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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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The History of 360° Feedback

During the Second World War in 1939, the German military started collecting feedbacks from multiple sources in order to evaluate their performance in the war. Other early companies also started then exploring the use of multi rate feedback during that period of time. In the 1950s, the Esso Research and Company of Engineering was the first to start gathering information about their employees to evaluate their work performance and develop the management behaviour.

From that time, the idea of 360° feedback came out, and by the 1990s most organizations and human resources departments reached to professional levels in understanding the feedback concept. ‎3-

By 1997, the Art and Science of 360° Feedback was published, also known as “multi-rater feedback or multi source assessment.‎2-

Why is it called 360° Feedback?

Every person has a “blind spot”! A blind spot is the area of characteristics that we can’t see about ourselves. In the 1950’s two American psychologists ‘Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham’ came out with the “ JOHARI WINDOW MODEL”‎4-, named 'JOHARI' after combining their first names, Joe and Harry. 4-This model shows the blind spot as the following chart views:

    JOHARI WINDOW MODEL

Usually, information in 360° feedback process is gathered from employees, peers, supervisors, self-evaluation, and external resources such as customers, suppliers and stakeholders. ‎2-

‎1- ‎5-

These report results overall give a perfect view about the blind spot of manager’s performance. They collect feedbacks from all parties involved in the communication circle surrounding them. ‎1- That is why it’s called the 360° feedback, because it prompts feedbacks about a person’s behaviour from whole different points of view. ‎1-

The purpose of 360° Feedback Process:

The 360° Feedback process is important to enable organizations’ managers and work groups to identify there points of strength and weaknesses, take advantage of evaluators’ notes, increase productivity, promote successful planning, take benefit of others opinions and suggestions to make correction actions, improve performance, effectiveness, relationships, and training…. etc. ‎1-

Tools and Instruments of 360° Feedback:

Information can be collected through different instruments:

 Surveys and Questioners.

 Automated customer feedback system: For example, a system sends emails to customers and automatically analyses responses with respect to the speed of replies.

 Personal Emails for specific audiences.

 Tests for Usability.

 Listening socially.

 Interviews to Explore.

 On-Site Activity, what do users tell us without telling us? Managers may monitor the behaviour of how many users did not sign up for their products and discover a weakness or strength on their organizations’ site. ‎4-

Steps of 360° Feedback Process:

The main steps of the 360° feedback are:

1- Determine the feedback’s purpose.

2- Select feedback evaluators.

3- Select the feedback instrument.

4- Collect Feedbacks information.

5- Explore the feedback results.

6- Analysing the results.

7- Reporting and Recommendation.

8- Develop action plans. ‎2-

The Ministry of Education in the UAE:

In February 2011, the Ministry of Education in the UAE started establishing a new mechanism to receive feedbacks about curriculum and textbooks being taught in UAE schools. A semiannual electronic survey was distributed to teachers and supervisors in all of the emirates schools, where the feedback responses must be filled via the website of the Ministry. Another hot-line call center started receiving imperious feedbacks for causal and necessary feedbacks. ‎6-

The Ministry of Education worked for 5 years on collecting feedbacks. They widened the scope of intended audience for feedback information. Teachers, students, parents, economic sectors, cultural, public and private companies, government, higher education, Knowledge and Human Development Authority, Federal Policing sectors, banks and hospitals all were involved in participating to give a feedback about their kids’ education textbooks that were given by the Ministry of Education. ‎5-

On the 1st, May 2016, the Ministry of Education revealed the new version of curriculum development that will be taught to students from the first kindergarten to Grade 12 starting from the next academic year 2016- 2017, stressing that every year there will be a compulsory feedback to achieve sustainable development conditions, build a generation of educated people that have the capabilities, values and skills to meet labor market requirements and improve directions of the Ministry and the wise leadership. ‎5-

Book Resources:

1- THE ART and SCIENCE of 360° FEED BACK – Second Edition. Written By: RICHARD LEPSINGER and ANNOTOINETTE D. LUCIA.

Articles Resources:

2- 8 Steps for Turning 360° Feedback into Results. Written By: Paul Warner.

Image Resources:

1- http://image.slidesharecdn.com/360degreefeedback7382-100124021648-phpapp02/95/360-degree-feedback-4-728.jpg?cb=1264299447

2- http://www.signaltree.org/360DEGREEPAGE.php

3- http://www.custominsight.com/images/360-superman.png

4- http://www.signaltree.org/JOHARIWINDOW.php

5- https://fluidsurveys.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/iStock_000021122048XSmall.jpg

6- http://content.wisestep.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/360-degree-performance-appraisal-pros.jpg

Websites Resources:

1- http://www.signaltree.org/360DEGREEPAGE.php

2- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/360-degree_feedback

3- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/360-degree_feedback#History

4- https://www.helpscout.net/blog/customer-feedback/\\

5- http://www.albayan.ae/across-the-uae/education/2016-05-01-1.2630192

6- http://www.albayan.ae/across-the-uae/education/2011-02-05-1.1240569

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