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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Moveable barriers are permanently in  use in cities like Auckland, Montreal, Pennsylvania, the New York metropolitan area , Boston, Massachusetts; Washington D.C. and many of the highly developed nations.[6]

The idea was proposed first around 1990’s to create a zipper or a transfer and travel machine that would engulf the divider or the barrier and would change the lanes during the peak hours of the days .The figure 1 could properly explain how that zipper was thought to be executed.[1]

In [1]  during the rush hours of traffic congestion what was proposed was that a heavy S-shaped or T-shaped zipper lifts the barrier from off the road  and transfers them  to the other side of the lane, reallocating  to accommodate increased traffic for the current  direction. These barriers linked together create a sturdy but flexible barrier. Again the same process is retrieved back during the evening rush [4].

The entire process is tiresome and has several cons as well. Some of the cons can be listed as:

i. When the barrier is moved by the zipper machine then the lanes are changed hence connecting lanes also get disrupted leading to confusion;

ii. Entirely considered then a lot of energy both in terms of fuel and man power are wasted;

iii. Sudden stopping of the zipper may lead to accidents and critical emergency conditions to arise;

iv. Proper caring of each part of the zipper should be taken care off to prevent wear and tear of the parts.[5]

The initially devised method could be implemented in both:

 Temporary application: Temporary applications of moveable barrier technology generally result from a need to undertake maintenance work on busy highways while:

• ensuring the safety of motorists and construction  personnel;

• minimizing the impact of construction-related disruption ;

• Promoting quick and efficient working practices in confined region.

One advantage of a moveable barrier is that it allows active work area to be expanded or reshaped.

 Permanent application: During the end of 2000, the author of [1] conducted a rigorous survey and concluded that the dividers should move twice a day during week days.[1]

After learning about the zipper moved divider we can try something which would super-power all concepts of the zipper into something new and innovative; hence the new concept is the proposed work.

After identifying few of the cons in the existing scheme the proposed idea could be implemented. The basic explanation found in the research work by Robert Brain added a cherry on the cake for the discussed technique. Keeping it as base foundation the new idea has been built on it.

The discussed scheme is considered as being completely automatic and would not require any zipper to move the concrete divider blocks.

Now considering the cons of [1] method we can see that our proposed method is successful in some parts. The proposed part uses a processor (UNO) and RFID tag to enable the divider block to move and then the proximity sensors placed below the divider enables the divider to demarcate its threshold position. The similar technique is carried on at the end of the lane. This would reduce loss of accidents.

The usage of the proposed scheme according to the idea devised should also take care of the traffic laws management as well. Traffic management is the term used to describe a wide range of practices undertaken to manage traffic, which includes activities like arranging and slowing down. As discussed in [7] increase in levels of congestion on roads, there could be two approaches to solve this problem

 First and most obvious solution is to come up with infrastructure like wider roads, flyovers, bypasses and expressways;

 Second approach is to manage existing traffic, with the use of proposed method,

The first solution is not much feasible because it would cause lot of harassment to the general people as well lots of construction and is expensive .It can’t be applied in highly populated regions.

The moveable traffic divider is inspired by the moveable zipper method .The originally existing system discusses on moving the divider manually. It shows the implementation of how a vehicular arrangement is made named zipper and time to time it is being driven by drivers to increase the lane size.

  The proposed method is totally based on automation .No manual driver is needed .Combinations of motors, sensor, processor, RF tags the divider would be made to move in either directions as and when needed by the emergency vehicles.

As the title suggests it is all about moving a stationary divider to enable easy movement of emergency vehicles in traffic stuffed road; using various types of sensors leading to an extensive implementation of vivid sensor application. The main purpose of this module is that to control the traffic and make the emergency vehicles reach destination as fast as possible. Many-a-times it has been seen that a burglary took place, the thieves left the place but the police couldn’t reach because of traffic; ambulances carrying critical conditioned patient couldn’t reach the hospital in time because of the devastating traffic. Thus an implementation of this project in cities with high traffic can save many people in their time of despair by forwarding help in proper time. Its implementation can be easily done in foreign scenarios but in Indian scenario it is difficult for now but not impossible if tried properly and also if people support.

  A simple application of sensors, RF modules, servo motors (large scale) or dc motor (small scale) would create a moveable traffic divider. A divider generally divides lanes into two paths where one path is used for going in one direction while the other path is used for going in the other direction. So when any traffic jam arises it will be of great help if the divider can move in any of the either direction so that the emergency vehicles can pass in the jam.

This entire project work is about creating a movable traffic divider. The traffic divider will have pulley fitted underneath during construction and whenever any emergency vehicle sends the signal through RF module for passing the lane the motor will be gradually making the entire divider move hence enlarging the path for the vehicle to pass by.

The following architectural diagram enables us to understand the entire proposed model. It gives a sufficient answer to all questions generally arising in users’ minds:

How to place the sensor?

To how much extent the divider should be allowed to move?

How to place the motors in sequence with the sensors so that they work appropriately.

Moreover it also gives a pictorial view as to the way the actual model will look like after implementing.

The figure 4 shows the flowchart of how the entire hardware module will work. The flowchart depicts the individual actions of the components of the hardware in the successful execution of the scheme proposed.

From the figure 5 it is clear how the RF tag will be functioning. It has one receiver and one sender between which the data is dissipated and then from the receiver the input is passed on to the UNO board for further processing. In the model receiver is the pins of the RFID that helped to send the input to the input pins of the UNO while the sender is the RF tag used in the emergency vehicle.

From the figure 7 we get a clear vision of how the data in the DC motor will be flowing for the proper movement. A proper synchronization is to be maintained between the sensor and the motor so that as soon as any emergency vehicle is detected ; it will automatically make the motor take the analog input and make itself rotate under-ground so that divider can move on the top of the surface at the correct time.

UML stands for Unified Modelling Language which is used in object oriented representation of the data .It can be used to represent an application structure. The figure 8 gives the in-depth knowledge of the UM diagram for the proposed design of hardware. Though it is hardware yet it has its UML diagram that depicts the various objects and how these objects are connected to the main class of the system.

UNO programming uses C language so each object is self-sufficient in itself and is connected in the main methods for execution. In the figure the arrowed lines represent the dependency of the components with their subordinate components and the non-arrowed marks represent the connection and dependency of all the components on its main component through which the output is depicted.

The process of reviewing and examining the stakeholder’s needs to come to a definition of the problem paradigm and system requirements is called system analysis.

 Objectives

• Determine the boundaries of the new system

• how it should interrelate with its situation within the new problem domain,

• Detection to   resolve skirmishes between provisions,

• Discuss the priorities that stakeholders’ need ,

• Elaborate the requirements as defined in the requirement  document so that managers are able to give an accurate project guesstimates while developers can design, implement, and test accordingly,

• Sorting of the requirements in proper manner and then fulfilling those accordingly while the system construction is under process is a key objective of system analysis

There are basically two types of requirements that are always kept in mind while making any software or hardware implementation .They are:

• Functional requirement

• Non-functional requirement.

The below table gives a simple description of the basic requirements that the proposed system would require in order to function properly.

1. The RFID should be able to read the correct master cards as per stored data It is scanning the data of the master card and is properly checking it from the given ID so that following process can be carried out correctly.

2. The proximity sensor that are used under divider should be properly sensing the divider when it reaches the threshold position Yes the proximity sensors are reading data very efficiently; their range needs to be decreased to little more extent

3. The master card chip information should be pre-fed to the software programming so that the time complexity during matching the cards data can be reduced efficiently Master card scanning properly by RFID reader.

4. Two PWM pins of the UNO should be kept free for connection with the motors while the rest can be used for the RFID connections and proximity sensor connections. PWM can only send and receive analog data and so is necessary for the usage with motors that use analog write commands.

5. Properly attaching the inputs of the sensors for the gates being used in IC7432(or gate) Sensor input follows the truth table of OR gates.

1. The system should have an optimal operating range of around 200-250 meters Operating range is still being worked upon

2. The system should be able to reset itself easily as soon as the emergency vehicle passes off and an ordinary vehicle is about to arrive it should not affect its working with the ordinary vehicles arrival. Resetting is been working upon.

3. The battery-life (small module basis) should be maximized and also market value should be kept in mind as it is a prototype. All-ready inbuilt in the module and also quite cost efficient.

4. The RFIDs and proximity sensor polling should be done very carefully and they should be synchronized with each other. Working correctly

.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:

The services a system should provide, the way the system should react to particular inputs and how it should behave in particular situations; all these are answered under this requirement. Also may state at times what the system should not do. It provides answer to these described questions as well:

 Describe functionality or services.

 Depend on the type of software, expected users and where the software is used.

 Functional user requirements are high-level statements of what the system should do.

 Functional system requirements describes the system services in detail.

4.2.1.1 Product Perspective:

As it is a hardware based prototype so it can implemented on large scale as well. The main perspective of the product is to enable the emergency vehicles to move to their destination in correct time so that sever losses are not incurred.

4.2.1.2 Product features:

The proposed models comprises of a hardcore ARDUINO processor, a RFID, couple of proximity sensors and minor electrical components like capacitors, resistors, OR gates etc. One of the basic most important feature is that whenever any RF-ID tagged vehicle arrives it will check in the database to see if that RFID is available or not and then make the motors rotate so that divider moves till it threshold is reached. Another remarkable feature is the action of proximity sensor which senses the divider on it and stops it from further rotating .This second feature is completely analog in nature. The entire system will be an automatic scenario without any manual help in moving the divider.

4.2.1.3 User Requirements:

Statements in natural language plus diagrams of the services the system provides and its operational constraints. The proper catalogue of the entire system should be very well distributed to each and every citizen so that they may be aware of the entire new scenario that has been implemented on the streets .Moreover it is a socialistic project so its success is the sole responsibility of the cooperation of entire public as well as the government administration.

4.2.1.4. Assumptions and dependencies:

For the implementation of the code we have taken assumption that the thickness of the divider is comparatively less; The other vehicles apart from emergency vehicles should be attentive in the road while stuck in a jam so that emergency vehicle is arriving they can move to certain distance and create space for the vehicle to pass-by along with the divider space being created. One more condition to be kept in mind that is when the divider moves the other side lane vehicles should also be attentive such that the divider can reach up-to its threshold without harming anyone.

4.2.1.5 Domain Requirements:

It specifies the domain in which the system will be working .The proposed system should be assured by safety measures according to the road safety standards designed by the government. If it passes all the necessities it can be implemented. Several side ideas should also be taken care-off like the speed of the divider moving, the speed of emergency vehicle, the nearby other vehicles and most importantly the condition of the road i.e. there should-not be any pot-holes in the roads.

4.2.2 NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:

Constraints on the services offered by the system such as time constraints, development constraint, standards constraints, etc. are also to be kept in mind. These lead to the non-functional requirement of any system.

Often the following are applied to any system as a whole feature:

 These define properties and constraints like reliability, response time requirements. Constraints are I/O device capability, system representations, etc.

 Process requirements may also be specified mandating a particular IDE,

Non-functional requirements may be more critical than functional requirements. If these are not met, the system may be useless.Non-functional requirements may affect the overall architecture of a system rather than the individual components.

 For example, to ensure that performance requirements are met, one may have to organize the system in such a way that it minimizes communication between components.

A single non-functional requirement, if not followed, may generate a number of related functional requirements not followed as per requirements.

 It may also generate requirements that restrict existing requirements.

4.2.2.1 PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS:

Requirements which specify that the delivered product must behave in a particular way e.g. execution speed, reliability, etc.

4.2.2.1.1 EFFICIENCY:

The model on implementation will be efficient only if it receives the support from citizens who would be on road during that time of traffic jam. The system is highly efficient in foreign road and in the space of time it would be possible to implement it in Indian scenario.

4.2.2.1.2 RELIABILITY:

The system is reliable but again as known for no machinery can be fully trusted as no machine can be 100% efficient and reliable. Problems might arise like proximity sensor can get worn out due to its non-replacement; or even fraudulent RF-ID tagged vehicles can pass creating chaos on the street. It should be carefully implemented and under high security.

4.2.2.1.3 PORTABILITY:

It cannot be carried from place to another. It has to be constructed where it has to be fixed i.e. on which part of the lane the divider would be placed.

4.2.2.1.4 USABILITY:

Yes it is very useful especially now when we have seen such an exotic population explosion in every region on earth. With increase in headcount even the cars and other vehicles increase causing traffic jam .So in such a scenario this is obviously needed and should be properly implemented.

4.2.3 ENGINEERING STANDARDS:

• ECONOMIC: The proposed scheme is designed to be applicable on new roads being constructed so that the entire set-up can be made cost-effectively and can be tested at the same time. In the old roads it would be expensive to demolish the already present divider and re-implement it again. The components used in the making of the prototype are comparatively easily found and are cost effective as well.

• ENVIRONMENTAL: Recently environment has become a serious matter of discussion .Degradation of the nature has been taking place at a continuous rate and so for implementing any particular scheme its EIA(Environment Impact Assessment) report should be checked. As per the proposed scheme is considered its EIA report says it is 100% pollution free and causes no harm to the environment. Using noiseless motors would enable reduction in noise-pollution as well. Altogether it doesn’t create any catastrophic challenge to the nature.

• SOCIAL: The proposed scheme is a communistic idea; which means that the scheme is for the community welfare and so it has a wide range of social impact on the community. Human feeling like humanity and helpfulness should be arouses when the above scenario should be implemented. The might need to move their vehicles’ few distances so to create a little extra space along with the moving divider for emergency vehicle to pass by peacefully .They should understand the necessity of the emergency vehicles which might be going to some crime scenario or taking any critical patience to hospital.

• POLITICAL: Political issues is something which can’t be averted because one can find its sneak-peak in every field. In India we have so many different political parties and to implement any scheme it is necessary to get the trust and support of maximum parties. The proposed idea to be successfully implemented should be passed through the consideration of all political issues and then be implemented with the equal consent of everyone.

• ETHICAL: In today’s world lack of ethics and values amongst people have led to many in-human acts. Recently we had seen that due to lack of responsibility, ethics amongst engineers a newly made bridge collapsed in Kolkata. So for the proposed scheme help of such people are needed who are ethical and who are responsible that one mistake of theirs’ would take off so many lives. For the systems to be implemented correct and properly tested RF-ID tags and Proximity sensors and motors should be used so that the working and functioning can take place in a proper manner.

• HEALTH AND SAFETY: The proposed scheme if implemented on the large scale should be done with proper safety measures .One should take care of the entire system as to how the divider would be moving and how much space should be asked from other vehicles on the road; moreover the thickness of the divider should also be kept in mind. If properly examined and then implemented it would prove a successful achievement.

• SUSTAINABILITY: The proposed system is sustainable and can be used for long time. It needs to be checked over from time to time so that if any fault arises that can be easily rectified without causing any catastrophic error.

• LEGALITY: The proposed scheme should be implemented under fulfilment of all legalized needs from the law book of India so that no issues arise after its implementation.

• INSPECTABILITY: The device should be properly inspected at regular intervals so that any problem arousing can be solved at the correct time. One should also keep a check on the type of hardware used so that we can save life of people from fraudulent attempts.

4.2.4 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

A System Requirements Specification is a structured collection of information that embodies the requirements of a system. This particular part helps the designer to understand what are the necessary requirements needed for the successful implementation of the model.

4.2.4.1. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

For the successful implementation of the model the following hardware specifications are a must. Before making any hardware structure we should keep in mind whatever articles are used in this should be of good quality and should be easily available so that it can be easily obtained if any emergency scenario arrives during implementation.

4.2.4.1.1 ARDUINO PROCESSOR

Arduino is a software, project, and user community company that designs and manufactures computer open-source hardware, software, microcontroller kits for building and interactive objects that can sense and control any physical devices. The device is built on microcontroller board designs, produced by several vendors, using various microcontrollers. They provide both digital as well as analog I/O pins that can interface to various boards.

Features like serial communication interfaces, Universal Serial Bus (USB) for loading programs from personal computers are found in it. The first Arduino was made in 2005, aiming to provide a low cost, easy way to novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. The diagram below shows the Arduino board that is used in the proposed system and also it shows the various pins present in the device.

The ARDUINO (UNO) is a microcontroller board which has the ATmega328P chip IC for its functioning. It has 14 digital input/output pins from which 6 are PWM output types, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, and a reset button. It gets its power supply from the USB cable connected to the computer system.

Some of the pins have specialized functions that can be listed below:-

• SERIAL: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding ATmega32 chip.

• EXTERNAL INTERRUPTS: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt .They are called upon by the inbuilt function attachInterrupt() for details and needed usage.

• PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.

• SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. These are basically used with RFID sensor because even it has same pins for the implementation and interfacing.

• LED: 13. There is a built-in LED driven by digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off.

• TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. Support TWI communication using the Wire library.

The technical aspects of the device are listed below:

Microcontroller ATmega328P

Operating Voltage 5V

Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V

Input Voltage (limit) 6-20V

Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)

PWM Digital I/O Pins 6

Analog Input Pins 6

DC Current per I/O Pin 20 Ma

DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 Ma

Flash Memory 32 KB

SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328P)

EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328P)

Clock Speed 16 MHz

Length 68.6 mm

Width 53.4 mm

Weight 25 g

TABLE 3: ARDUINO SPECIFICATIONS.[20]

The arduino board gives the power to the entire system in the small scale implementation of the proposed system.

The arduino also has the ATmega328P chip for the memory. It is of 32 KB and also has a 2KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM. The ATmega328P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR architecture. It executes powerful instructions in a single clock cycle; the below diagram gives a broad description of the internal structure of the ATmega328P memory.

RFID is the acronym for Radio-frequency identification which uses electromagnetic fields to identify and track tags attached with objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. The tags can be passive as well as active and both of them perform their functions very differently as discussed further. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID’s interrogating radio waves while on the other hand active tags have a local power source such as a battery that may operate from hundreds of meters distance away off the RFID reader.

The acronym also refers to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna which acts as a receiver and a transmitter. The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less.

For the implementation of the proposed method the RFID used is the MFRC522 model.

The MFRC522 supports contactless communication and uses MIFARE to transfer speed in both directions. The following host interfaces are provided:

• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)

• Serial UART (similar to RS232 with voltage levels dependent on pin voltage supply)

• I2C-bus interface

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