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.3 Protocol overview

In this section, represent the overview of SARP; the Discovery phase, the usage

of the Node Information, the Transactions, the Trust Reporting, and the Defense against


4.3.1 Discovery Phase

Once nodes are deployed in the field of interest, the nodes start the discovery phase

in which each node learns which nodes are its neighbours, and how far it is from the other

nodes in network.

4.3.2 Node Information

Each node stores certain information of neighbors in its own information tables.

Each node has two kinds of tables. First, Neighbor Table stores the node identifier, the

hop count, the parent and the trust for the neighbor. Second, Transaction Table contains

records that include information about the transaction identifier, the data source that iniJyothi Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy Dept. of CSE, May 2016

On-Off Attack Management Based on Trust 21

tiated the transaction, the number of packets in the transaction and other information that

is useful for trust reporting.

4.3.3 Transactions

A transaction is the unit of data transmission and of trust reporting [1] . When a

node has a stream of data to report to a sender node, and it starts transmitting a specific

number of packets. If the source node is not available to reach to the destination node

directly, the node transmits the data to a transaction parent node. This node is called as a

Forwarder, and this Forwarder also finds a transaction parent node until the data reaches

to the correct destination.There are two criteria for choosing the transaction parent node.

First, the node should be closer to the sender. The distance of each node is recognized

in the Discovery Phase, and the information is used to find the closer node. Second, the

node should be trusted. The Trust Framework is used for finding the most trusted node

among the neighbours of the Forwarder [10] . When there is no trusted node in the higher

hop count group, the transaction parent node can be a peer or child node to detour around

the untrusted node.

Therefore, there are four kinds of possible transaction parent nodes; closer and

trusted node, farther and trusted node, closer but untrusted node, and farther but untrusted

node [18] , [20]. First, the closer and trusted node is the best case that can transmit the

data to the destination fast. Second, the farther and trusted node is a possible transaction

parent node that can transmit the data to the destination, but bypass the shortest route.

Third, the closer but untrusted node is not a good choice as a transaction parent node

because the data can be lost. Last, the farther but untrusted is the worst case that can

contaminate the data and even uses longer route. SARP aims to transmit the stream of

data and trust reporting by using the closer and trusted node, which can transmit faster

than other possible transaction parent nodes. If there is no possible closer and trusted

node, however, SARP uses the farther and trusted node, and avoids the untrusted nodes

for the uncontaminated data and trust reporting [19].

4.3.4 Trust Reporting

SARP relies on updating trust of nodes based on performance of the nodes in transactions. When a transaction is completed that means a stream of data is delivered from

a source node to destination node. The trust reporting process begins in two steps; ReJyothi Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy Dept. of CSE, May 2016

On-Off Attack Management Based on Trust 22

Figure 4.4: Level Zero

questing Trust Reports and Processing Trust Reports. First, Requesting Trust Reports

begins when a transaction finished. The sender or the Forwarder sends this requesting

message to its transaction parent node, and the transaction parent node sends back its

one-hop report with its own report to the requester [17]. As a result of this, the requester

will have both one hop and two hop report, when it receives the full report from its transaction parent node. Second, Processing Trust Reports begins when the requester receives

the report from its transaction parent node. The requester, which is the sender or the

Forwarder, calculates the trust value of its one-hop and two hop neighbors depending on

the report.

4.3.5 Defense against attacks

SARP provides multiple defense schemes with its own features.

4.4 Design

Design of the system described with the help of data flow diagram which explain

the entire working flow consideration of the system. It consist of three levels. In zeroth

level, the basic structure of the system explained. In first level, the entire system flow

is explained in which trust module is the major component. In the second level, the

operation in the trust module is further explained.

Jyothi Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy Dept. of CSE, May 2016

On-Off Attack Management Based on Trust 23

Figure 4.5: Level One

Figure 4.6: Level Two

Jyothi Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy Dept. of CSE, May 2016

On-Off Attack Management Based on Trust 24

4.5 System Specification

– Front End : Java

– Back end : Mysql

– Jdk versions : Jdk 1.7

– IDE used Netbeans

4.5.1 Language and Tools Used

For implementing the system, Java language is used. Java used due to its easiness

and simplicity nature. Java is a general purpose high level language. It is an object

oriented language. And the system is implemented using Netbeans. It is a software

development platform written in Java.

Jyothi Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy Dept. of CSE, May 2016

On-Off Attack Management Based on Trust 25



Trust of the nodes in the system is analysed based on its nature and behaviour in the

system. If any malicious nature detected trust of the node is reduced and data transfer is

not possible if the trust is very low. Thus the security of the system can be increased. The

system help to detect and prevent the On- Off attack in an effective manner by calculating

trust of each node in the system. The system consist of multiple node and there nodes are

initialized first into the network, then only the data transfer and other operation with other

nodes can be initiated. All nodes in the system is unique and specified with a particular

port number and ip address. In order to enter to a network, firstly the node should be

register to the network by providing its port and ip address. Then the details of the node

is recorded in the system. In next time, the node should login to the system by providing

the details that the node already given. According to the behaviour of the node trust value

is updated and accordingly the data transfer within each node is possible.

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