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this paper investigates the feasibility of a standalone

hybrid energy system to meet out electric load

requirements of JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur. In order to

maintain continuity of electricity supply, a single energy source is

not a good option. In Jaipur, Rajasthan annual average solar

radiation is around 5.65 (kWh/m2/day). According to the various

investigation reports wind energy system installation will not

provide satisfactory amount of electricity in Jaipur. So, author

considered a hybrid system having, rooftop solar PV system and

diesel generator with the integration of battery bank. Technoeconomic

analysis for proposed system model has been

performed using HOMER software. Discussion of electrical

equipment/components and machines (generator, Xmer)

connected with the substation of the University is also done in

this paper.

Keywords— solar system, battery bank, standalone system,

energy audit.

List of Acronyms-

KW: Kilo watt

KVA: Kilo volt ampere

KV: Kilo volt

V: Volt

A: Ampere

D.B: Distribution board

D.P: Distribution Panel

F & L: Fan and light

DC: Direct current

AC: Alternating current


In India, challenges for renewable energy are land

consumption, cost, efficiency and reliability. In case of a

standalone hybrid energy system challenges are development

of very low speed wind turbines, efficient integration circuits

and coordination with grid network. Renewable energy sources

provide an efficient and long lasting solution to meet increased

electricity demand. As renewable sources are connected near to

load center which raise reliability and reduce transmission &

distribution loss. Intermittent nature of renewable sources has

led the path for hybrid energy system.

The principle of energy audit is when the object of study is

an occupied building then reducing energy consumption while

maintaining or improving human comfort, health and safety are

of primary concern. Beyond simply identifying the sources of

energy use, an energy audit seeks to prioritize the energy uses

according to the greatest to least cost effective opportunities for

energy savings.

Sincere efforts are being made by the researchers around

the globe to prove the standalone hybrid energy systems to be

cost effective. Other main disadvantage of renewable energy is

land consumption which may lead to food crises but using

rooftop solar system and wind energy system will help to

reduce the load on the power grid without creating any issue

related to land consumption.The objective of this paper is to

simulate a standalone hybrid energy system for JK Lakshmipat

University, which is currently connected to grid on 33kV.


The following table shows the actual KW consumed in

each blokes. Total 26 blokes of University are mentioned in the

table with the actual consumption along with date and time.

Table No.-1

Date Time IET-2

(F & L)



Mess MBA

(sub panel)

10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 867 300 29 23

11-4-15 7:00 AM 174 8 21 9

12-4-15 7:00 AM 384 17 68 16

13-4-15 7:00 AM 351 18 69 16

14-4-15 7:00 AM 992 254 75 33

15-4-15 7:00 AM 1069 270 37 33

Table No.-2

Date Time LRC




Cafe New lab


10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 56 116 0 1

11-4-15 7:00 AM 20 80 0 4

12-4-15 7:00 AM 50 128 0 4

13-4-15 7:00 AM 51 126 41 5

14-4-15 7:00 AM 83 203 12 7

15-4-15 7:00 AM 89 209 0 4


Table No.-3

Date Time IET-1




2 BHK-1 2 BHK-2

10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 29 53 36 21

11-4-15 7:00 AM 9 0 53 37

12-4-15 7:00 AM 9 0 103 71

13-4-15 7:00 AM 12 1 107 72

14-4-15 7:00 AM 33 44 103 73

15-4-15 7:00 AM 24 49 98 73

Table No.-4

Date Time AIRTEL Shop Gym Admin

10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 0 3 5 195

11-4-15 7:00 AM 0 1 7 57

12-4-15 7:00 AM 0 4 12 126

13-4-15 7:00 AM 106 3 11 127

14-4-15 7:00 AM 56 7 12 263

15-4-15 7:00 AM 53 3 12 229

Table No.-5

Date Time MDC MBA

(Main Floor)


Light- I


Light- II

10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 14 16 0 29

11-4-15 7:00 AM 10 11 59 57

12-4-15 7:00 AM 28 14 56 70

13-4-15 7:00 AM 31 14 62 121

14-4-15 7:00 AM 53 23 1 104

15-4-15 7:00 AM 65 21 51 87

Table No.-6

Date Time Fire water







10-4-15 7:00 AM S S S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 15 10 27 25

11-4-15 7:00 AM 10 15 45 35

12-4-15 7:00 AM 24 33 47 81

13-4-15 7:00 AM 17 13 136 53

14-4-15 7:00 AM 33 32 84 47

15-4-15 7:00 AM 25 33 86 61

Table No.-7

Date Time 3-BHK BSNL

10-4-15 7:00 AM S S

10-4-15 7:00 PM 15 19

11-4-15 7:00 AM 16 17

12-4-15 7:00 AM 19 37

13-4-15 7:00 AM 70 45

14-4-15 7:00 AM 46 43

15-4-15 7:00 AM 41 40

Analysis of basic components:-

In JKLU except from LRC in all the rooms having mainly

two type of tube light Long tube which is of 36 watt and small

tubes which is of 18 watt. In the library resource center long

tubes are of 28 watt and small tubes of 16 watt. In the all the

blocks 60 watt fan is used.

Classrooms:- In the classrooms total 16 boxes are installed

containing 2 tubes each of 18 watt in every box. So, total 32

tube lights are available in each classrooms, 8 numbers of

electric fans and 1 projector is available in every classrooms. 5-

7 sockets and 16 switches are installed in the classrooms.

Library:- In the LRC total 67 boxes are installed containing 2

tubes each of 28 watt in every box. So, total 134 tube lights are

available, 21 boxes are installed containing 2 tubes each of 16

watt in every box. So, total 42 small tubes and 11 electric fans

are available.

Hostels:- In the both boy’s hostel (1 & 2) building having total

103 rooms and 1 hall. In each room 2 long tube lights of 36

watt each and 2 fans of 60 watt each is available and 1 CFL in

each balcony. Total 13 bathrooms are available in both hostels

buildings. In each bathroom 6 long tubes are available and 2

small CFL. So, total 286 long tubes and 208 electric fans are

available in both the boy’s hostel buildings. 4 sockets and 8

switches are installed for each room in the hostel.



In the JKLU two diesel generators are available. The generator

details are given below.

Generator 1(250 KVA):-

S.No. – 25766954

Manufacturing date- 08/03/2011

Oil consumption- 25 to 30 liters/hour

Generator 2(600 KVA):-

S.No. – 25359810

Manufacturing date- 08/03/2011

Oil consumption- 70 t0 75 liters/hour


A three phase 50 Hz transformer of 33/0.440 KV, Vector group

D-Y-N 11 having 6290 Kg weight is installed in JKLU

substation . In this Xmer ONAN type of cooling and 1645

liters Oil is provided.

Table No.-8

No Load Voltage HV (KV) 34.65/33.825/33/32.17/31.35/30.525/29.70

No Load Voltage LV (KV) 0.433

Current HV (Amps) 33.32/34.14/34.99/35.89/36.8/37.83/38.88

Current LV (Amps) 2666.75

Project modeling:-

Using all the information collected through energy audit new

model can be prepared for electricity in the JKLU. All the

calculations are done on the Software named “HOMER”. Cost

analysis and other facts related to the new model is described


92 International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology (iCATccT)

Fig. 1. Solar irradiation in jaipur, Rajasthan

To reduce the electricity charges it is required to install the

rooftop solar cells. Total 460 solar panels can be installed in

JKLU including the entire building’s roof. The quantity of

solar panels is decided on the survey basis. On the boy’s hostel

1 and 2 building roofs total 80-80 solar panels can easily be

installed. On the girls hostel building roof 40 panels can be

installed. On the roof of IET block (i.e. IET 1 & 2) and IM

block 100-100 panels can easily installed and on new lab block

building 60 panels can be installed.

Fig. 2. Hybrid energy model

Figure 2 shows the hybrid energy model. In which two

generators are connected and PV system is connected. Battery

is connected as storage device. As we know solar PV generates

DC but we consume the energy in form AC. So, to covert DC

to AC a Converter is used in this model.


For rooftop solar system if we make sub system in which

15 modules are connected then it will give 324V output and

when this output is supplied as an input to single phase PWM

inverter then we will get 230V.

Table No.-9

S.N. Parameters Value

1 Length of a module 80 C.m

2 Width of a module 80 C.m

3 Number of cells in a module 36

4 Total voltage in a module of 36 cells 21.6 V

5 Number of module in a sub system 15

6 Total voltage of a sub system 21.6*15=324V

Fig. 3. Single phase inverter circuit

Simulation results-

Fig. 4. Output waveform of inverter (MATLAB)

Fig. 5. Overall simulation result of model (HOMAR)

International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology (iCATccT) 93

Fig. 6. Optimization result of model on categorized mode (HOMAR)

If the generators are used with rooftop solar system, then

the optimized supply system is required. Optimized supply

system has some requirement i.e. for two hours we need to

switch off the supply of air conditioning system during

working hours and hostel; mess and gym supply must be

disconnected during the Class hours (9:30 Am to 5:30 PM).

Use of electricity according to optimized way will help the

JKLU with the 40% less electricity charge according to the

current data.


In JKLU 33 KV supply comes from the Grid substation.

Electricity bill of the University is very high to reduce the

monthly bill this model will be useful. In India approximate

65% electricity is generated with the help of caloric power

plant. If we see environment point of view then it is very

harmful. If this hybrid model is used then the load on the grid

can be reduced and less amount of carbon is produce as

compare to other system. If everyone will start using this type

of standalone system for personal loads (House, Small industry

and Academic Institution) then this will help a lot in all the

fields related to environment, agriculture, Human health and

Electrical System.

PV-diesel system gives an opportunity for renewable

energy to supply 14% of the energy demand. Wind-diesel

system has ability for reducing the proportion of energy

supplied by diesel genset to 80%. And the PV/wind diesel

system has the highest renewable energy penetration by

supplying 24% of the energy demand. These hybrid system

topologies need higher initial capital cost but it has less total

net present cost as a result of less fuel consumption and higher

efficiency operation for the diesel genset. Reducing fuel

consumption also means less emission from the system as

shown by the PV/wind-diesel system which has the lowest

emission of CO2, PM and NOx.


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