspectors undertake a visual inspection of the motorcycle's painted finish and fit of parts. The quality control inspectors also feel the motorcycles with gloved hands to detect any bumps or defects in the finish. Each motorcycle is tested on a dynamometer. Inspectors accelerate the motorcycle from 0-60 mph. During the acceleration, the "dyno" tests for acceleration and braking, shifting, wheel alignment, headlight and taillight alignment and function, horn function, and exhaust emissions. The finished product must meet international standards for performance and safety. After the dyno test, a final inspection is made of the completed motorcycle. The motorcycles are boxed in crates and shipped to customers across North America and around the world.

Reference from

From website www.madehow.com

Read more: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Motorcycle.html#ixzz3zfhVj9V3

The Manufacturing Process

Raw materials as well as parts and components arrive at the manufacturing plant by truck or rail, typically on a daily basis. As part of the just-in-time delivery system on which many plants are scheduled, the materials and parts are delivered at the place where they are used or installed.

Manufacturing begins in the weld department with computer-controlled fabrication of the frame from high strength frame materials. Components are formed out of tubular metal and/or hollow metal shells fashioned from sheet metal. The various sections are welded together. This process involves manual, automatic, and robotic equipment.

In the plastics department, small plastic resin pellets are melted and injected into molds under high pressure to form various plastic body trim parts. This process is known as injection moulding.

Plastic and metal parts and components are painted in booths in the paint department using a process known as powder-coating (this is the same process by which automobiles are painted). A powder-coating apparatus works like a large spray-painter, dispersing paint through a pressurized system evenly across the metal frame.

Painted parts are sent via overhead conveyors or tow motor (similar to a ski lift tow rope) to the assembly department where they are installed on the frame of the motorcycle. A motorcycle engine.

A motorcycle engine.

The engine is mounted in the painted frame, and various other components are fitted as the motorcycle is sent down the assembly line.

Wheels, brakes, wiring cables, foot pegs, exhaust pipes, seats, saddlebags, lights, radios, and hundreds of other parts are installed on the motorcycle frame. A Honda Gold Wing motorcycle, for example, needs almost as many parts to complete it as a Honda Civic automobile.

From http://bikeadvice.in/bike-manufacturing/

Market Research

The safest way to launch any product in today’s competitive market is to have research: Research about who will be the customer, what customer likes, and what customer needs. These researches are carried out by marketing department of the companies or given to other surveying companies.

This market research also depends on type of vehicle that a company wants to introduce i.e. new segment, facelift version of previously launched vehicle, or DNA type vehicle. Market research becomes more vital when any company plans to launch a new segment. Customers are openly or circuitously got involved in this type of survey. New segment may be decided with respect to fuel economy, price tag, and top speed, type of engine or type of vehicle.

Sketching

Drawing or Sketching was the first language used by Homo sapiens and still used in all industries either on paper or on computer screens. It is the most productive and economical method to develop and predict any concept. Same is also applicable with automobile industry. Each and every vehicle running on the road today was a conceptualized sketch on the paper before few years.

Numbers of sketches are prepared by the designers on final concept which got selected by the authorities. Designers also have to include benchmarks of the company along with engineering aspects. Engineering aspects like dimensions, space, and feasibility of manufacturing of exterior components are considered in conjunction with aesthetics. First of all, one sketch is selected as a final product which contains overall look. After that, overall dimensions are selected according to vehicle’s segment and engineering terms. After deciding vehicle as a whole, designers start sketching each details of the vehicle like head lights, side indicators, ORVMs, tail lights, tank, seats, fairings, wheels, axles, muffler, foot rests, locking nuts etc. One more time vehicle is assembled on paper and final sketch is prepared for modelling.

Software Modelling

Modelling is done before starting any designing for vehicle. This provides idea about space available with engineers to design any component. It already has become very easy to prepare a model for any product with the help of software’s and robots. In the case of automobile, this process is very important and required precision. Modelling gives three dimensional judgement about vehicle.

Clay/ Wax Modelling

Besides soft modelling, many companies also prepare clay or wax models of vehicle. These models are used to judge the bulk and to predict aerodynamic characteristics of vehicle. Generally, clay models are prepared for expensive rides. It is just like a hard copy or printout of any softcopy from the computer.

Robots are used to create these types of model. Robots help to get precision and reduce process time. Before technical revolution in computers, this was only method used for modelling of any vehicle.

Designing

Designing is a complex synthesis and analysing process of forces and stresses on any component. Each and every component of vehicle is analysed with the help of software’s. Designing software works with that model which is generated in modelling software. This is done with the help of Interface facilities. Engineer can check any component under static, dynamic, thermal, or cyclic loads and can predict component’s life.

Simulations

Particularly for automobiles, simulation software’s are computer logics for vehicle’s dynamic conditions. Simulation software’s can generate identical road and wind conditions which an original vehicle is going to face.

This helps engineers and designers to predict and modify any of the dynamic characteristic of vehicle before actual production. Just like analysis software’s, simulation software also reduces cost and time for testing a vehicle. Different road profiles like smooth road, bumps, pit holes etc. can be generated and vehicle model can be tested without original vehicle.

Testing

No one can remain dependable on software’s when safety comes into pictureThat’s why each and every company tests it’s each vehicle before starting its production.These vehicles are used for different road tests, rollover tests and crash tests. Experience test drivers are allowed to drive these vehicles up to extreme conditions on the testing tracks. This testing period is kept long enough to get exact idea about any failures. Many a times new failure arises which is not exposed by the analysis or simulation software’s.

 Production

Finally production starts after completing all the required modifications in manufacturing facilities. These modifications includes testing rigs, testing tracks, material handling methods, material handling racks, manpower, production of subassemblies, assembly lines, quality testing, paint shop, vendor management etc. Company announces official launch of vehicle and starts distributing fix numbers of produced vehicle amongst each dealers.

Then sales department studies the market demand through dealers. New production schedule is introduced according to demand and supply chain. Each vehicle is tested according to minimum standards decided by country’s governing body (As ARAI in India). Vehicles are distributed in different numbers to different dealers according to their regional demand.

Reference from classes.bus.oregonstate.edu(book)

According to the above reference from website www.madehow.com is the best suitable data, because it perfectly explains the process from raw materials to the final product in a precise and in a prefect sequence it explain the raw materials pro

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