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The Involvement of Internet Marketing And Consumer Buying Behavior-

An Evidence From India

1. Ashima Kapoor

2. Prof Dr Marshal Mukesh Sahni

1. Assistant Professor , Department of Management, Northern India Engineering College Delhi, PhD Scholar Amity Business School, Noida

2. Dean Student Welfare, Professor of Strategy and Marketing, Amity International School Noida.

Abstract

This paper propose the framework of involvement of consumer buying behavior with the ancestor of internet marketing, measured the extent of involvement , related builds and outcome of consumer behavior. The research will firstly determined the factors which are influencing the degree of internet marketing, afterwards it establish the different degree of cluster involvement by measured involvement. Finally the relationship factors which influence the involvement of internet marketing and outcome of consumer buying behavior were analyzed. On the basis of research finding, this paper discusses the recent internet marketing strategies for cluster of degree of involvement.

Keywords:  Internet Marketing Involvement, Consumer Buying Behavior

Introduction

One of the most important features from past few years has been the speed due to which internet market has enlarged and grown up. This fast internet adoption has resulted in a remarkable speed of change in the remarkable speed of change in the marketing area and open a various chances for marketers. All across India and around the world the shopping centers are closing their stores, the one big reason for it, that consumer are using internet for shopping needs.

The internet is primary online marketing tool as it is convenient and easy way to approach the customer. In fact, all the online services firms now offer the internet access as primary service. Now days many applications have came up for smart phones which are easy to access. The customer can send emails; send query, access news, entertainment and business information. There are many social networking sites which connect people around the globe.

As the Internet found its place as an important stream of marketing channel, consumer  critics  regarding the internet marketing strategies as the consumer  worry about information privacy, including issues related to the acquisition and dissemination of consumer data (Rohm and Milne 1998).Thus, though over half of all Americans adults use the internet, approximately only half of the current internet users have purchased product and services online (Sefton 2000).This cause the serious barrier for internet marketers.

The key factor which influence the success of Internet Marketing is depends on the degree of consumer involvement. The more or less involvement of consumer towards product or services is a major causal of online shopping and consumer behavior. Different involvement cluster create different responses. Thus the degree of internet involvement will define the consumer behavior. There is response dimension according to which consumer responds. The dimensions are 1, Search. 2, Information processing. 3, Decision / Persuasion. There are different variable available to judge the user involvement, the variable can be combined into 1, person 2, object / Stimulus. 3, situation categories ( Loudon and Della Bitta 1993 ).

This paper propose the framework of involvement of consumer buying behavior with the ancestor of internet marketing, measured the extent of involvement , related builds and outcome of consumer behavior. The research will firstly determined the factors which are influencing the degree of internet marketing, afterwards it establish the different degree of cluster involvement by measured involvement. Finally the relationship factors which influence the involvement of internet marketing and outcome of consumer behavior were analyzed. On the basis of research finding, this paper discusses the recent internet marketing strategies for cluster of degree of involvement.

Consumer Involvement

Involvement Identification

The consumer purchase / consumption experience is a result of involvement (Bolfing 1988).Rothschild (1984) defined involvement as “an unobservable state of motivation, arousal or interest.”Holbrook and Hirschaman (1982) Abandoning the information processing approach is undesirable, but supplementing and enriching it with an admixtures of the experiential perspective could be extremely fruitful. The involvement does have a significant relationship on the tested outcomes, meaning that involvement leads to consumer responses and that to some extent, it is possible to influence the degree of consumer response ( Kapferer and Laurent 1986 ) Engel et al. (1969) the authors viewed product involvement as a reason for users to share their excitement and pleasure from the purchase. Involvement was also explained as an antecedent for WOM in the sense of ego enhancer, to impress others by their expertise in their field (ibid). Zaichkowsky (1986) The variables proposed to precede involvement may be categorized into three factors. The first factor relates to the characteristics of the person. A person's inherent value system, along with his or her unique experiences, determines whether the person is involved with a particular object. The second factor relates to the physical characteristics of the stimulus. The physical differences might pertain to the differences in type of media (e.g., TV, radio or print), or in content of the communication, or even the variation found in the product classes being advertised. The third factor impacting on the involvement is the varying situation. For example, one may attend to advertisements for Volvos with greater involvement if one is thinking of buying that particular car. However if one is not in the market for a new car, then involvement with car advertisements, in general, might be low.

Involvement measuring methodology

Andrews, Duravasula and Akhter ( 1990 ) gave the concept of involvement measurement scale, one on the basis enduring and  product involvement.Vaughn (1980) has distinguished the product class into product categorization and think/feel dimention.Tyebjee (1979) has used seven based product involvement measures to differentiate product class. The second scales measure on the basis of advertising messages. 1, Attention/processing strategies ( Gardner,Mitchell and Russo 1978, 1985;Gardner 1985; laczniak , Muechling and Grossbart 1989) ,2 Interest/situational involvement (Wright 1973 , 1974;Belk 1982; Clarke and Belk 1978 and 3, Action/process involvement ( Krugman 1966-1967 ; Leigh and Menon 1987 ) .

In Marketing, Involvement has equated with perceived product values (Traylor 1981; Lastovicka and Bonfield 1982) . Zaichkowsky (1985) proposed a bipolar adjective scale, the personal involvement inventory (PII), to understand the concept of involvement in products. The scale compiled with standards for internal reliability, reliability over the time, content reliability, criterion – related validity and construct validity. PII is the best tool for researcher to examine the product categories used as a covariant to other research questions. By using 20 items, the scale allows the researcher to adequate sampling of possible items that represented product involvement to ensure the high level of reliability. This scale used the semantic differential that will consist of bipolar items; each will be measured on seven point rating scale. This concept is easy to administer and score, this will take few minutes to complete and its applicable for wide array of objects (Zaichkowsky 1985 ).Thus, The measuring scale used for this study is PII for internet marketing involvement and to segment the market clusters.

The Framework

This study is based on the relationship construct is shown in figure 1 (Andrews, Durvasula and Akhter 1990).This framework show the 4 ancestor such as Demographic Characterstics, Disintermediation, Brand Loyalty and Co-Branding, which directly deal with shopping decision. The consumer behavior affected because of (a) Purchase Decision (b) Item Purchased (c) amount of money spent (d) volume of purchase and (e) Trade Mode.

Figure 1. Framework

Based on this framework the four ancestors influence the consumer involvement in internet marketing and consumption behavior. These involvement ancestors has important factor related to degree of internet marketing involvement, which has direct and indirect relationship with consumer behavior.

The following hypotheses have been made to find the relationship among the degree of internet marketing involvement, influence variable and consumer buying behavior.

H1: The degree of Internet Marketing Involvement is significantly related with demographic characteristics.

H2: The degree of Internet Marketing Involvement significantly related with disintermediation

H3: The degree of Internet Marketing Involvement significantly related with brand loyalty.

H4: The degree of Internet Marketing Involvement significantly related with Co- branding

H5: Consumer Buying Behavior is significantly related with the degree of Internet Marketing Involvement.

The study

In this research Brand loyalty and Co- Branding is measure using 5 point Likert scale. Consumer buying behavior, Demographics characteristics and disintermediation were assessed using a nominal scale.

Data Collection

The primary data were collected for this research, 640 internet users were selected by quota sampling throughout Delhi and NCR. After rejected the 40 unusable responses, this research collected a sample of 600 respondents for an effective response yield of 98 %.The gender was almost equally balanced (43% male,56% female).Respondent occupation included professors,students,business professional laborers and service workers. Educational level includes junior high school to post-graduate degrees. The monthly gross income ranged from under 30,000 to 180,000 INR of 600 respondent, 15 % are married rest either never married or divorced.

The first purpose of this study to examine the personal involvement in internet marketing. The PII ranged with various 20 items from low of 30 to a high of 150.The respondent are divided into three involvement degree cluster group in quartile. The results were distributed into three categories i.e. low, medium and high. Though some result was similar due to which the sample respondent were not divided equally into quartile. The result was 140 (23.33%), 260 (43.33%) and 200 (33.33%) for low, intermediate and high score respectively. Overall distribution is shown in table 1.

Result Analysis

This study firstly analyses the influence of ancestor of internet marketing involvement. By the Chi-Square test, this research found that degree of internet marketing involvement is related with three items of the demographic characteristics i.e. Education, Occupation and Income. This result support H1.Most of the member of low involvement degree cluster had low level of education, were laborer or service worker and in middle level of income. Most of the intermediate involvements were students with low level on income. The high levels of involvement were the students and business professional with high level of income among the three clusters (Table 2).

The second Disintermediation data was submitted for the principal component of factor analyses with varimax rotation. using an eigenvalue greater than one selection criterion. The analysis identified 3 disintermediation factors, this study identified the three factor of disintermediation i.e (1) Distribution, (2) Distribution Center, (3) Availability (Shown in Table.3).Using the variance, this study found that the degree of involvement of internet marketing is related to three factors of disintermediation. So we support H2.

Third , this research will identified the three factors of Brand Loyalty i.e. Brand Name , Brand Mark, Brand Image. These three factors accounted for 51% of the variance. The cronbach’s for all three factor are more than 0.53. (See Table 5 ).Through variance analyses the study found that the three factor of Brand loyalty is related with internet marketing involvement. The finding provides the partial support to H3.

The fourth category of online shopping is Co-Branding, i.e.  A Branding strategy where a marketer with its own brand seek to partner with an established brand owned by another organization in hopes the synergy of the two brands is even more powerful than the single brand. So accordingly the various factors are online location, online frequency and website .Online shopping measured by number of shopping in the month. The result say that more than half of the member of high involvement to the shopping 4 to 8 times in a month , rest other half of the involvement degree cluster do the shopping ones or not in a month. So the finding support H4

According to above result the study was able to identify the influence factor of internet marketing involvement .This include three items of Demographic Characteristics, three items of Disintermediation , three items of Brand loyalty and three items of Co-Branding. These factor are ancestor that influence the consumer degree of internet involvement.

Finally the study used Chi-Square test to identify the correlation of internet marketing involvement to consumer buying behavior. The study found seven different items that are different from the internet marketing involvement cluster. The finding indicates that consumer buying behavior is significantly related with internet marketing involvement and support H5.

The seven items were grouped together into five groups, The first category, purchase decision it include the two items (1) online shopping rate (2) reason for not do online shopping. The high rate of online shopping involvement cluster recorded the high rate of online purchase and low involvement degree cluster have the lowest online purchase rate. The basic reasons for not to purchase from online shopping is high delivery charges and late / unsafe delivery.

The second category is purchase from online, Most of the low involvement cluster do not purchase items such as books and grocery but the high involvement people purchase the product products in after comparing the available product in the market.

The third category, the money they spend in online shopping, the high involvement degree cluster spend more money in online shopping then the intermediate and low degree of cluster.

The fourth category, the purchase frequency per month, the research revealed that half of the high involvement degree cluster does shopping 2 to 8 times a month. Rest of the involvement degree that is intermediate and low involvement degree cluster do the shopping less than 2 times or not doing shopping in a month.

The fifth category is mode of payment the consumer pay, all most all the consumer pay equally by three mode such as online payment, credit card , debit card and cash on delivery (COD),31.11%,33.23%,15% and 20.66% respectively.

In the rest of the category such as purchase product categories and service purchase, The customer pay attention to see the promotional activity and many of them take purchase decision because they are influenced by WOM (word of mouth), reason is that consumer listen to their family/friends first and then they do trust on any of the product or services.

Marketing Implication

According to above result the study was able to identify the influence factor of internet marketing involvement .This include three items of Demographic Characteristics, three items of Disintermediation , three items of Brand loyalty and three items of Co-Branding. These factors are ancestors that influence the consumer degree of internet involvement. This relationship items revealed the influencing factor of internet marketing involvement degree and their relationship with consumer buying behavior. This study found that there is a direct and indirect relationship of internet marketing ancestors with the consumer buying behavior. the result were presented by purchase decision , items purchased , money spent , purchase volume and mode of payment.

An internet marketing manager can made the strategies accordingly the study result. The manager should focus on the three important aspects of internet involvement of consumer i.e. the market segmentation, such as student, business professionals, service workers/ laborer etc. The second aspect should be demographics characteristics such as income, education and occupation. The last not least which the most powerful strategies opted by the manager should be the customer satisfaction. By the satisfying the customer’s needs the internet marketing manager can raise the purchase rate of the online shopping. By offering good products at the good rate by easy mode of payment, by taking care that there should not be the damage of product during the delivery and on time delivery, these strategies can increase the frequency of online shopping and help the organization to grow in the market.

Conclusion

There are several articles on customer involvement in product and services. But there are few articles on customer involvement on internet marketing. This paper suggests the framework for connecting the ancestor of internet marketing involvement and outcome related to consumer buying behavior. Firstly this study found the internet marketing involvement degree with correlated with the consumer buying behavior.

The ancestor of demographic characteristics, Disintermediation, Brand loyalty and Co- Branding affected the degree of consumer involvement. These influencing factors affected directly to the consumer behavior.

This study tries to identify all the factors which influence the consumer behavior towards the internet marketing. Such research helps to contribute the aspects and knowledge of internet marketing in the field and help in better understanding in internet marketing consumer involvement. In future more researcher can do research on this topic with more factor and variables with the better results so that we can have better understanding in the internet competitive world.

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