What is Facility Management?
The International Facility Management Association defines facility management as a profession that encompasses several disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process, and technology. The skills of a facility manager can be broken down into two different sections, the hard skills – tasks performed through physical or technological means – and the soft skills – tasks performed through mental intuitiveness.
- Electrical wiring and power distribution
- Plumbing and water-works
- Spatial Planning
- Operation and maintenance of HVAC
- Civil and structural engineering principals
- Customer Relations
- Contractor coordination and support
- Technical Judgment
- Time Management
- Business Continuity
- Financial Awareness
Additional services might also include:
• Move management (churn)
• Utility management • Pace planning
• Meeting room services
• Business risk assessment
• Catering services
• Business continuity planning
• Vehicle fleet management
• Benchmarking • Printing services
• Space management • Postal services
• Contract procurement
• Performance management
• Concierge services
• Information systems
• Reception services
• Health & Safety advice
• Travel booking
• Environmental management etc.
This is only a sample of the long list of possible abilities of the facility manager, and this is because there is a numerous of skills and competencies that come into use as a facility manager. Every aspiring facility manager should have an FM role model. This is because it is important to understand how successful facility managers have moulded and developed their careers. For decades men have especially middle-aged men conquered the facility management field with years upon years of experience with the “hard skills” needed to maintain a facility. Recently, the rising trend has been towards a more diverse maintenance organization with employees exemplifying both the “soft skills” and the “hard skills” necessary to be successful. Well, the facility management field is now seeing a more young pool of potential employees, fresh out-of-college, with most of the “soft skills” already well in hand. Many of these soon-to-be facility managers, unfortunately, do not have enough of the hands on experience required to be a maintenance technician. Fortunately, there is a solution to this gap in abilities that has been around for decades and centuries. Mentoring and training is the key to overcome this gap in abilities. The skilled tradesmen need to advise their inexperienced apprentices of the best practices available for the completion of every employee-intensive craft. In turn, these apprentices should be able to manage their teacher’s time and capabilities and be able to provide other benefits to the company as they struggle to grasp the complexities of building management.
It is never too early for a career tradesman to begin the mentoring and training process. There is a large section of tradesmen in the world today who are approaching the age of retirement and have no capacity for succession because they have nobody that can replace the talents acquired through years of hard work. Choosing an apprentice is a very difficult decision, and although there may not be a clear choice, word of mouth or a simple classified advertisement is likely to stir up the interests of eager career seekers. The more knowledge and ability that is retained within the company, the easier the transition from old to new will be. I feel that many experienced tradesman fear that a youthful employee may overtake his or her position at a future point and decide against the idea of mentoring. In actuality, the mentoring process allows the company room for growth while planning for continuity. Continuity in this business is no simple task, so it must be planned for. The ability to plan for business continuity is something rarely thought of when first organizing a company, however, a successful entrepreneurship will have to develop a continuity plan if it intends to remain in business for decades to come. In the facility maintenance industry this tends to occur through work partnerships – where an experienced employee will pair with an inexperienced employee so that the company workforce can continue to develop. Although planning for the future is very important, what is most important to being a successful facility manager is being flexible. The master facility manager is the “Jack-of-alltrades”, able to make decisions or defer decisions, implement a new system or stick with the old fashioned. The more ably a facility manager can adapt to a situation, the more valuable that person will be. A good facility manager will often be looked to for troubleshooting and advice. This is why progressive education and adaptation to an ever-altering environment is the most important trait for a facility manager. A competent facility manager will be able to harness the majority of the hard and soft skills already named. A successful facility manager just might be the most dynamic, resourceful, knowledgeable professional within an organization. The two most unacknowledged skills that a facility manager needs to exemplify are customer relations and the ability to network. Facility management is customer service for the building and its unknowing occupants. The facility manager must be able to interact with the building’s occupants in order to understand their wants and needs. These may range from menial tasks such as changing a fluorescent bulb or replacing a plumbing fixture to complex jobs such as remodeling an area or upgrading an out-of-date system. Since much of the work done through a facility management firm is outsourcing, that same facility manager then needs to be able to relate the message to a contracting specialist. As easy as this may sound, an inexperienced facility manager will soon find that contracting areas each have their own language, making it a definitive requirement to comprehend electrical, HVAC, and carpentry terminology. A well networked facility manager should have an extensive list of available contractors able to handle any array of jobs that may arise. Contracting a competent facility management service allows the critical operations within the premises to occur without a flaw. A facility management service allows others the ability to focus on the aspects that make them successful without having to bother with the nuisances of continuously maintaining a property. A good management service will continuously seek ways to cut costs through new and improved procedures of operation and technological advances.
In general there are five models for delivering FM services. These are:
In-house FM department
Here the organisation has its own dedicated management team and in-house employees to deliver all Facility Management services. Some specialist services, where there is no expertise in the company, will be outsourced to simple service contracts. These might include areas like escalator and lift maintenance. This is often found in public sector and educational organisations.
Out-tasked service contracts
This is where an organisation has an in-house team of Facility Management(FM) professionals who procure and manage a series of outsourced contracts. There may be a small team of in-house non-management staffs such as maintenance technicians to run high risky operations or maintain vital M&E plant.
Specialist Direct Labour
FM has now grown into one of the biggest industry in its own right and Facility Managers can now gain academic qualifications from a number of leading institutions, Polytechnic University of Hong Kong being a local leading example. Various bodies also provide professional qualifications and support to the industry such as IFMA, the British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM) and the Hong Kong Institute of Facility Management (HKIFM).
In summary FM is a vital element in supporting any organisation in carrying out its core business, whatever that may be, by providing a safe and efficient environment in which to operate. Experts like Synergis are leading the industry in Hong Kong and China by improving FM systems and processes, and developing FM service delivery for the future
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human resources are the assets for every business organisation. So it is very important to manage the human resources properly. In new ventures especially in start-ups human resource activities decide the future of the organisation.
One of the toughest challenges that is faced by most Start up companies these days isn’t getting funded – it’s the Human resource challenges. The Start up companies is facing a lot of challenges, mainly HR challenges nowadays due to globalization, privatization, legal etc. The main aim of the HR manager will be forecasting recruitment needs, identifying the man power requirements, selecting right candidate for the right job. The HR manager sets the strategy for sustaining sustainable competitive advantage to capture the market. If the Start up companies are able to maintain good work culture, and also capable of managing the low attrition rate then organization can lead to further success. There are number of HR challenges as well as opportunities that exist currently in emerging organisations especially in Start up companies, including organizational cost pressures, economic and job changes, talent management and development, technology expansion etc.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Proper HR strategy is integral to the survival of any business, including start-ups, and not having one in place can contribute to the failure of a business within its first year. Before opening the doors for business, being mindful on the HR challenges that could potentially affect on the newfound venture is pre-requisite. Present scenario, coupled with layoffs, talent shortages and rapid shifts in technology, points to increase the challenges for human resources in the startup companies. For the start-ups, attraction and retention is probably more critical. In this new business arena, it is important to get people who are willing to learn new skills and are willing to take risks along the way.
In the review of existing literature, following challenges has been noted in managing the talent among start ups, they are:
Hence the researcher identifies the need to understand the challenges and opportunities prevailed in startup companies.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
It is very important to manage the human resources in every organization. The importance of this study was to explore the perceived changes in managing human resources in startup companies, and how they are perceiving the differences in the organizational climate in order to achieve the organizational goals.
Every organizations are made up of people and function through people, without people no organizations can exist. In the organizations among the various factors of productions such as, money,men,material and machines, human resource is considered as the most important factor. This is because the efficient use of physical resources like land and capital is dependent o how human resource is used in various operations. The human resource is the only factor that does not depreciates with time. Human Resources consist of that group who provides their services for the benefit of the organization.
Human resources remains central to the organizations as dynamic and the best people can build dynamic enterprises. Only efficient workers can change the dreams of the organisation into reality. Through talented people organisation can accomplish its goal. Hence to remain competitive and to survive in the market it is important to train the employees utmost efficiently.
The most crucial and challenging task of the organisation is managing human resources of an organisation. Human resource management can be defined as acquiring the right talent, training and developing them and motivating them in order to objectives of the organisation. The main of this process is to bridge gap between the organisation and its people. The purpose of HRM is to make an individual to deliver his best and to be a supportive arm for the organisation.
According to Edwin B Flippo, “Human Resource Management is the planning, Organising, directing, and controlling, of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance, and separation of human resources to the end that individual , organisational, and social objectives are accomplished” (ASHWATHAPPA, 2012).
Human Resource Management is
• Universal in nature
• Action oriented
• Focused on people Dimension
• Growth Oriented
• Challenging Function
• Supplementary Services
• Multi Disciplinary Function
• Ongoing Process etc
Planning of Human Resources
Human resource planning is the process of balancing the people supply including the present and prospective employee potential job openings in the organisation in a given period of time. This is to ensure the availability of right number of people at the right time at the right place to attain organisational objectives. Human Resource Planning can be also called as Man Power Planning, Personnel Planning or workforce planning.
Inappropriate planning may result in excess recruitment of staffs, rise in expenses regarding direct cost and training cost and also other amenities for employees besides the production cost. Inappropriate recruitment may also results in adverse impact upon the sel-esteem,production, and the efficiency of the employee. These factors highlight the importance of Human Resource Planning.
Nature of Human Resource planning is as follows
• Continuous activity
• Clearly specified objectives
• Assessing the staff requirements
• Maintaining inventory of existing human resources
• Managing supply and demand equation
• Developing positive work environment
• Formulation of policies etc
Human Resource Planning is very important because,
• It serves a talent pool
• Allows easy expansion and diversification
• It helps in budget formulation
• It reduces uncertainties and change
• It controls labour imbalance
• It helps in training and development of employees etc.
Employee selection refers to a process in which individuals are picked- up from a pool of job applications possessing the required knowledge and skills for the job that to be performed in the organisation. While picking up the candidates from a pool of candidates, it is very important to pick the apt employee. Selection is the process of rejecting the unsuitable employees, so as to get the right and appropriate candidates for the organisation.
Importance of selection is
• Selects suitable candidate
• Verifies applicant’s capabilities
• Place right candidate at right job
• Generate information about candidate
• Saves cost etc.
The hiring of employees is one of the crucial employment practices carried out by any organisation. When an employer extends an offer to a prospective employee, the hiring period begins. Hiring is the process of making all the necessary arrangements to prepare the recruit and current employees for a successful working relationship, including processing personnel records.
The objectives of employee hiring for every organisations are as follows.
1. One of the important objectives for hiring employees has to do with job knowledge or functional expertise. Hiring candidates without the required job skills is an exercise in futility because they will eventually leave the organisation will need to terminate them for poor performance.
2. Another objective of hiring is selecting the candidate with a strong work ethic is what every employer seeks.
3. The most difficult hiring objective an encounters is selecting a candidate who is a good fit for the organisation.
All companies face their share of challenges in many ways. One of the main challenges among the them is HR challenge. It is very important to identify, retain, motivate, and develop employees as they are the assets for every business organisations. Identifying the right person for the right job at the right time is not an easy task. It therefore becomes imperative to define what kind of talent is essential for the growth of the business and why it is important .The best talent in the industry should be identified and should provide the best package in order to attract. The best talent in an organisation contribute the best ideas in order to gain competitive advantage and to increase productivity.
So, the first and foremost important challenge of an organisation is HR challenge as they are the pillars of organisational development.
Some of the main HR Challenges faced by the organisations are:
• Identifying the right talent
• Retaining the talents
• Proving the best compensation in the industry
• Building suitable HR polices
Apart from these there are some of the key factors or challenges are,
• Start up human resource recruitment
Recruitment is the process of stimulating the candidates to apply for a job. So the following strategies should be adopted in start ups inorder to reduce the challenges,
Innovation in recruitment
Some new changes should be made in the process of recruitment. More stress should be given to:
• Conceptual understanding
• Mobility outlook and innovative outlook towards work
• Matching of the core skills
• Multiskilling and multi disciplinary skills
The main needs of talents are:
• Career growth
• Self development
• Recognition etc.
The future needs of the talents would be:
• Autonomy & freedom
• Work life balance
• Benefits for family also
Seeming Contradictions in needs of employees:
The coming decade will also see some key contradictions in employees’ expectations from employers, as an increasing quality of life co-exists with heightened uncertainties in the economy.
Employees will need both
1. Entrepreneurship and Job security
2. Well defined roles and variety at work
3. Challenging work and work- life balance
Start-ups are the upcoming entrepreneurial ventures and in the process they face several challenges. Though India is the happening place for finding the best talent in the world, start- up companies find difficult in attracting the talent and retaining them for now and in future. Start-ups are playing significant roles in the growth, development and industrialization of many economies the world over. Globally, technology based start-up companies are registering in higher number than non-high technology based companies because of their growing importance in the new knowledge economy. Since the rate of generation and innovation in knowledge has become very fast, the rate of obsolescence of technology has also become fast and accordingly, the rate of mortality of start-up companies have also gone up. Hence, it is important that suitable strategies are framed for their long term survival. Even in the US only about half of new employer firms survive 4 years or more and bankruptcies occur for nearly 60 per cent of the high-tech start-up companies. However, for the optimum utilisation of technology should be ensured through the proper management of human resources as it is a main challenge especially for start up companies.
10 hot start ups for 2015
Proof of performance
The present study is an assessment of opportunities and challenges in managing human resources at start up companies and was undertaken to identify HR challenges and opportunities faced by Start-up and to suggest remedial measures. The study has recommended measures to make the sub-sector virile and vibrant in order to play a crucial role in economic and technological developments in the country through human resources. This study is an attempt to learn on the major challenges faced by Human Resource function in the start-ups in regard to ‘Talent Management’.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The management problem addressed by this study was that start up companies is facing some opportunities and challenges. With employee creativity being a basic and critical building block for organizational innovation, the focus of this study was to explore the opportunities and challenges faced by start up companies.
More than 600,000 new businesses are launched in India and United States each year, (Dennis, 1999). (Carter, 1996)described successful entrepreneurs as aggressive in starting their businesses, making their business tangible to others, finding the most suitable facilities and forming a legal entity , equipment, getting financial support, , managing their resources, and devoting full time to the business. (Lussier, 1995) found that successful firms always had good resources in terms of managerial advice and financial support as well as having a detailed and developed business plan. (Cooper, 1993)constructed a model of the elements affecting new venture especially start up performance that included the entrepreneur's characteristics including goals, founding process including reasons for start up, initial firm characteristics, and the environment including risks. This research of Cooper led to the conclusion that both the characteristics of the entrepreneur and some skill set should be explored.
Success and failure is not only linked to characteristics of the entrepreneur, however, but also to focus on key strategic factors (Frese, 2002), (Brantjes, 2002); (Parnell, 2000), (Lester, 2000), & (Menefee, 2000). For example, (Miller, 1992)describe a fully developed new firm as one that requires the full time commitment and involvement of one or more individuals, is selling a product or service, has formal financial support and has hired one or more individuals. (Vesper, 1990) Created a new venture idea checklist. His list includes the basic feasibility of the business, competitive advantages of the business, buyer decisions in the venture, marketing of the goods and services, production of the goods and services, staffing decisions in the venture, control of the venture, and financing the venture, development of the venture etc. In (Pratt, 1999) Guide to Venture Capital Sources , they identified that there are seven areas that should be focused to evaluate new ventures, such as marketing and sales; operations; research, development, and engineering; financial management; general management and administration; personnel management; and legal and tax aspects.
In a similar vein, researchers have also concentrated on why firms fail. In an early work by (Levitt, 1960) and a later work by (Hodgetts), they cite lack of objective evaluation of the business venture, no real insight into the market, inadequate understanding of technical requirements, poor financial understanding, lack of business uniqueness, ignorance of legal issues as leading to business failures and improper management of people. (Bruno), (Leidecker), and (Harder) (1987)in analyzing business failures cited the following factors: poor timing, product design problems, inappropriate distribution strategy, unclear business definition, over reliance on one customer, assuming debt too early, venture capital relationship problems, concept of teamwork, customer loyalty problems and human resource problems. (Zacharakis), (Meyer), and (DeCastro, 1999) cited poor external marketing conditions, poor management strategy, lack of management skill etc as the leading causes of business failure.
A number of studies have noted importance of human resource activities in the success or failure of an organisations( (Terpstra) & (Olson)in (1993). Human resource factors are one of the most significant areas for success and development of a company ( (Itami) & (Roehl), (1987); (Castanias) & (Helfat), (1991); (Spender, 1993), 1993; (Lei)& (Hitt, 1995); (Conner) & (Prahalad, 1996). (Cooper), (Gimeno-Gascon), & (Woo, 1994), (Carter e. , 1994) as well as (Nucci, 1999) wrote that business survival and success is linked to human resource as well as the economic factors at the initial start-up stage. In the study ‘The role of human resources in the success of new business, the authors (Menefer), (parnell), (Edpowers), (Ziemnowicz)emphasises on the various causes and trends of business success and failure. The authors are giving the examples of Yugo, Pepsico etc in order to explain the topic in a better way. They also says that the business success have been the widetopics in the entrepreneurship and have addressed the functional areas of business, such as finance,production,marketing and the human resources are identified as critical and in particular experience of management, by affecting the other resources and functions to achieve success. A study of new businesses by (Bamford), (Dean), & (McDougall, 1996) identified acquiring competent human resources was crucial task for a venture's success or failure because HR practices (also called personnel in the literature) influence and may determine if a firm does well in developing its product/service offer. There are some differences between large and small companies, but (Hornsby) and (Kuratko, 1990) found that concern for the most important future human resource issues is not affected by the organisations size. Size and resource capacities make an impact as Hornsby and Kuratko (1990) found that recruiting, motivating, and retaining employees is one of the biggest problems for new ventures. However, (Chandler)& (McEvoy, 2000) point out that there are a small number of studies identifying and validating HR practices in small firms, and even less research focusing on the relationship between strategy, HR management, and the success of small businesses. This study also identified the helpful effects of HR practices. These consists of practices that increased employee skills and motivation, which resulted in improving productivity.
Researchers and practitioners have debated the influence of technology developments on organizational performance ever since the first wave of information technology (IT) investments occurred about three decades ago ( (Dedrick), (Gurbaxani), & (Kraemer, 2003). In the Earlier studies conducted during the 1980s revealed that there is no direct connection between IT investment and productivity (Roach, 1991); (Solow, 1987); (Strassman, 1990). During the mid-1990s, however, more broad studies began to reveal greater links between the utilization of IT and productivity, but not of necessity profitability (Hitt) & (Brynjolfsson, 1996), some of which credited IT investment with the economic boom experienced during the later part of that decade. Nevertheless, the influence of new management practices, shifts in industry structure, as well as investment in human capital that is, knowledge, experience, or skills cannot be discounted as contributing factors (Dewan) & (Kraemer, 2000); (Melville, 2001). In the research paper ‘ (A study on HR challenges in start companies)’, the author (Surywanshi) is trying to focus on the HR challenges and faced by the star up companies and how the manager is finding the solution for those challenges.
The author says that there are a lot of HR challenges exit currently and some of them are, Organisational cost pressure, economic & job changes, talent management and development, technology expansion etc.
In the study ‘Role of Human resources in small and emerging organisations, the author Saveet Kaur is giving the importance to human resources and its management in both small and emerging organisation. The study reviews and focuses the issues that are important to the small organisations for their effective functioning but it is very important to know how the decisions in the department functions and how the decisions in the department effects the organisation in the long run. The authors try to say that the small businesses contribute more to the economy of nations throughout the world than do large organisations. This study concluded that the HRM challenges in small organisations are, Making a staff plan, finding the suitable employees, screening potential candidates, interview and personal interaction, hiring, retaining employees, employee performance appraisal etc. In a recently conducted research, the authors Tim Davaney and Tom stein says that HR challenge is the toughest start up challenge today. The toughest challenge is not getting funded but hiring the best. The new hiring strategies should be adopted to attract high quality people. The researchers also say that the start up must think outside the cubicle with innovative hiring approaches.
The main ideas in which authors focusing are, hiring the best, thinking outside the cubicle, motivating and retaining the star talent. Moreover, researchers such as Cadbury (1987), Henderson (1982), Kuratko and Hodgetts (2003), have also made a strong case for the addition of a key concern related to human resources - ethics and social responsibility - as a factor in the success or failure of a business. This issue has now highlighted because of the cases of top executive lapses in ethics or social responsibility that has resulted in business collapses of historical proportions.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Start-ups are the upcoming entrepreneurial ventures and in the process they face several challenges. Though India is the happening place for finding the best talent in the world, start- up companies find difficult in attracting the talent and retaining them for now and in future. This study is an attempt to learn on the major challenges faced by Human Resource function in the start-ups in regard to ‘Talent Management’.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• To study on opportunities among the start ups for managing their human resources.
• To understand on the challenges faced by start ups in managing their human resources.
• To learn on the talent management system in the company.
• To suggest the start-up companies on the efficient management of Talent
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
It is very important to manage the human resources in every organization. The importance of this study was to explore the perceived changes in managing human resources in startup companies, and how they are perceiving the differences in the organizational climate in order to achieve the organizational goals.
SOURCES OF DATA
• Method of data collection
The study depends on primary and secondary data
Secondary data– Books, Journals, Websites, Reports
The samples will be selected using ‘convenient Sampling Method, hence non probability sampling technique is adopted.
Sample size: 50
• The personal biases of the respondent might have entered into their responds.
• The duration of the study was limited & hence elaborate & comprehensive project survey was not undertaken.
• Small period of time only small sample had to considered which does not actually reflect the accurate picture.
Grihaa9.com is an upcoming service industry with a philanthropist approach.Grihaa9.com provides every service required for each houses.
Grihaa9.com provides integrated management services such as,
Maids, Electricians, Plumbers, Lift maintenance, Carpenter, Painter, Beauticians, Computer services, Home appliances, New broadband connection, New gas connection, Packers and movers, Baby & elderly care, Rental home, House cleaning, Event management, Gardening etc. Some of the key areas which contributes towards attracting talent in organization include:
The professionals of Grihaa9.com are not just techies but also qualified ones with personal touch.
In a developed city like the Grihaa9.comservice industry starts off at every nook & corner and it will be difficult for commoners to decide. But the services and charges are beyond the comparative degree and customers can count on for happiness.
When Grihaa9.com people walk in at the customers door step, customers might invoke query whether he is a crook or substantiate person. The customers can wipe of such queries as we keep tag of the services and complete background check has been done with them before they have become a part with us.
The word “repairs” or renovate itself means bringing back the original glory. So, when Grihaa9.com sends people, they assure that the service be notable and satisfactory. With the services don’t have worry for eternity. Our compatible charge is affordable for all classes of people.
The organization has identified that encouragement, work satisfaction and peoples performance are the factors influencing the quality of the products manufactured the two factures are
1. Human factors
2. physical factors
* All personal are engaged to give suggestion for continual improvement.
* Adequate safety equipment is provided for ensuring safety
The entire physical factor effecting the work environment like, heat, light, ventilation has been identified and maintain carefully.
Recruiting and training process
• Only Peron having required skill experience are employed by organization
• The HOD’S identify training needs of the operation.
• After imparting training evaluation is carried out to assess the effectiveness is the training once in 6 month.
• If needed, retraining is imparted wasted on training evolution all training records are maintained by the training in- charge
Customer satisfaction measurement process
The purpose of this procedure is to determine the requirement of the costumer’s review of the requirement included customer complaint and feedback through effective communication with aim of enhancing customer satisfaction
* To measure customer satisfaction company has introduce customer feedback mechanism
* Company put forward a customer feedback to every customer is the end of season.
* Customer’s complaint is disposed at the instance and subsequently Proposed for corrective and preventive action
• Institutional knowledge
• Good procedure
• Innovative culture
• Work Inefficiencies
• Weak Management
• Cost structure
• Low turnover
• New services
• Optimum utilization of technology
• Geographic diversity
• Shortage of manpower
• Intense competition
• Government regulations
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