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Chapter – 3

Literature review

1 Title : Contact pressure analysis of spur gear using FEA  

• Author :   M. Raja Roy S. Phani kumar,  D.S. Sai Ravi Kiran,  .………et al 2014

Publication : International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.7, Iss.3, pp.27-41 (2014)

In this work an attempt were made to summarize about contact stresses developed in a mating spur gear which has involute  teeth. A pair of spur gears were taken from a lathe machine  and proceeded forward to calculate contact stresses on their teeth. Contact failure in gears is currently predicted by comparing the calculated Hertz contact stress to experimentally determined allowable values for the given material. The method of calculating gear contact stress by Hertz’s equation originally derived for contact between two cylinders. Analytically these contact stresses are calculated for different module, and these results are compared with the results obtained in modeling analysis in ANSYS. As there involves many iterations in calculating contact stresses analytically a simplified approach is made in VISUAL BASIC for different parameters like module, power, speed. Etc. A model of mating spur gears is generated in SOLIDWORKS and this model is imported to ANSYS Package. The imported model is analyzed in ANSYS workbench for calculating contact pressure for different module of spur gear. These results are compared with analytical results and thus conclusions are made on observing the results. A result advises that with increase in module, Contact Pressure decreases for a pair of spur gears. Results help us to give better performance and future scope in the power transmission field.

2 Title : Contact Pressure Evaluation of a Gear Pair along the Line of Action using Finite Element Analysis

Author : Santosh Patil, Saravanan Karuppanan, Azmi Abdul Wahab………………… al 2013


In this paper, the contact pressure for a pair of mating spur gears has been determined by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using ANSYS software. The contact pressure results are then verified by twin-disc experimental results and the Hertzian contact pressure equation. The ANSYS results show the similar trend with the twin-disc test results, indicating that the FEA modelling is successful and provides good result

3 Title : Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair

Author : Ali Raad Hassan………………………………………… al 2009

In this work the author has developed a program to esh gears at different contact angles. This program run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 different cases. In this each case represents a sequence position of contact between two teeth. The program gives graphical results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during revolution.  Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done.  The results were compared with  finite element analysis results.


Authot : Mr. Bharat Gupta, Mr. Abhishek Choubey, Mr. Gautam V. Varde… al 2012

Publication : International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 4, June – 2012

In this work a parametric model of gear system were developed to analyze the contact stress and pitting of the teeth surface by using ansys and result were compared with the analytical result  and author suggest that Based on the result from the contact stress analysis the hardness of the gear tooth profile can be improved to resist pitting failure: phenomena in which small particles are removed from the surface of the tooth that is because of the high contact stresses that are

present between mating teeth. In this work the author found the result that the maximum contact stress decreases with increasing module and it will be higher at the pitch point. As a result, based on this finding if the contact stress minimization is the primary concern and if the large power is to be transmitted then a Spur gear with higher module is preferred.

5 Contact stress analysis of deep groove ball bearing 6210 using hertzian contact theory

Author: Shailendra Pipaniya, Akhilesh Lodwa,………………… al 2014

Publication :  International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science  (July 2014, issue 3 volume 7)   

This paper determines the contact stress between the inner race and ball of Single row Deep groove ball bearing using analytical and finite element analysis. The calculation procedure consists of calculation of maximum contact pressure at different loads and comparison of results with finite element analysis to predict the contact pressure between inner race and ball of Single row Deep groove ball bearing.  This analysis is used to study the failure behavior to increase the service life of ball bearing. The future work of this paper will be the calculation of contact stress using different ball bearing materials and different sizes of beari

6 Title  Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Spur Gear

Author : Vivek Karaveer Ashish Mogrekar and T. Preman Reynold Joseph et al 2013

Publication  International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology  

This paper presents the stress analysis of mating teeth of spur gear to find maximum contact stress in the gear teeth. The results obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are compared with theoretical Hertzian equation values. For the analysis, steel and grey cast iron are used as the materials of spur gear. The spur gears are sketched, modeled and assembled in ANSYS DesignModeler. As Finite Element Method (FEM) is the easy and accurate technique for stress analysis, FEA is done in finite element software ANSYS 14.5. Also deformation for steel and grey cast iron is obtained as efficiency of the gear depends on its deformation. The results show that the difference between maximum contact stresses obtained from Hertz equation and Finite Element Analysis is very less and it is acceptable. The deformation patterns of steel and grey cast iron gears depict that the difference in their deformation is negligible.

7 Title  Comparison of Bending Stresses for Different Face Width of Helical Gear Obtained Using Matlab Simulink with AGMA and ANSYS

Author  : Pushpendra Kumar Mishra,  Dr. M.S. Murthy……………….et al 2013

Publication : International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013

In this the study paper shows that the complex design problem of helical gear requires exelent software skills for simulation  and analysis. The given  problem can be resolved using MATLAB Simulink environment which provides equivalent results to the AGMA and also with ANSYS. In this paper we modelled a helical gear on Pro engineer wildfire 5.0 and stress analysis part is done on ANSYS 12.0. A Simulink model is generated by using curve fitting. The results are compared with both AGMA and FEM procedures


Author : Govind T Sarkar  Yogesh L Yenarka  and Dipak V Bhope

Publication : International journal of mechanical engineering and robotic research

This paper investigates finite element model for monitoring the stresses induced of tooth flank, tooth fillet during meshing of gears. The involute profile of helical gear has been modeled and the simulation is carried out for the bending and contact stresses and the same have been estimated. To estimate bending and contact stresses, 3D models for different helical angle, face width are generated by modeling software and simulation is done by finite element software packages. Analytical method of calculating gear bending stresses uses AGMA bending equation and for contact stress AGMA contact equation are used. It is important to develop appropriate models of contact element and to get equivalent result using Ansys and compare the result with standard AGMA stress.

9 Title : stress Analysis Of Helical Gear By FEM Techniques With Variation In Face Width And Helix Angle

Author : Dr. M. S. Murthy…………………………………………………………….……….et al 2013

Publication : International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

this paper presents a detailed study of different techniques proposed and used by various researchers to optimize and to calculate the stresses involved in the helical gear design. Several three dimensional solid models of gears of different specification have been developed by various researchers for analysis. They then used various analysis tools like Ansys, Computer aided FEM; Pro-e software etc for analysis. In this work various parameters that can affect the gear tooth, i.e. variation in face width, helix angle etc. for the complex design problems is also discussed. After going through the literature it is suggested that Matlab Simulink could be used as one of the tools to effectively solve the problems which are taken up as future work.

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