Essay:

Essay details:

  • Subject area(s): Engineering
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 7th September 2019
  • File format: Text
  • Number of pages: 2

Text preview of this essay:

This page is a preview - download the full version of this essay above.

Quite A Sight

How does color affect a dog\'s eyesight?

Maria Vargas

February 6, 2017

Mrs. Scruggs

American Heritage School ~ BD545293

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to test how dogs see and react to different colors. Knowing all of this information shows how people could make the world a better place for dogs. The hypothesis proved to be wrong as dogs associated the color blue as comforting with the food and were more open to eating and interacting with this color. By analyzing how many times a week dogs went to each colored bowl the researcher was able to identify which colors seem more appealing. By the end of the study it showed that the color blue appeals to dogs more than red or yellow. The researcher met the tried objectives and realized that this information is critical to dog lovers all over the world looking to give their pets a more comfortable environment.

Part A -

  Dogs are mammals that have lived with humans as pets longer than any other animal, for over 10,000 years. Dogs vary greatly in size the smallest being a chihuahua that would be about 5 inches tall. The tallest dogs are the Irish Wolfhound and the Great Dane at about 39 inches. Although physical characteristics vary from breed to breed, all breeds can mate with one another and or to produce offspring. A dog\'s skeleton has an average of 320 bones, but it varies depending on the length of the dog\'s tail. The shape of a dog\'s head skull determines whether they have a long, slender face or a short, broad face. Dogs with long faces have eyes that are nearer to the sides of their heads, so they have a more wide field of vision. A female dog carries her young for about nine weeks before they\'re born. Large breeds can have 6 to 10 puppies at a time while smaller breeds have from 1 to 4 puppies. Puppies cannot see until after about 10 to 15 days after birth, while their ear canals remain sealed for two to three weeks. Most puppies begin walking at about 2 weeks and start walking steadily at around the third week.

Because of experiments done at the University of California at Santa Barbara the human beings currently inhabiting this planet have learned that although their vision is more acute than a dog\'s, dogs can easily tell a blue ball from a red one. In the experiments which were reported by Jay Neitz, Timothy Geist, and Gerald H. Jacobs in Visual Neuroscience dogs looked at three screens with colored light behind them. The scientists trained the dogs to poke the colored screen with the different color with their snout. The three dogs tested easily saw the difference between the white and the two colored slides. But the dogs could not discriminate the colors from greenish - yellow through orange to red. The investigators of this study concluded that dogs have two types of photoreceptors: one responds only to the blue and violet end of the spectrum; the other one responds mostly to reddish colors but can also dimly detect blue.

  Color vision deficiency is the inability to distinguish certain shades of color. Creatures with color vision deficiency can usually see colors, but they have a greater difficulty differentiating between some shades or red or green, or blue and yellow. When they are completely color blind they have a condition called achromatopsia and the can onto see in black and white or in shades of grey. It can affect both eyes if it is inherited and usually one if it is caused by injury or illness. The information gotten from comes is normally sent to the brain through the optic nerve. This is why they can distinguish different shades of color. If the cones don\'t have one or more light-sensitive pigments they won\'t be able to see one or more of the primary colors. Color deficiency is usually inherited by a common recessive gene, but diseases such as Alzheimer\'s disease, Parkinson\'s disease, leukemia, and diabetes can also cause color deficits. Other causes could be medications, aging, or chemical exposure such as fertilizers and styrene. About 8% of Caucasian males are born with color deficiency. Women normally are just carriers of the gene but around .5% of women have color vision deficiency. Inherited color vision deficiency remains the same throughout life and doesn\'t lead to blindness or vision loss. It can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. There is no cure for inherited color deficiency but if it was caused by an injury treating these conditions could improve color vision.

According to Dr. Gerri Duecker, a zoologist at the university of Muenster, West Germany some animals are able to distinguish color but others are practically color-blind. Dr. Gerri Duecker did some tests throughout a couple of weeks with different animals to test her hypothesis that some animals are in fact color blind. During the weeks before the experiment, the zoologist found 25 of every animal species she was testing on to get started. Dr. Duecker found that cats and dogs are colorblind, although the scientists found some evidence have a faint sense of color. The color vision of mice, rats, and rabbits wasn\'t certain but was planning on doing more research around the area. The golden hamster and the opposite are definitely color blind. Horses, sheep, deer, pigs, squirrels, and martens can see some colors but only in some parts of the spectrum. There are also species that can only see reds and greens, such as most monkeys, chimpanzees, and apes. Monkeys resemble man in their capacity to see colors, but the chimpanzee is the most versatile of all. Out of all the information collected from these tests Dr. Gerri Duecker confirmed her hypothesis that some animals are colorblind and some of them aren\'t, as it was stated above.

The endoplasmic reticulum in an animal cell is a continuous network of membrane  tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle, the combination of lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and intracellular calcium. Many of these functions are not distributed throughout the ER but are confined to distinct the sub regions or domains.  The ER has a regenerative capacity that is very important in the control of muscle cell and neurons. It also has a number of stress signaling pathways that activate many cascades that regulate the punish content of dependent chaperones responsible for folding and packaging of secretory proteins. Another function of the ER is to regulate apoptosis by controlling tandem with mitochondria. A ER forms an extensive network of membrane tubules in mammalian cell types that make vitro. The ER microsomes inherent self assembly capacity is enough to support network for areas with geometry of the influence becomes negligible. Antiapoptotic regulators may act by reducing the ebb and flow through the mitochondrial couple, them the presenilins that appear increase the content of the ER lumen make cells more likely to be influenced to apoptosis. The ER functions as an excitable system capable of spreading signals throughout the cell through a process release.

Statement of purpose-

The purpose of this experiment is to see how dogs can see colors and how the colors help the dog unite the food with the color.

Part B - Hypothesis

I don\'t think that the dogs will be able to see the colors enough to differentiate which is which so that they could connect the color with the food.

Independent Variable:

The different colored bowls

Dependent Variable:

The dog\'s eyesight

Part C - Materials & Procedures

Materials:

Different colored bowls

Orange or Red

Green or Blue

Yellow

3-5 different dogs

Dog food

Dog treats

Data table

Adult supervision

SRP notebook

Safety precautions:

Make sure the animals are vaccinated and healthy

The food has to be safe and appropriate for the animal you will be feeding

Make sure the animals are in a safe environment

Procedure:

Before starting, the scientist should make sure all the animals are vaccinated and healthy

Throughout an entire month the scientists will have to care for or feed the dogs they will be testing on

Everyday for a week the scientist will feed the animal in a colored bowl, either red or orange, green or blue, or yellow

And give it to drink in another colored bowl

In the last day of the week the scientist will show the animal the bowls, and note if the animal identifies it with their food or drink because of the color by seeing toward which bowl the dogs advance towards

For the next weeks throughout the month the scientist will repeat numbers 2-4 but with different color bowls and note how the animals connect their food and drink with color.

Dispose of any objects that could harm the animals

Data And Observations

Week 1 - Dog A

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

3

6

5

Week 1 - Dog B

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

4

7

3

Week 1 - Dog C

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

2

4

8

Week 2 - Dog A

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

3

10

1

Week 2 - Dog B

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

4

8

2

Week 2 - Dog C

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

3

9

2

Week 3 - Dog A

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

4

7

3

Week 3 - Dog B

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

6

6

2

Week 3 - Dog C

Yellow Bowl

Blue Bowl

Red Bowl

1

5

8

Data Analysis

The researcher found that the dogs found it easier or more comforting going towards the blue bowls, picking it in favor of the other colored ones. When the red bowls were placed in front of them, most of the dogs pushed it away or didn\'t eat as much. The yellow bowls were not preferred or denied by the dogs - they just found it a completely normal and simple color that made no visible impact on them. When the different colored ones were placed in front of them- all of them with the same food inside of them, the dogs went towards the blue about 75% of the time.

Discussion

This study was proposed to see how dogs see color and how their brain can identify their food with the color of the bowl. By seeing how the dogs saw the colors, dog breeders and pet owners could know about different ways they could make the dogs lives as easy and comfortable as physically possible. For example, say someone was going to adopt a dog. They walked into the pet store and got all red furniture, red dog beds, red food bowls, red blankets, red collars, red toys. That would add up to a lot of money all together, imagine what a disappointment it would be to finally get the dog you\'ve always wanted and where so ready for only to find out the color red made the dog uncomfortable and refused to use it. All the money you would have spent on everything for your dog would have been wasted. Learning about dogs eyesight could save you hundreds of dollars and multiple trips to the local pet store. If this study is properly done in a professional lab with the 50+ animals the statistics could be more exact and help a wider range of people with many different dog breeds. This study could not only help future pet owners, but it could help scientists and or people who study animals and or behavioral and social sciences would have a more refined and knowledgeable input on this situation, which is how dogs react to different colors.

Applications

As for how applicable my experiment can be, people wondering about how their dogs can see the world can conduct this experiment to find the answer to their questions. Another way this experiment could be applicable to today\'s world is that scientists and researchers could conduct a more extensive versions of this or my experiment to learn more about dogs and how their brain connects the food or treats to the color of the bowl or plate they would be eating from.

Limitations

However, there are limitations to this study. For example, the researcher would have to get as close to 50 or more dogs to do a proper experiment, but this would be hard to get to most researchers that don\'t have a lot of time or resources. It could also be a very expensive study considering the amount of animals and food that it would be needed to do my experiment.

Future Studies

Although the researcher tried to make this study as complete and fulfilling as it could be, conducting a professional study would be more extensive and it would have a more correct, trustworthy accountable solution with extensive tests and data to back it up. They could do this experiment with as many different dog breeds to see and be able to test if there is any difference of eyesight depending of the type of dog someone was to have. By creating a more extensive version of this experiment, we could learn more about how dogs and their brains connect the food with the color as well as seeing which colors are more interesting and attention catching to the dog.

References

McGinnis, T. (2017). Dog. In World Book student. Retrieved from

http://www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar162620

H, J. .. (1990, January). See Spot See Blue. Nature, pp. 20-21. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v262/n1/pdf/scientificamerican0190-20.pdf

Color Vision Deficiency. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/color-deficiency?sso=y

\"Science past: from the issue of January 26, 1963.\" Science News 26 Jan, 2013: 4. Science in Context. Web. 19 Oct, 2016, from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/MagazinesDetailsPage/MagazinesDetailsWindow?disableHighlighting=false&displayGroupName=Magazines&currPage=&scanId=&query=&prodId=SCIC&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&mode=view&catId=&limiter=&display-query=&displayGroups=&contentModules=&action=e&sortBy=&documentId=GALE%7CA316458880&windowstate=normal&activityType=&failOverType=&commentary=&source=Bookmark&u=delray3411&jsid=6a416e87aa68ea74ba597c76eafceb88

=, B. (n.d.). Endoplasmic reticulum of animal cells and its organization into structural and functional domains. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0074769601050045

The State Science and Engineering Fair of Florida (2016).

Florida Foundation for Future Scientists, Inc.: Rules and Forms 2016-2017.Goldenrod, FL  

Society for Science and the Public (2016).  

International Rules for Precollege Science Research:Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs 2015-2016. Washington, DC: SSP

The Palm Beach Regional Science and Engineering Fair (2016). Regional Rules for Science Research. Palm Beach County Schools Secondary Science Handbook

( 2016-2017) https://palmbeach.zfairs.com/?f=dec11749-7b71-4964-936c-ac180a9a5b9b

...(download the rest of the essay above)

About this essay:

This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, . Available from:< https://www.essaysauce.com/essays/engineering/2017-2-5-1486326438.php > [Accessed 16.10.19].