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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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In this writing i will speak about the constructive solutions and flight performances for a military aircraft. I will present the desing features like fuselaje, form and type of wings, cockpit and weapons, next I will present flight performance of the best military transport aircraft and the aircraft from Romanian Air Force (top speed, capacity, weight, autonomy, velocity ) and in the final I will tell about the mission of this aircraft and how to use them in different situations.

Aircraft design is essentially a branch of engineering design. Design is primarily an analitycal process which is usually accompanied by drawing.Design contains its own body of knowledge, independent of the science-based analysis tools usually coupled with it.

In general , a design process includes three major operations:analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the process of predicting the performance or behavior of a design candidate.Evaluation is the process of performance calculation and comparing the predicted performance of each feasible design candidate to determinate the deficiencies.Synthesis refers to a combination of two or more entities that togheter form something new.

In general, aircraft design requires the participation of six fundamental disciplines: flight dynamics, aerodynamics, propulsion, aero-structure, management skills and engineering design.The first four items are primary expertise areas of aeronautical engineering.  

From the perspective of synthesis, system design is nominally comprised of conceptual, preliminary and detail design. Conceptual design is the first and most important phase of the system design and development process. It is an early and high level lifecycle activity with potential to establish, commit and otherwise predeterminate the function, form, cost and development schedule of the desired system. An appropriate starting point for design at the conceptual level is the identification of a problem and associated definition of need.

The primary responsibility of conceptual design is the selection of a path forward for the design and development of a preferred system configuration, which ultimately is responsive to the identified customer requirements. A critical first step in the implementation of the SE process is to establish this early foundation, as well as to require the initial planning and development of a spectrum of manufacturing technologies.From an organizational perspective, systems engineering should take the lead in the definition of system requirements from the beginning and address them from a total integrated lifecycle perspective.

The fuselaje is an important aircraft component.The primary function of the fuselaje is to accommodate the payload.Depending upon the aircraft type, desired mission, aircraft configuration and type of payload,  the function of the fuselaje may vary a great deal.Payload is the useful load that the aircraft is intended to carry.Payload doesn’t basically include pilot, crew or fuel. Therefore, it mainly contains passengers, luggage and cargo.

To reduce aircraft drag, a few other major components and systems such as landing gear, engine, fuel system and power transmission system are highly likely to be enclosed by the fuselaje.For have an optimum fuselaje, the priority of each requirement must be specified in order to enable the designer to measure the contribution of each decision and each selection on the total fuselaje effectiveness.For instance, in the case of a subsonic transport aircraft like C-130 Hercules, a nice aerodynamic shape may be sacrificied for easy loading and unloading by means of a readily accessible rear loading door.

The wing need to be considered as the most important aomponent of an aircraft, since a fixed-wing aircraft is not able to fly without it.Since thw wing geometry and its features influence all other aircraft components, we start the detail design process.The primary function of thw wings is to generate sufficient  lift force.However, the wings has to other functions like drag force and nose-down pitching moment.When we want to maximize the lift force , the other two must be minimized.In fact, a wing is considered as a lifting surface where lift is produced due to the pressure difference between the lower abd upper surfaces.We will used the information about mathematical techniques to calculate the pressure distribution over the wing and for determining the flow variables.

The principles and methodologies of systems engineering are followed in the wing design process.Limiting factors in the wing design approach originate from design requirements such as performance , stability and control, cost and flight safety.Major performance requirements include stall speed , maximum speed, take off run, range and endurance.Primary stability and control requirements include lateral-directional static stability, lateral-directional dynamic stability and aircraft controllability during probable wing stall.

The propulsion system need to sustained flight.The contribution of a powerplant to an aircraft is to generate the most influential force in aircraft performance;that is , the propulsive force.

The most important function of the engine  is to generate that propulsive force.This force is necessary to overcome the aircraft drag and provide airspeed for the wing to produce lift force.In a jet engine the thrust is created directly by the engine, while in a prop-driven aircraft the thrust is produced by employing a propeller.

The secondary function of the propulsion system is to provide energy for other systems like hydraulic system, electric system, pressure system, air conditioning system and avionics.At transport aircraft , the power for internal consumption is extracted from the propulsion system.

If the engine is too close to the cabin or the engine isolation system is not efficient enough the passenger comfort will be degraded.

The Wright brothers made the first powered flight, but nowadays various type of engines are designed, manufactured and employed in aircraft and is classified into three major categories: air-breathing engines, non-air-breathing engines or rocket engine and unconventional engine (man powered engine, sun powered engine, electrically powered engine).

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