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PMiddle-East Journal of Scientific Research 24 (6): 1926-1931, 2016

ISSN 1990-9233

© IDOSI Publications, 2016

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2016.24.06.23558

Corresponding Author: M. Rajalakshmi, Department of CSE, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, India.


Advanced Cryptographic Algorithm to Secure the

Sensor Node Data in Wireless Sensor Networks

M. Rajalakshmi, C. Parthasarathy and R.V. Indrajith 12 3

Department of CSE, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, India 1

Department of IT SCSVMV University Kanchipuram, India 2

Department of CSE SKPC Kanchipuram, India 3

Abstract: The wireless sensor networks have grown rapidly in many applications. In some specific applications

like in military, the sensor nodes data must be confidential during the transmission. The purpose of this

research is to develop new advanced cryptographic algorithm to protect the sensor node data in wireless sensor

networks. The sensor nodes are having the resource constraints such as processing speed, the memory size

and power to limit the applicability of existing cryptographic algorithms for WSN. The lifetime of energy

efficiency and battery plays an important role in the life of the network. Providing good security algorithm

consumes more energy used by a node, so it is necessary to minimize the energy consumption of each security

algorithms that are implemented in WSN. It is important one to choose the most energy efficient and appropriate

encryption algorithm for WSNs. In this paper, an advanced encryption algorithm is implemented in order to

achieve the goal of security and resource constraints of wireless sensor networks. It is not only simple

algorithm but also enough security as a good encryption algorithm. The main aim of this research is to design

and analysis of secure and lightweight efficient algorithms for deployment on resource constrained scenarios

to secure the data in wireless sensor networks. This Energy Efficient Cryptographic (EECA) algorithm provides

confidentiality, authenticity and integrity which are the main security services in wireless sensor networks.

Simulation results show that the encryption algorithm proposed to the runtime capability, execution time and

memory capacity is reduced in comparison with the various existing algorithms in WSN.

Key words: Wireless sensor networks Cryptographic algorithms Sensor nodes Security

INTRODUCTION cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different

Symmetric or secret key cryptography, a single or encoding plain text and converts it to non-readable format

only one key is used for both encryption and decryption. called cipher text. Decryption is the process of decoding

Sender uses the key using some set of rules to encrypt cipher text converting it to plain text. There are two types

the plaintext and sends the cipher text to the receiver. of cryptography namely: Symmetric Key Cryptography

The receiver uses the same key or rule set to decrypt the and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. Same key is used

message and recover the plaintext. Secret key both for encryption as well as decryption process in

cryptography is also called symmetric key algorithm. symmetric key cryptography. Whereas in asymmetric key

The distribution of the key is biggest difficulty in this cryptography separate keys are used, one for encryption

approach. Stream cipher or block cipher is the general process and the other for decryption process.

category of Secret key cryptography algorithm. Stream

ciphers operate on a single bit at a time and implement Cryptography Different Goals: Authentication: The

some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is process of proving one’s identity. It identify whether the

constantly changing. A block cipher encrypts one block person is authorized one to access the data.

of data at a time using the same key on each block. In

general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that authorized person

the same cipher text when using the same key in a block only can read the message.

cipher text in a stream cipher. Encryption is the process of

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (6): 1926-1931, 2016


Fig. 1: Encryption and Decryption simple manner and involves all the security issues. It was

Integrity: Received message has not been altered in any key cryptography was more secured; therefore secret

way from the original. key cryptography not fulfills the security issue

Non-Repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender Sonal Sharma [2] proposed a new symmetric key

really sent this message. generation algorithm using sum of subset problem.

Typesof Cryptography: Cryptography is a process which process of protecting information and it protects its

is associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, or availability, privacy and integrity. It increased the

clear text) into cipher text (a process called encryption), strength of the key while keeping the size of the key

then back again (known as decryption). The common optimized. Hence encrypted data was more difficult to

types are Secret Key Cryptography which is also known crack by a brute force technique and overhead of data

as Symmetric Key Cryptography and Public Key encryption was also comparable to existing algorithms. It

Cryptography which is also known as Asymmetric Key could be used for symmetric encryption of data while

Cryptography. maintaining the integrity and security of the data.

Secret Key Cryptography: In secret key cryptography, a cryptography techniques and applications. They

single key is used for both encryption and decryption. reviewed the identity based encryption applications in

The sender uses the key to encrypt the plaintext and the field of various networks as ad- hoc networks. The

sends the cipher text to the receiver. The receiver uses the scheme also used in mobile networks and other wireless

same key to decrypt the message and recover the networks. They also discussed that under what

plaintext. Secret key cryptography schemes are generally parameters identity based cryptography was used with its

categorized as being either stream ciphers or block benefits and limitations. The main limitation was that the

ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or available methods were restricted to fixed output block,

computer word) at a time and implement some form of which was a trace for crackers.

feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly Gerand Murphy et al. [4] worked on hardwarechanging.

A block cipher uses one block of data at a time software implementation of public key cryptography used

using the same key on each block. In general, the same for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Protocols were used

plaintext block will always encrypt to the same cipher text to ensure synchronization of keys between the devices in

when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the a network. These protocols required a significant

same plaintext will encrypt to different cipher text in a communication and suffered from overhead. Using a

stream cipher. hardware/software code sign approach, they had

Public Key Cryptography: Public or asymmetric key Rabin\'s scheme. Their implementation was focused on

cryptography consist of two keys or of key pairs: one efficient architectures which executes the public key

private key and one public key. One is used for algorithms using minimal resources. The limitation of such

encryption and the other for decryption. An important a cryptosystem was that they not provide the guarantee

element to the public key system is that the public and of confidentiality for the session keys.

private keys are related in such a way that only the public

key can be used to encrypt messages and only the

corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them.

Moreover, it is virtually impossible to deduce the private

key if you know the public key.

Literature Review: Ritika Chehal et al. [1] proposed a

cost effective symmetric key cryptographic algorithm for

small amount of data. For a very minimal amount of data

DES, AES and IDES were cost effective therefore these

were not designed for small amount of data. They

proposed an algorithm which was designed in a quite

used for both encryption and decryption but as public


They focused on information security which was the

Darpan Anand et al. [3] explored identity-based

successfully mapped a public key cryptosystem based on

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (6): 1926-1931, 2016


Ashwak M.ML-Abiachi et al. [5] provides a current era. Breach of security and misuse of confidential

competitive study of cryptography techniques over block information that has been intercepted by unauthorized

cipher. Cryptography process seeks to distribute an parties are key problems that information security tries to

estimation of basic cryptographic primitives across a solve. This paper sets out to contribute to the general

number of confluences. It reduces the security body of knowledge in the area of classical cryptography

assumptions on individual nodes, which established a by developing a new hybrid way of encryption of

level of fault-tolerance, opposing to the node alteration. plaintext.

It obtained a high security during the encryption and

decryption process. It was based upon text contents and Hybrid Cryptography: Symmetric key algorithm has a

simplified the key management process. The complexity of disadvantage of key distribution [7] and asymmetric

this block cipher cryptographic model does not allow a algorithm need much computation so the power of the

graph to exchange the data in secured means. sensor is wasted in it [7] and it is not feasible to use as

Jingjing Lan et al. [6] proposed a Random Number power is wasted then sensor will be of no use. Thus the

Generator (RNG) for low power cryptographic algorithm which combines both the algorithm i.e.

applications. It was widely used in cryptographic systems asymmetric and symmetric so the advantages of both the

as the cryptographic keys generator. These keys were algorithm can be utilized in it. A hybrid cryptosystem is a

most important component in the system because the protocol using multiple ciphers of different types

security of the cryptographic system relies entirely on its together, each to it\'s best advantage. One common

quality. They also presented the good statistical quality approach is to generate a random secret key for a

and low energy consumption RNG including a serial-to- symmetric cipher and then encrypt this key via an

parallel shift register, a 32-bit register and a pseudo asymmetric cipher using the recipient\'s public key.

random number generator (PRNG) module which could be The message itself is then encrypted using the symmetric

suitable for low-power, flexible cryptographic cipher and the secret key. Both the encrypted secret key

applications. They also suggested that it could be and the encrypted message are then sent to the recipient.

implemented completely in digital circuit and required no The recipient decrypts the secret key first, using his/her

external components. own private key and then uses that key to decrypt the

Research Objectives: Privacy is one of the key issues Some of the hybrid algorithm like DHA+ECC [8] is used in

addressed by information Security. Through WSN.

cryptographic encryption methods, one can prevent a

third party from understanding transmitted raw data Proposed Algorithm: The proposed algorithm

over unsecured channel during signal transmission. architecture of encryption and decryption method

The cryptographic methods for enhancing the security of mentioned in the Figure 2 and procedure of the algorithm

digital contents have gained high significance in the were as follows:

message. This is basically the approach used in PGP.

Fig. 2: Encryption method

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (6): 1926-1931, 2016


Proposed Key Generation Steps: Perform modulus operation on plain text 2 to get final

Select or create any private key of Size 64 bits. Plain text.

Divide 64 bytes into 4 blocks of 16 bytes likes Block1,

Block2, Block3 and Block4. Decryption 2:

Apply XOR operation between Block1 and Block3. Receiving Cipher text and square matrix n’.

Results will store in new Block13. Arrange encrypted message as n blocks.

Apply XOR operation between Block4 and Calculate with cipher text using square matrix n’ and

Block13.Results will store in new Block413. private key e’.

Apply XOR operation between Block413 and Block2. Perform modulus operation with calculated message.

Results will store in new Block2413. The remainder value is called Plain Text.


Encryption 1:

Compute Cipher text for each block of input data The encryption/decryption algorithm EECA is

Assign integer value to an each block of input value. compared on the basis of execution time of algorithm.

Generate Key 1 and Key 2 from a random generator. Table 1 shows the results of time consumed by the

Multiply the key 1 with the plain text to get Cipher various algorithms [9]. It illustrates the execution time in

text 1. milliseconds taken by each algorithm to encrypt/decrypt

Add the key 2 to the cipher text 1 to get Cipher text 2. the message of various different sizes mentioned in

Perform modulus operation on cipher text 2 to get Table 2 and Figure 4 & 5 below. The graph shows that the

final Cipher text. proposed EECA algorithm takes minimum time to execute

Encryption 2: evaluation of RSA, DES, AES and new proposed EECA

Select n × n square matrix. algorithm are mentioned in Figure 4 and Figure 5.

Select any integer value say e.

Make plain text as blocks according to the n matrix. Implementation: Encryption is the formal name for

And transpose all blocks. scrambling program. The normal data, unscrambled, called

Multiply Plain text with selected square matrix and e plaintext or clear text and transform them so that

value. unintelligible to the outside observer, the transformed

Perform modulus operation with derived message. data is called enciphered text or cipher text. Using

The remainder is the Cipher text. encryption security professional can virtually nullify the

Decryption Method: modification and fabrication. Encryption is clearly

Fig. 3: Decryption method

Decryption 1:

Compute Plain text for each block of input data

Assign integer value to each block of cipher text.

Obtain the Plain text 1 by subtracting the key 1 from

the cipher text.

Find the Inverse of key1. Multiply the inverse key to

the plain text 1 obtained from step 3 to get plain

text 2.


than RSA, DES and AES. The overall performance

value of an interception and the possibilities of effective

addressing the need for confidentially of data [10].

Additionally, it can used to ensure integrity, that the data

cannot be read generally cannot be easily changed in the

meaningful manner. The following figure shows the EECA

Algorithm encryption time and decryption time.

Table 1: Key generation timing of algorithm

Algorithm Key generation time

RSA 6 Sec

DES 12 Sec

AES 8 Sec

Proposed EECA Algorithm 4 Sec

Table 2: Comparison of Data Execution Time

No. of Bits RSA DES AES Proposed EECA Algorithm

50 270 ms 245 ms 250ms 210 ms

75 290 ms 280 ms 275ms 260 ms

100 310 ms 300 ms 305ms 290 ms

200 400ms 395 ms 390ms 350 ms

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (6): 1926-1931, 2016


Fig. 4: EECA Encryption time

Fig. 5: EECA Decryption time

CONCLUSION transmission for all kind of application. The result of

A new security algorithm EECA has been designed encryption and decryption is more efficient than other

for better security. It provides three cryptographic algorithms.

primitives– integrity, confidentiality and authentication.

The encryption and decryption of any data has a secure REFERENCES

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