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UD COMPUTING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN THE PREVAILING EXISTENCES

Darshni Priya M S (B.E.)

Computer Science and Engineering

Indira Institute of Engineering & Technology, IIET

Tiruvallur, India

E-mail: [email protected]

Deepa R (B.E.)

Computer Science and Engineering

Indira Institute of Engineering & Technology, IIET

Tiruvallur, India

E-mail: [email protected]

Sona B (B.E.)

Computer Science and Engineering

Indira Institute of Engineering & Technology, IIET

Tiruvallur, India

E-mail: [email protected]

Abstract - Technology modernization and the espousal are two acute successful aspects for any    business/organization. The tenure “Cloud Computing\" is a recent axiom in the IT world. Behind

This upmarket expressive phrase there deceits a true depiction of the future of computing for

Discretely in technical viewpoint and societal outlook. Cloud computing is a recent technology paradigm that enables organizations or individuals to stake various services in a continuous and cost- active manner. This paper terms about cloud computing, types of clouds, types of cloud service providers, comparison of Cloud Computing with Grid Computing, applications. This paper focuses on the role of cloud computing in the current days.

Keywords- Cloud Computing, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, Cloud Computing vs. Grid Computing, Cloud Architecture, Cloud Computing Applications, Examples of Cloud Computing.

1. INTRODUCTION

  Cloud computing is the byword nowadays. Data storage, file backups, presenting websites you title any resolution, and you can flutter all your coinage that cloud computing will remain the unsurpassed elucidation. It is a situation that this technology is still being considered as promising by various, but some experts have determined to intellect towards cloud dome already. The term ‘cloud computing’ denotes to work out services available to anyone connected. It is a elegance of computing in which energetically ascendable and often virtualizing properties are providing as a deal terminated the Internet.

 Types of Clouds Models: - There are different types of clouds that you can subscribe to depending on your needs. As a daily user or small business owner, you will most likely use public cloud services.

1.1. Public Cloud - In this type an organization rents cloud services from cloud provider’s on-demand basis. Services provided to the users using utility computing model.

 1.2. Private Cloud - This type of cloud is maintained within an organization and used solely for their internal purpose. So the utility model is not a big term in this scenario. Many companies are moving towards this setting and experts consider this is the 1st step for an organization to move into cloud. Security, network bandwidth are not critical issues for private cloud

.  

1.3. Community Cloud - A community cloud is shared among two or more organizations that have similar cloud requirements.

1.4. Hybrid Cloud - This type of cloud is composed of multiple internal or external clouds. This is the scenario when an organization moves to public cloud computing domain from its internal private cloud.

2. COMPONENTS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

The fig. 1 shows altered components of cloud. Each module plays unique role at different level.

2.1. Clients:  A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and which, in either case, is essentially useless without it.

2.2. Applications: A cloud application that is delivered over the platform of the web to an end user, typically leveraging the application through a browser, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer\'s own computer, thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance.

2.3. Services: A cloud service includes \"products, services and solutions that are delivered and consumed in real-time over the Internet. For instance, Web Services may be accessed by other cloud computing components.

2.4. Platform: A cloud platform, such as Platform as a service, the delivery of a computing platform, and/or solution stack as a service, facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software.

2.5. Storage: It involves in delivering of data  as a service, including database services billed on a small computing basics.

2.6. Infrastructure:  Cloud infrastructure, such as Infrastructure as a service, is the delivery of computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service.

 3. TYPES OF SERVICES IN CLOUD COMPUTING

The fig.2 shows services provides by the cloud.

3.1 Software as a Service (SaaS):  SaaS is becoming an increasingly rampant distribution model as primary technologies that support Web services and service-oriented architecture (SOA) settled and innovative developmental tactics, such as Ajax. The software bids like CRM, Office Suite, Email, etc., be accessible as a service complete the Internet. The solicitations are hosted on a highly accessible infrastructure and it is offered over the internet. Users can access it using an ordinary web browser, without any need to install software in their local computer. Companies like Google, Sales force, Microsoft, offer their applications as a service to the end users.

3.2 Platform as a Service (PaaS):  PaaS is an vague and unified cloud-based computing environment that supports the development, running, and managing applications. Makers can code the applications and upload it into the platform (offered as a service) and run the application on the cloud infrastructure. It helps developers to scale their apps without worrying about building the infrastructure. The platform scales automatically based on the resource needs of the app, without any efforts from the developer Services like Google App Engine, Bungee Connect and Force.com are examples for PaaS.

3.3 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):  IaaS is a way of delivering cloud Computing infrastructure- servers, storage, network and operating systems – as an on-demand service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, datacenter space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully.

3.4 Hardware as Service (HaaS): HaaS   is another variant on the Everything-as-a-Service trend. It should be self-explanatory - businesses make the use of computer hardware on a pay-as-you-go solution

4. CLOUD COMPUTING VS GRID COMPUTING

Grid Computing is the application of several computers to a single problem at the same time -

Usually to a scientific or technical problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles

Or access to large amounts of data.

Grid computing depends on software to divide and divide up pieces of a program among several computers, sometimes up to many thousands.

This technology has been applied to computationally intensive scientific, mathematical, and academic

Problems through volunteer computing, and it is used in commercial enterprises for such diverse

Applications as drug discovery, economic  forecasting, seismic analysis, and back-office data processing in support of e-commerce and Web services.

Cloud Computing is Internet (\"cloud\") based   development and use of computer technology

(\"Computing\").It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet.

5. CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE

The fig.3. Shows   the Cloud Architecture.

While gabbing about a cloud computing structure, it\'s helpful to rift it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They link to each other concluded a network, generally the Internet. The front end is the edge the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the \"cloud\" part of the system. The front end contains the computer network and the application required to contact the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs influence prevailing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have similar applications that afford network access to clients. In the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the \"cloud\" of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules termed protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to interact with each other. Most of the time, servers don\'t run at full capacity. That means there\'s unused processing power going to waste. It\'s possible to fool a physical server into thinking it\'s actually multiple servers, each running with its own independent operating system. The technique is called server virtualization. By maximizing the output of individual servers, server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines. If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there\'s likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients\' information stored. That\'s because these devices, like all computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients\' information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy.

5. WORKING OF CLOUD COMPUTING

The fig.4. Shows the working of Cloud.  

In theory the process is very simple. Cloud computing could allow you to have only a small computer,

In expensive computer, processor and monitor in front of you. You would have no need for a hard drive or a CD/DVD drive. Instead you would need only an Internet connection, which would hook you up to a

Central supercomputer that would host all your programs and files. This presents and advantage to

Both storage and security issues.

6. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

The fig.6 shows the Characteristics of Cloud Computing.

Even though there are many parameters on the basis of which you can illustrate a

Cloud computing environment there are main five important characteristics of a cloud computing

Environment is as follows:-

6.1 Universal access

Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanism

That promotes the use of heterogeneous thin or thick client platform like mobile

Phones, tablets, laptops etc.

6.2 Scalable Services

The infrastructure of the cloud is very elastic to expand with respect to nodes and the

Services. Cloud providers have the capability to add new nodes in the cloud and adding

Services for the customers in the cloud.

6.3 On-Demand Self Services

Cloud provides us the capability of consuming computing resources such as server

Time, network and storage automatically without the interaction of any human being.

6.4 Pay-Per-Use scenario

Services provided by the cloud service providers are not free of cost; customers have

To pay for accessing and using the services but only for what they use.

6.5 Collaboration

Cloud allows many individual organizations to collaborate and work together for finding the solution to a problem or for any research work.

Some other characteristics of cloud are: - Reliability, Customization, Measured Services, Management, and Virtualization.

7. CLOUD COMPUTING VENDORS

1. Amazon: Amazon has undoubtedly been not only the best in the business so far, but also one among the pioneers in the cloud arena. From the day it started offering cloud services, it has seen steady growth and delivered fantastic performance. At the beginning, its cloud services almost fell flat after growing number of complaints about its sub-standard support system; but that is history now. Amazon now offers a service called as “white glove”, which helps in routing the clients to the closest possible specialist who can help them with fixing a glitch.

2. Akamai: The Company was founded back in 1998 and has its headquarters based in Cambridge, Mass. It offers cloud services for application delivery and internet content. It mirrors content from servers located at customer’s end to those in its own network. With the help of advanced Internet topology, it mirrors the content requested by a customer from a server nearest to his/her location.

3. IBM: The Company’s Smart Business Test and Development Cloud is a runaway hit. IBM, being one of the IT leaders in the world, can definitely improve its cloud strategies over the time but even otherwise it is garnering enough business from enterprise world. Its cloud sector alone earned over a whopping $30,000,000 last year.

4. Verizon: This network provider started offering cloud services after acquiring an upcoming cloud company caller Terre mark for a massive $1.8 billion. After this venture it right way became the number one network provider that also offers cloud services, leaving behind the likes of Qwest and AT&T.

5. Google: Most of the gaming and mobile companies are counting on Google\'s cloud services; no wonder it is the fastest growing cloud provider today. However, Google made a very late entry into the cloud storage markets by rolling out the new Google Drive during the first quarter of 2012. The search engine giant is also planning to venture into enterprise support very soon. And, this has become extremely evident after the announced the Google Compute Engine to compete with Amazon AWS.

6. Microsoft: Don\'t be surprised to see Microsoft at #9; the company registered a steep fall in last one year, which initially came up with its Azure cloud services that also boasted of acquiring many companies. This strategy, however, did not go in company\'s favor; let us wait and watch if Microsoft manages to bounce back in 2012.

9. EXAMPLES OF CLOUD COMPUTING

1. Email           

2. No need for local data storage

3. Messaging app

4. Games

5.Movie download

6.File storage

10. ADVANTAGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING

• Reduced Cost: Cloud technology is paid incrementally (you pay only for what you need), saving organizations money in the short run. Money saved can be used for other important resources.

• Increased Storage: Organizations can store more data than on private computer systems.

• Highly Automated: IT personnel not needed to keep software up to date as maintenance is the job of the service provider on the cloud.

• More Mobility: Employees can access information wherever they are, rather than having to remain at their desks.

• Allows IT to Shift Focus: No longer having to worry about constant server updates and other computing issues, government organizations will be free to concentrate on innovation.

11. APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

11.1 E-Learning

It is a new trend in the field of education that provides an attractive environment for students, faculty members, and researchers. Students, faculty members, researchers can connect to the cloud of their organization and access data and information from there.

11.2 Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Use of Cloud in ERP comes into existence when the business of any organization grows. The work of managing applications, human resources, payroll etc. becomes expensive and complex. To overcome it service providers can install ERP in the cloud itself.

11.3 E-Governance

Cloud computing can improve the functioning of a government by improving the way it provides the services to its citizens, institutions and cooperation with other governments. This can be done by expanding the availability of environment, making environment more scalable and customized. It also cut off the burden of managing, installing and upgrading applications.

12. CLOUD COMPUTING BY 2020

Today, we are undoubtedly familiarized  to cloud computing, but from the hi-tech idea, we are tranquil in initial days of cloud computing time, and countless vast companies are taking  steps towards accommodating  cloud computing. By 2020, though, things will be remote more firm and deliberate as cloud will become the eternal solution in computing substructure biosphere. 6-7 years from now, we will get to perceive new kinds of low power mainframes that would crux massive capacities into the cloud, retained in very trendy and highly computerized   data centers. Trade specialists say that the cloud industry will grow vastly from $35 Billion nowadays to around $150B by 2020, as by then, it will be strategic to most of the big company’s IT substructures.

Things drastically change around by 2020: John Manley says - \"Cloud computing is the final means by which computing becomes invisible.\"

1. Software will be Social Media Inspired: Merrill claims that software will adopt few traits seen in social media apps like Facebook. In other words, software and infrastructure will be managed as per requirement and it won’t be the other way round anymore. In that case, developers will no longer worry about offering provisions like server, switch and storage.

2. Low Power ARM Chips: Pretty soon, we will see low-power ARM chips flooding the market. These will come with 64-bit capability and once this happens, enterprise-level software will be developed for RISC chips only. All this will help organizations save a lot on their electricity bills. By 2020, this new generation of ARM chips are likely to be seen everywhere.

3. Ecosystems Like Data Centers: Data centers will work very similar to ecosystems, Commoditized hardware and abstracted software are likely to combine and form a data center that will be very similar to ecosystem in terms of functionality. It will take a biological shape where data correction and changes will occur automatically.

4. Generation Shift: By 2020, a new generation of CIOs will come to organizations; they will be used to cloud as a service and they will have expectations of having things as a service. This generation of CIOs will greatly shake things up in the industry, and the overall picture will totally transform by 2020.

5. Expo 2020: There are a lot of other exciting things lined up for 2020, including the world’s biggest realty expo 2020 in Middle East, which of course, may not have any direct impact on the hosting industry, but it’s being speculated that it’d drive development throughout all the sectors in that region. And, since real estate industry would also need domains, hosting space, and cloud solutions for IT needs, it would also indirectly have a positive impact on the hosting industry in Asia Pacific, especially the Middle Eastern region, which is still growing at the moment. So, we shall wait and watch in what way things move round by 2020, but one thing is for unquestionable that cloud computing is the imminent of accommodating industry and it\'s undeniably successful to change offering the world over the next 5 years.

CONCLUSION

 Cloud computing is a developed computing paradigm that is increasingly popular. Experts in the industry such as Microsoft, Google, and IBM, must provide their enterprises in endorsing cloud. This paper explains the basic concept of cloud & their services as well as where cloud computing is cast-off. Businesses have a range of paths to the cloud, including infrastructure, platforms and functions that are available from cloud benefactors as online services. Cloud computing will too benefit in e-learning by offering many services online for the students. We must to leash up this technology in our day-to-day exists by creating many purposes proceeding cloud.

References:

[1]. http://www.rightscale.com/blog/cloud-industry-insights/cloud-computing-trends-2017-state-cloud-survey.

[2]. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-tH8PQSH_DJs/T_M9SJbGdOI/AAAAAAAAAUo/15olmTiWwSY/s1600/cloud-computing-kitchen-sink.jpg.

[3]. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-LSzyFOxcf9w/T_M-IIpWbxI/AAAAAAAAAUw/l3j4iIpJnjo/s320/cloudcomputing.png

[4]. http://tech-updaters.blogspot.in/2012/07/what-is-cloud-computing.html

[5]. https://www.lifewire.com/cloud-computing-trends-2373068

[6]. https://www.lifewire.com/top-cloud-computing-vendors-3473553.

[7]. https://www.corenttech.com/infographics.html

[8]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

[9]. http://www.cisco.com/c/en_in/about/thought-leadership/cloud-computing-emerging-trends.html

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