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Abstract

   Heads up Display Car navigator app is the augmented-reality app that project driving direction onto the windshield for driving in low visibility conditions, especially during the night, in fog, snow or heavy rain. The origin of the name starts from a driver being able to view information with the head positioned up and looking upward, instead of angled down looking at lower instrument. A HUD is also having the advantage that the driver\'s eyes do not need to refocus to view the outside after looking at the optically nearer instruments. Heads up Display Car navigator app provides turn by turn directions and works off Google, Apple or any other Open Street maps.

Distracted driving has become a real problem and Heads up Display Car navigator app has come up with a way to address it. Navigation systems available today are still proving to be unsafe, diverting driver attention and focus away from the most important task in driving – to keep eyes on the road. Now a days navigation systems require that drivers read and interpret data and/or listen to audio commands which has been shown to take an average time of 7 seconds for a typical adult driver. Not surprising, it is 4 seconds more than what is considered as “safe-time” by various safety studies.

Heads-up display (HUD) based navigation technology has fastly become safer and more effective road guidance method. HUD navigation keeps driver visual attention on the road while being guided. It also eliminates audio distraction, which can force a driver to shift attention from paying attention to visual clues than simply listening to directions and back, a proven distraction factor. HUD-based system can be much more intuitive in delivering navigational information than the traditional navigation displaying system while keeping the driver safe.

We made a universal vehicle navigation app that turns your smartphone into a Head-Up Display bringing comfort and safety to drivers all over the world. We did it because we’re tired of waiting for others to implement this system. Because we believe that automotive HUD are safer than an instrument-panel display or a smartphone. And because other solutions are either costly, or stuck in the stage of a long and complicated development process. This is the application we want. It\'s simple and affordable and easy to use. Discover a new way of using your phone while driving and not being distracted.

Index Terms: Car Navigator, Heads up Display, Simple, Distraction free.

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1. Introduction

There are 600 million people in the world who get behind the wheel of a car every day. Researches says, approximately 77% of them get distracted while driving — it could be just drinking coffee, talking to a co-passenger, reaching for the phone in compartment, changing a song on radio, and so on..  But the worst and most frequent distraction is our phone. We are always on the phone doing unnecessary task. We talk, read, type, tweet, check, post, upload, click and search... share pictures. We even do video conference calls while driving or watching an episode or song on YouTube while driving!

This is especially dangerous when driving in low visibility situation such as rain, fog, snow or just darkness... we are nearly driving blind and trying to multitask with checking directions on our smart phones. That is when bad things happen. Indeed, based on official reports, 22% of all auto accidents happen because of a driver multitasking and/or low visibility conditions — that is 750 deaths a day worldwide.

2. Existing System

The main problem is google map app or any other competitor is that it doesn’t show clearly indication for turn it more focus on map insist of indication for turn. The main information which is actually useful to the driver is limited to just 30% of the screen on the smartphone which results increase of distraction as the drivers needs to see the small indication and places closely instead of focusing on the road. It may confuse the user for taking correct turn.

3. Proposed System

We build the project based on the assumption that users use their Android phones in the environment with wireless network and having the ability of getting GPS and data. GPS will be used for automatic localization since android phones are usually equipped with GPS. Map Activity in red is the core and the start of application. Map Activity imports Google Map as the map, and retrieves information of POIs from remote Server. Map Activity calls Map Overlay to add POIs mark to Google Map.

Google Map is chosen as the map of navigation guide, as consider it is easy to be implemented on the platform of Android. Both Android and Google Map are released by Google. And we can provide navigation maps not only for a specific navigation but also almost all the cities in the world since Google Map show map of the whole world. Therefore, we can provide the service of navigation guide for many cities only if there is relevant database containing the information of points of interest in cities.

We have built a project which projects direction on windshield of the car enabling user easy simple and hassle less navigation ensuring proper navigation with minimal user interface and controls hence less distraction of driver. In this system we have changed the traditional navigation displaying technique with elegant displaying mechanism. In traditional navigation system they show the entire map around the user which is rarely in use. This system shows the major navigation sign’s in 3-5 % of the screen which is difficult for the user the look for while driving and which is actually important. The user has to stress eyes which distracts the user for few seconds in search of navigational signs where this few seconds plays important role while driving has the user cannot afford to lose them. This problem is overcome using Heads up display technique where the important navigational signs are displayed around 30-50 % of the screen, so that the user has easy understanding of the turns to take which requires less time for looking for the signs.

4. Algorithm

Following are the algorithms used:-

1. Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm:

Dijkstra\'s algorithm is an algorithm for finding the shortest paths between nodes in a graph, which may represent, for example, road networks. For a given source node in the graph, the algorithm finds the shortest path between that node and every other. It can also be used for finding the shortest paths from a single node to a single destination node by stopping the algorithm once the shortest path to the destination node has been determined. For example, if the nodes of the graph represent cities and edge path costs represent driving distances between pairs of cities connected by a direct road, Dijkstra\'s algorithm can be used to find the shortest route between one city and all other cities. As a result, the shortest path algorithm is widely used in network routing protocols

2. To Find speed of Vehicle using Gps.

To find the speed of the vehicle gps is used. To find the speed of the vehicle a basic physics formula is used i.e. speed = distance / time. Here the distance is taken from the latest two gps location in the form of longitude and latitude. Using the above formula the speed is calculated. As the earth is elliptical the formula stands partially correct.

5. Mathematical Model

5.1 Dijkstra Algorithm to find Shortest path

Step 1:

Mark Vertex 1 as the source vertex. Assign a cost zero to Vertex 1 and (infinite to all other vertices).

Step 2:

For each of the unvisited neighbours (Vertex 2, Vertex 3 and Vertex 4) calculate the minimum cost as min (current cost of vertex under consideration, sum of cost of vertex 1 and connecting edge). Mark Vertex 1 as visited, in the diagram we border it black.

Step 3:

Choose the unvisited vertex with minimum cost (vertex 4) and consider all its unvisited neighbours (Vertex 5 and Vertex 6) and calculate the minimum cost for both of them.

Step 4:

Choose the unvisited vertex with minimum cost (vertex 2 or vertex 5, here we choose vertex 2) and consider all its unvisited neighbours (Vertex 3 and Vertex 5) and calculate the minimum cost for both of them. Now, the current cost of Vertex 3 is [4] and the sum of (cost of Vertex 2 + cost of edge (2, 3)) is 3 + 4 = [7]. Minimum of 4, 7 is 4. Hence the cost of vertex 3 won’t change. By the same argument the cost of vertex 5 will not change. We just mark the vertex 2 as visited, all the costs remain same.

Step 5:

Choose the unvisited vertex with minimum cost (vertex 5) and consider all its unvisited neighbours (Vertex 3 and Vertex 6) and calculate the minimum cost for both of them. Now, the current cost of Vertex 3 is [4] and the sum of (cost of Vertex 5 + cost of edge (5, 3)) is 3 + 6 = [9]. Minimum of 4, 9 is 4. Hence the cost of vertex 3 won’t change. Now, the current cost of Vertex 6 is [6] and the sum of (cost of Vertex 5 + cost of edge (3, 6)) is 3 + 2 = [5]. Minimum of 6, 5 is 45. Hence the cost of vertex 6 changes to 5.

Step 6:

Choose the unvisited vertex with minimum cost (vertex 3) and consider all its unvisited neighbours (none). So mark it visited.

Step 7:

Choose the unvisited vertex with minimum cost (vertex 6) and consider all its unvisited neighbours (none). So mark it visited. Now there is no unvisited vertex left and the execution ends. At the end we know the shortest paths for all the vertices from the source vertex 1. Even if we know the shortest path length, we do not know the exact list of vertices which contributes to the shortest path until we maintain them separately or the data structure supports it.

5.2 Algorithm to find Speed of the Vehicle

The geographical coordinates of the two points, as (latitude, longitude) pairs, are [(Ø1, ʎ1), (Ø2, ʎ2)] and time T taken to travel.

Process:

Distance D is calculated between two points P1 and P2.  The geographical coordinates of the two points, as (latitude, longitude) pairs, are P1 (Ø1, ʎ1) and P2 (Ø2, ʎ2) respectively. Which of the two points is designated as P1 is not important for the calculation of distance.

Latitude and longitude coordinates on maps are usually expressed in degrees. In the given forms of the formulae below, one or more values must be expressed in the specified units to obtain the correct result. Where geographic coordinates are used as the argument of a trigonometric function, the values may be expressed in any angular units compatible with the method used to determine the value of the trigonometric function. Many electronic calculators allow calculations of trigonometric functions in either degrees or radians. The calculator mode must be compatible with the units used for geometric coordinates. Differences in latitude and longitude are labelled and calculated as follows

Δ Ø= Ø2- Ø1;

Δ ʎ=ʎ2-ʎ1;  

It is not important whether the result is positive or negative when used in the formulae below.

\"Mean latitude\" is labelled and calculated as follows:

Øm= (Ø2+ Ø1)/2

Colatitude is labelled and calculated as follows:

For latitudes expressed in radians:

Θ= (π/2) - Ø;

For latitudes expressed in degrees:

Θ=90- Ø;

Unless specified otherwise, the radius of the earth for the calculations below is:

R= 6,371.009 kilometres = 3,958.761 statute miles = 3,440.069 nautical miles.

D= Distance between the two points, as measured along the surface of the earth and in the same units as the value used for radius unless specified otherwise.

The relationship between distance, speed, and time is distance equals speed times time. Let the symbol d represent distance, the symbol r represent speed (or rate), and the symbol t represent the time. The relationship between the three can then be expressed algebraically.

The net ground speed of the vehicle will be the ‘r’

Output: r be the Speed of Vehicle

6. Design

Fig-1: System Architecture

The diagram above presents the general architecture. We build the project based on the assumption that users use their Android phones in the environment with wireless network and having the ability of getting GPS location. GPS will be used for automatic localization since android phones are usually equipped with GPS. Map Activity in red is the core and the start of application. Map Activity imports Google Map as the map, and retrieves information of POIs from remote Server. Map Activity calls Map Overlay to add POIs mark to Google Map.

Google Map is chosen as the map of navigation guide, as consider it is easy to be implemented on the platform of Android. Both Android and Google Map are released by Google. And we can provide navigation maps not only for a specific navigation but also almost all the cities in the world since Google Map show map of the whole world. Therefore, we can provide the service of navigation guide for many cities only if there is relevant database containing the information of points of interest in cities.

7. Implementation

Implementation is the crucial and the most important part of any project. In this stage the Theoretical design and paper ideas are transformed into working system helping the user gain confidence about the software will help him to ease his work and make his life simpler. The implementation stage involves careful planning, in-depth knowledge about existing system and its constraint’s on implementation, designing of methods to achieve a product with high quality.

7.1 Module Description

7.1.1 Heads up Display Navigation

The main problem is google map app or any other competitor is that it doesn’t show clearly indication for turn it more focus on map insist of indication for turn. The main information which is actually useful to the driver is limited to just 30% of the screen on the smartphone which results increase of distraction as the drivers needs to see the small indication and places closely instead of focusing on the road. It may confuse the user for taking correct turn. So In HUDWAY: Car Navigator we will show the correct turn and indication and more user friendly GUI.  

7.1.2 High Speed Alert

It\'s easy to fall into a herd mentality out on the open highway. There’s safety in numbers, protection in conformity. Travel too slow and you\'ll incur the angry honks of your fellow drivers. Travel too fast and you\'ll attract unwanted attention from robotic speed cameras and police officers wielding radar guns. In HUDWAY: Car Navigator we are going to check the speed limit for particular road or highway to that of the car by the standards mentioned by the government to that of the car. If the speed of the car exceeds the standards mentioned the user will get a speed alert which will help to maintain the speed and to avoid flashing blue lights and wallet-busting tickets is to stick to the car speed limit.

7.1.3 Battery Indicator

While navigating through long distances it is important to keep updates of the battery status of the user’s phone. To help know the user about the battery status of the phone battery indicator is used. Navigating eats up a large amount of battery as the phone uses data and gps together co-ordinating to navigate.

8. Result

Fig-2 (a): Existing System Navigation Display

The above figure-2 (a) shows navigation system displays which are currently used by other navigation display applications where the navigation sign is limited to just the 30% of the screen and the main screen is occupied by the map which shows the direction in confusing way with other irrelevant or unimportant places which are of no use for navigational purpose. Moreover the devices has to be mounted on to the windshield with other mounting clamps which obstructs the viewing of the user while driving hence limiting the view from the windshield, if not so the user has to keep his phone in the cup holder or remove from the gloves compartment on timely basis to check for the navigation sign.

Fig-2 (b): Proposed System Navigation Display

The above figure-2 (b) shows the navigation of our project which is proposed by us. This is a similar representation of our project where the majority of the screen is used to help user guide through unknown roads reaching his destination. Here only the required information like the navigation sign, distance by which turn is to be made, speed of the vehicle, time is displayed which is required during the navigation. As the figure shows the directions are projected on to the windshield where the navigation is not restricting the viewing of the user driving. The user can clearly see through the windshield even during the day night and navigation. Another thing to consider is that the directions projected are directly in the view of the user driving on the road where the user does not need to shift his eyes else-where rather than road which helps to keep user to keep eye on the road and navigate easily.

 

3. CONCLUSION

We have investigated realization of navigation guide over Android. The investigation covers basic functions of navigation guide there are functions such showing map, showing POIs on map, showing direction, showing user’s location on map and so on. Moreover, I try to integrate current innovation technologies as many as possible to help user navigate with safety, comfort, ease and simplicity. This will help less distraction of user while driving preventing any accidents by a minor percentage helping a world to be a much safer place to drive in.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project consumed huge amount of work, research and dedication. We are presenting our project paper as a part of Curriculum of Diploma in Computer Engineering, implementation would not have been possible if we did not have a support of our project guide and H.O.D. Mrs. P. S. Ahuja, and we express our sincere gratitude for her guidance and co-operation. We also thank her for inspiring and providing required facilities. We also extend our thanks to all those who have helped us directly or indirectly to make this project happen. We also express our sincere thanks to our Institution D.Y.P.P. Akurdi Pune for providing such a great platform for expressing our ideas and talent.

References

[1]. Dijkstra’s Algorithm:- http://techieme.in/shortest-path-using-dijkstras-algorithm/

[2]. Figure-2 (a):- http://www.gadgetreview.com/10-of-the-best-navigation-apps-for-the-iphone

[3]. Figure-2(b):- https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjm97SuhOnSAhUCbBoKHWnfDKAQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.fidelityhouse.eu%2Fmobile%2Fnavigatore-per-android-sygic-recensione-funzionalita-54588.html&psig=AFQjCNHaxRz_ng_LzGrP8-BftqbORtMQKw&ust=1490235035693740

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