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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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 A front-end web technology is chiefly accountable for the client interface and the style of the website. The most generally utilized languages a front-end Web designer uses are: HTML, CSS, and in addition JavaScript. These three languages are vital any hoping for front-end web designer and are essential in characterizing the real plan of a website.

Doing a reversal prior to when we considered HTML a skeleton of our site page, we can consider CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) as garments a man may wear. Individuals need to express their design sense in their own specific manner and CSS permits us to do that by pre-characterizing certain segments of a site to be a sure style.

Consider it along these lines: We more often than not wear a shirt, jeans and shoes (the most fundamental outfit, I know). We can characterize the "shirt," or a specific segment of the website page (lets say, the news article body in the illustration utilized above) to be a particular shading. We can characterize these hues into our CSS record and incorporate it at the highest point of our HTML document.


The World Wide Web, or WWW, was made as a strategy to explore the now extensive system of connected computers. Tim Berners-Lee, a contractor with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), built up a simple hypertext program called ENQUIRE. The project was intended to make data promptly accessible to clients, and to permit a client to investigate connections between various pages (i.e. clicking to get to a different section of a website). By 1990, with the assistance of Robert Cailliau, Berners-Lee developed the skeletal outline of the internet, including a web browser and web server.

Sadly, the world wasn't prepared for his ideas. The web was still a progression of basic content pages, hard to explore, and out of reach to a great many people. In any case, all that changed in 1993, with the arrival of the Mosaic web browser, which permitted users to explore multimedia on the web. 1993 also saw the introduction of the first modern search engines. Though early search engines were primitive, mostly manual, and primarily indexed only titles and headers, in 1994 WebCrawler started to "creep" the net, indexing whole pages of active websites. This technology opened the entryway for all more powerful search engines, and made it conceivable to effortlessly seek through boundless amounts of connected information.

In this same year, Berners-Lee established  the world wide web Consortium (W3C) to help further develop ease of use and accessibility of the web, and made it a standard that the ought to be accessible to people in general for nothing and with no patent.


The word technology alludes to the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, procedures, artworks, frameworks, and strategies for association, with a specific end goal to tackle an issue, enhance a prior answer for an issue, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can likewise allude to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other creature species' capacity to control and adjust to their indigenous habitats.

The term can either be applied for the most part or to particular: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. Technology has influenced society and its surroundings in various ways. In numerous social orders, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has permitted the ascent of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by products, known as pollution, and drain regular assets, to the detriment of the Earth and its surroundings.

Various implementations of technology impact the values of a society and new technology often frequently brings up new moral issues. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. According to above information technology means the making of new things, modifications in things and something that progressions human effort in daily life that is known as technology.


HTML (Markup Language) Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example <img>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behaviour of HTML web pages. Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML markup.


• In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was a contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents.

• In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext system. The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called "HTML Tags", first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991.

• Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification: "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar.

• After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001.

• In 2004 development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008.


HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web (Web Pages) and is a core technology of the Internet. It is the fifth version of the HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) standard. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML. Following its immediate predecessors HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.1, HTML5 is a response to the observation that the HTML and XHTML in common use on the World Wide Web are a mixture of features introduced by various specifications, along with those introduced by software products such as web browsers, those established by common practice, and the many syntax errors in existing web documents. It is also an attempt to define a single markup language that can be written in either HTML or XHTML syntax. It includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalises the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications. For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a potential candidate for cross-platform mobile applications. Many features of HTML5 have been built with the consideration of being able to run on low-powered devices such as Smartphone and tablets. In December 2011, research firm Strategy Analytics forecast sales of HTML5 compatible phones will top 1 billion in 2013. In particular, HTML5 adds many new syntactic features. These include the new <video>, <audio> and <canvas> elements, as well as the integration of scalable vector graphics (SVG) content (that replaces the uses of generic <object> tags) and MathML for mathematical formulas. These features are designed to make it easy to include and handle multimedia and graphical content on the web without having to resort to proprietary plug-in and APIs. Other new elements, such as <section>, <article>, <header> and <nav>, are designed to enrich the semantic content of documents. New attributes have been introduced for the same purpose, while some elements and attributes have been removed. Some elements, such as <a>, <cite> and <menu> have been changed, redefined or standardized. The APIs and Document Object Model (DOM) are no longer afterthoughts, but are fundamental parts of the HTML5 specification. HTML5 also defines in some detail the required processing for invalid Documents so that syntax errors will be treated uniformly by all conforming browsers and other user agents.


n previous version HTML have some limitations. To cover them another adaptation of HTML was presented that was known as HTML5. There are numerous components in HTML5 which will pull in us in coming future. Presently HTML5 have some advantages, some of them are:


HTML5 makes creating accessible sites easier for two main reasons: semantics and ARIA. The new (some currently available) HTML headings like <header>, <footer>, <nav>, <section>, <aside>, etc. allow screen readers to easily access content. Before, your screen readers had no way to determine what a given <div> was even if you assigned it an ID or Class. With new semantic tags screen readers can better examine the HTML document and create a better experience for those who use them. ARIA is a W3C spec that is mainly used to assign specific ―roles‖ to elements in an HTML document – essentially creating important landmarks on the page: header, footer, navigation or article, via role attributes. This has been well overlooked and widely under-used mostly due to the fact that it wasn‘t valid, however, HTML5 will validate these attributes. Also, HTML5 will have built in roles that can‘t be over-ridden making assigning roles a no brainer.

Video and Audio Support

 Forget about Flash Player and other third party media players, make your videos and audio truly accessible with the new HTML5 <video> and <audio> tags. Getting your media to play correctly has always been pretty much a nightmare, you had to use the <embed> and <object> tags and assign a huge list of parameters just to get the thing visible and working correctly. Your media tags just become these nasty, huge chunks of confusing code segments. HTML5′s video and audio tags basically treat them as images; <video src=‖url‖/>.


 <!DOCTYPE html>

Yup that‘s it, that is the doctype, nothing more, nothing less. No more cutting and pasting some long unreadable line of code and no more dirty head tags filled with doctype attributes. You can simply and easily type it out and be happy. The really great thing about it though, beyond the simplicity, is that it works in every browser clear back to the dreaded IE6

Cleaner Code

If you are passionate about simple, elegant, easy to read code then HTML5 is the beast for you. HTML5 allows you to write clear and descriptive code, semantic code that allows you to easily separate meaning from style and content. With HTML5 you can finally cure your’divitis’ and ‘classitis’ by using semantic and HTML headers to describe your content. Previously you would generally just use div‘s for every block of content than drop an id or class on it to describe its content but with the new <section>, <article>, <header>, <footer>, <aside> and <nav> tags, HTML5 allows you to code your markup cleaner as well as keep your CSS better organized and happier.

Better Interactions

We all want better interactions, we all want a more dynamic website that responds to the user and allows the user to enjoy/interact your content instead of just look at it. Enter <canvas>, the drawing HTML5 tag that allows you to do most (if not more) interactive and animated possibilities than the previous rich internet application platforms like Flash. Beyond <canvas>, HTML5 also comes with a slew of great APIs that allow you to build a better user experience and a beefier, more dynamic web application

Advantages and Disadvantages of HTML5


Basically HTML5 has it‘s many new syntactical features, which include the <video>, <audio>, and <canvas> elements, as well as the integration of SVG content. Due to these new elements, it will be very easy to integrate multimedia and graphical content to web without using flash and third party plugin. Some of advantages are:


Due to usability purpose the web sites made by developers are highly interactive nowadays and for this developers need to include fluid animations, stream video, play music and Social Network sites like Facebook and Twitter into the websites. Till now they have only the option to integrate it with the help of Flash or Silver light, Flex or javascript like tools. But these consume so much time to develop and even the complexity of web application also increased. But now with the help of HTML5 it is possible to embed video and audio, high quality drawings, charts and animation and many other rich content without using any plugins and third party programs as the functionality is built into the browser.


As websites adopt the new HTML5 elements we will see greater consistency in terms of the HTML used to code a web page on one site compared to another. This will make it easier for designers and developers to immediately understand how a web page is structured.

Client-Side Database

While cookies have been used to track unique user data for years, they have serious disadvantages. The largest flaw is that all of your cookie data is added to every HTTP request header. This can end up having a measurable impact on response time. So a best practice is to reduce cookie size. With HTML5 we can do better by using session Storage and local Storage(two different storage in HTML5) in place of cookies. It is not a permanent database, but enables you to store structured data, temporarily.


All we are using HTML5 today, but the reality is that there's a few problems that prevent the language from use in modern websites. Some of them are:

Browser Support

The main problem with HTML5's acceptance is that only modern browsers support it. By modern, I mean almost everything except for Internet Explorer. The new version...IE9 offers excellent support, but as of this writing it's not quite out of beta. Even if it were, the majority of people will still use older versions of IE for quite some time. There are things you can do to make the language play nice with older browsers, but none of them are perfect.

The Language is a Spec

Another problem is that although parts of the language are very stable, the language itself is considered a work in progress, so technically, any of the elements could change at any time. The language is not expected to be completed for several years, which complicates things further. Thankfully, a lot of the language is considered stable and ready to use. I think it's such a great move forward, that you should develop a Graceful Degradation approach to writing your HTML. That simply means writing HTML that will work with older browsers, but will offer users with more modern browsers an enhanced experience.

Media Licensing Issue

Another ugly fact about HTML5 is that because of licensing issues, rich media has to be compressed in multiple formats in order to be compatible with most browsers. So you'll probably use something like mp3 audio for web kit browsers (safari, chrome), and ogg for Mozilla (Firefox) browsers. It involves a bit more work and it is a pain, but hopefully those issues will be resolved soon.


It’s The Future, get with it, The number one reason why you should start using HTML5 today is this: it‘s the future, start using it now so you don‘t get left behind. HTML5 is not going anywhere and as more and more elements get adopted more and more companies will start to develop in HTML5. HTML5 is essentially just HTML, it‘s not scary, it‘s not anything you really need to figure out or relearn. if you‘re developing XHTML strict right now you are already developing in HTML5 so why not take full advantage of its current capability? You really don‘t have any excuses not to adopt HTML5 and begin your new love affair with it. Truly, the only real reason I prefer to use HTML5 is just to write cleaner code, all the other benefits and fun features I haven‘t even really jumped into yet, but that is the great thing about it, you can just start using it right now and not even change the way you design. So, start using it right now, whether you are just simplifying and making your markup more semantic OR you are going to build some sick new mobile game that will take over the world who knows, maybe you can start selling stuffed animal versions of your gaming characters too.

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