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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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England is a country in Europe and is a part of the United Kingdom. It is situated south of Scotland and east of Wales, in the British Isles. Northwest of England is the Irish Sea and southwest of England is the Celtic Sea. Although England is physically separated from Europe, it is politically considered as a part of Europe. England's capital city is London and the dominant Religion is

The United Kingdom coloured in light green and England coloured in dark green. Christianity. The main spoken language is English and the regional language is Cornish.

Is England a developed or developing country?

A developed country is a country that has a lot of industrial activity, a highly developed economy, advanced technological infrastructure, and whose people earn very high incomes. A developing country is a country whose standard of living or level of industrial production is well below that possible with financial or technical aid.

Many people have differed opinions as to if England is a developed or developing country, but it has been proven many times that England is in fact a developed country. England is not only an established first world country, but is also the origin of the Industrial Revolution and is the world's first modernised country. Because of this, many inventions, technological advancements and developments have been made in England, virtually meaning that England developed the modern world and its technology. England's government, military, medicine, science, engineering, arts and education are also by far more advanced than many other countries. The United Kingdom, including England, is also considered as the world's fifth largest economy. With these advancements and its highly developed industry, England is a developed country.

What are the main biomes within England and how does it affect food security?

Although England is a habitable first world country, it is not entirely urbanised. The main biome of this country is the forest biome, or more specifically the temperate forest biome, but the grassland biome is also within England. In England, some of the landforms are; low hills, plains, uplands, mountains and rivers.

The United Kingdom coloured in green, in the red circle.

Forests affect food security by providing wild fruits and vegetables, which are a source of micronutrients in many rural communities and contribute to cash income. Forests also provide bushmeat and fuelwood, which are used for subsistence and the generation of incomes. Grasslands affect food security by providing food for the animals such as cows who are used for meat and milk production, and can be used for farming.

Flora and Fauna in England.

England is a very 'green' country. There are more than 50 species of trees and over 900 species of byrophytes(a small flowerless green plant). The main species of trees that inhabit the forests of England

Temperate deciduous trees in England are; Oak, Beech, Pine, Birch, Elm, Ash, Crab Apple, Maple, Poplar and Willow. Some of the most popular English plants are; the Peduclate Oak, Field Rose, St John's Wart and Meadowsweet.

There are many native wild animals from England. England's native mammals are; the European hedgehog, Red Deer, Roe deer, Red Squirrel, Eurasian otter, Polecat and the Hazel dormouse. England's native amphibians are; the Common frog, Common toad, Natterjack toad, Palmate newt, Smooth newt and the Great crested newt. England's native reptiles are; the Common (or viviparous) lizard, Sand lizard, Slow-worm, Adder (or viper), Grass snake and Smooth snake. England's native birds are; Swans, the Sparrow, Tawny Owl and the Robin.

What climate is generally experienced within this country and what are the effects of this climate?

England generally experiences climate called Temperate Maritime climate. This means that the temperature is mild and sometimes reaches lower than 0ºC in winter, but not usually higher than 32ºC in summer. England experiences all four seasons; summer, winter, spring and autumn, like most countries. Although, England

Maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the year in England (C°)

 experiences their seasons on different months than Australia.

England receives heavy, constant rainfall and strong winds. During May, June and July, the average amount of sunshine hours a month is 188.9 hours. During November, December and January, there is not as much sunshine with an average of 55.3 hours of sunshine each month.

The constant rainfall provides farmers with a water supply to farm their crops, and the sun, when it is shining, also provides plants with the energy they need for photosynthesis. Although, since there is not much sunlight during November, December and January, this

Average amount of precipitation throughout the year in England (mm)

 can be a problem for farmers since they will not be able to grow their crops. Strong winds, if too strong, can also blow over trees and tall plants.

The availability, accessibility, and utilisation of food within this country.

Originally, food policies ensured that the national diet contained the correct amounts of energy and essential nutrients. Although this still exists in many countries today, the large amount of food in the United Kingdom means that food is available, accessible and stable for a lot of its population. There are still some groups of the population though

Natural produce area in a Waitrose supermarket that still lack the basic food security. Food security in England is so strong that the last time it was a concern was over 60 years ago during and after World War II. In fact, the cost of living in the United Kingdom is 11.73% lower than in Australia. Some major supermarket chains in England are Aldi, Asda, Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Tesco and Waitrose.

Some factors that affect the availability and accessibility of food in England are; the government, the climate, advances and innovations of the food industry and consumer led changes. England's governments is involved in trades with other countries and the United Kingdom imports 40% of the total food consumed and that number is rising. This means that they rely on imports and exports to help their economy grow and feed their country.

A genetically modified tomato

Changes like genetically modified food, new ingredients, novel foods, changing shopping cultures in the food industry also affect food security in England. Genetically modified food means that food can be modified to be bigger, more flavoursome and longer lasting. New ingredients mean that there is more food on the shelves, more healthier substitutions and more substitutes to cater for people with different eating patterns. The changing shopping patterns means that farms and markets will have to grow, stock and introduce new ingredients that cater and provide access to the people of England and their changing shopping patterns.

Different changes like takeaway food, healthier food, superfoods, restaurants and ethical food policies also mean that a lot of people do not eat certain foods anymore. For example, healthier foods and superfoods are usually eaten more because the idea of having a perfect body and being fit is largely thought in society. Supermarkets and markets need to and do provide the England's people with access

Healthy food on the shelves of a supermarket to the healthy food they need. Takeaway food and restaurants also mean that people do not buy store bought food, but instead buy meals. The average cost of a meal at a cheap restaurant is 12£. Takeaway food gives people access to food, when they do not want to cook, know how to cook or have the resources to cook. Different shops also cater for different cultures, enabling people to have access to whatever food they consume. All these consumer led changes help consumers utilise food to maintain a healthy diet and their eating patterns.

Stability and issues that may arise and affect the food security within this country.

Although England has a very successful agricultural industry, food production and prices for consumers are affected by many factors as seen during 2008 when the price of food increased rapidly.

Even though there are many supermarkets and markets, their farms rely heavily on the absence of threatening diseases such as the bluetongue virus, to preserve their animals health. If the bluetongue virus, which is a disease that affects mostly sheep and it is transmitted by the Culicoides biting midge, is spread to England, it will

A sheep infected by bluetongue disease affect a lot of its flocks, meaning that there will be less meat on the shelves and the price of meat there will increase.

The decline in the populations of insect pollinators is also a problem. If crop fields or a proportion of the English sheep population are affected by the decline of insect pollinators or the spread of bluetongue, exports would be reduced significantly, people would lose their jobs and food would be wasted. Wheat rust can also infect a healthy crop in hours

Crops affected by wheat rust and render it into useless mulch in days. If healthy crops of wheat are rendered useless, the amount of cereals and other grain food produced will decrease and its price will increase.

Climate change is also an issue in the United Kingdom, which may lead to inconsistent harvests. Too much rain and too little rain will negatively affect harvests. Increasing population and consumption amounts also mean that soon there will be not enough food being grown to the number of food being eaten and the demand for more food keeps growing. The food security of England may currently be stable, but because of the many factors and complications involved, the cost of living may rise and England's food security may become unstable.

Strategies or innovative ideas for ensuring food security:

try to reduce the conversion of rural areas into urbanised towns

try to utilise as much land as possible for agriculture

advise people to have gardens full of fresh produce so they rely less on buying them and reduce prices of garden products to aid people to want to grow gardens

create a law restricting people on the amount of food they can buy, to ensure that there is enough food for everyone

create a business that sells farmland so people can buy a piece of the land and choose what they want grown, and the business will grow it for them and send it to them

sell rations at the supermarkets, so they stay in business, where the people go online to choose what they want and the supermarkets allocate them a specific amount of the food, ensuring that there is enough for everyone

or the government/military can be involved and can come to people's houses with the rations instead, although people still have to buy it online

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