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Acknowledgment                                  

 Abstract

Chapter 1 Introduction  

1.1 Problem Summary

1.2 Aim and Objective of the Project

1.3 Literature review

1.4 Proposed system

1.5 Material and tools required  

Chapter 2 Analysis Design Methodology And Implementation Strategy                                  

2.1 AEIOU Summary

  2.1.1 Activities

  2.1.2 Environment

  2.1.3 Interaction

  2.1.4 Objects

  2.1.5 Users

  2.2 Empathy Canvas

  2.2.1 Input through AEIOU framework

  2.2.2 Scouted challenges

  2.2.3 Top 5 problem on the basis of desirability, feasibility & viability

  2.2.4 Choose exact problem from five possibilities or by combination of them

  2.3 Ideation Canvas  

  2.3.1 People

  2.3.2 Activities

  2.3.3 Situation / context / location

  2.3.4 Props / possible solution

  2.4 Product Development Canvas

  2.4.1 Purpose

  2.4.2 People

  2.4.3 Product experience

  2.4.4 Product function

  2.4.5 Product features

  2.4.6 Components

  2.4.7 Customer revalidation

  2.4.8 Reject / Redesign / Retain

 2.5 Business Model Canvas

                2.5.1 Key Partner

                2.5.2 Key Activity

                2.5.3 Key Resources

                2.5.4 Value Proposition

                2.5.5 Customer Relationship

                2.5.6 Channels

                2.5.7 Customer Segment

                2.5.8 Cost Structure

                2.5.9 Revenue Streams

Chapter 3 programming

                3.1 programming

Chapter 4 History, Impact and Current Use

  

    4.1 History

  4.2 Working of RFID  

  4.3 Devices

                4.3.1 RFID

                      4.3.1.1 RFID Tag

                      4.3.1.2 RFID Reader

                      4.3.2 Biometric

                     4.3.3 Microcontroller  

                     4.3.4 LCD

                      4.3.5 Power Supply

 

 

  Chapter 5 Advantages and Disadvantages, Future Scope

          Application  

   5.1 Advantages

   5.2 Disadvantage

   5.3 conclusions

   5.4 Future scope

   Reference

Acknowledgment

  I express my sincere gratitude  all who provide me possibility to complete my project. A special gratitude  my faculty guide Prof. (Dr.) T.V.SHAH whose contribution  simulating suggestions and encouragement and helped me to coordinate my project.

 Furthermore I would also like acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of staff of L. D. College of Engineering, who gave  permission to use all required equipment and the necessary material to complete the project “RFID BASED PASSPORT DETAIL”. Special thanks go to my team mate CHAUDHARI PRITESH K, PATEL VIHAR and GAMIT YASH o help me to assemble the parts and gave suggestionabout the project “RFID BASED PASSPORT DETAIL”.

Last but not the least I am sincerely thankful to Prof. and Head Mr. M. J. MODI, L. D. College of Engineering who have invested his full effort in guiding the team in achieving the goal.

 

Abstract

     The main functionality of this project to access the passport details of a passport holder through RFID technology and with biometric scanner. For purpose the authorized person  given an RFID card and fingerprint is taken of the user. This card contains an integrated circuit which  used for storing, processing information through modulating and demodulatiadio frequency signal that is being transmitted d the fingerprint is taken which the verify the detail of the user. In this way, the data storeis card is referred as the passport details of the person.

Passport verification and checking is a very time reduction process. This proposed system simplifies the pros by giving the authorized person an RFID tag containing all the passport details like name, passport nnd nationality etc. Once, the person places the card in front of the RFID card reader, it reads the data and verifies it with that data present in the system and the fingerprint of that u scanned If it matches then it displays the details of the passport holder. The status can be retrieved from this system by pressing the status button interfaced to a microcontroller and by scanning the fingerprint. With the help of RFID and biometric scanner provides high level of security isystem.

                               

Chapter 1

Introduction  

1.1 Problem Summary

   Now days the process of verifying the passport detail is by checking the passport detail of the user and the data stored in the computer. This method is takore time ste of time is more. The security in this present method is not that much safe so duplipassport can be easily be made. During present day method silly mistake done but the passport checker can lead some problem to the passport hoer and this will also take much time for clarifying the detail.

  To overcome this we are making RFID project so that the verification process can be easily coleted. The security level can also be taken to next level with the help of biometric scanner (e.g.-fingerprint scanner, iris scanner). RFID card reader contains the pssport detail of the holder and by scanning RFID car we can easily see the details of the hold

1.2 Aim and Objective of the Project

  The main objective of our project is to make theassport verification process easy and take time les and to make the security level high.  

    The project uses RFID identification system in which the use of radio waves to read and capt information stored on a tag attached to an object. A tag can be read from up to several feet away and does not need to be within direct line-of-sit of the reader to be tracked. The project is built with 8051 microcontroller, PCB, biometric scanner, power supply, ICs, LCD display. The detail is been stored in the RFID card reader and the verificatis done in when the detail gets matched. Biometric scanners are used for the security purpose.

1.3 Literature Review

  The security and privacy issues that apply to a passport. They expssed concern that the contact-less card in ich contents to be read without direct contact with an IS. The primary objective of the study is to produce new knowledge with respect to security of biomric techniques. The purpose of the RFID passport detail is to make identification process easy and pevent the illegal entry if the traveller into a specify country and to limit use of fraudulent documts by more accurate identification of individual. RFID tags come in three general varieties passe, active or semi passive. Passive tags require no internal power source thus being pure passive device, whereas semi passive and active tag requi power source usually a small battery. To communicate, tags respond to queries generating signal that must not create interference with the rads arriving signal can be very weak and must be told apart. Besides backscattering, load modulation thniques can be used to manipulate the radars fields.

          Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply the minutes  electrical current is induced the annna by the incoming radio frequency signal, it provide just enough power  for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag  to power up and transmits a response. Most passive signal by backscattering the carrier wave form the radar.

          Unlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have own internal power source which is used to power the integrated circuit and broadcast the signal to the radar active tags are typically much more reliable then passive tags due to the ability for tive tags to conduct the “session” with a radar in turn they are generally bigger and more expensive to manufacture and there potential shelf life much shorter.

          Semi-passive tags are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source, bthe battery only power the microchip and do not brcast a signal. The RF energy is reflected back to the radar like passive tags a battery assist receive circuitry of semi-passive tags lead to greater setivity then passive tag typically hundred time more.

1.4 Proposed System

    There are different ways with which we can implement our project

• Face Recognition

   Facial image are the most common biometric chacteristics used by humans to make a personal reorganisation. The idea to use this biometric in the tecnology. This is suitable for not openly acknowledge application. The application of facial reorganisation range from static to dynamic, uncontrolled faced idenfication in a cluttered background. The most opular approaches to face reorganisation are based on facial attributes such as eyes, eyebrows, nse, lips and chin. It is questionable if a face itself is a sufficient basis for reorganation a person from a large number of identes with a high level of confidence. Facial reorganiion system should be able to automatically dect a face in an image. The cons of facial image dection are that the face is a changeable organ with a variety of expren.

• Palm Print Recognition

                The palm print module is designed to carry out the idenication of unknown person. The palm pronly input data for recognition process. The person identification details are the output value. The nput image feature is to compare with the database image feature. The most relevant image is selecfor the person’s identification. If the result dos not match with the input image then the process is declared as unknown person. In palm recognition rocess the file open dialog is used to select the input image file. The result will produce the releva list of palm print.

• Iris Recognition

Iris recognition technology is based on the ring surroug the pupil of the eye. It is made from elastic conctive tissue. The iris is a very expensive biometric datag appropriate biometric data. The appearance of divding the iris radically, with striations, rings, furrows, a corona, and freckles. Iris recogion can be used in both identification and vefication system. Iris recognition system uses a small, high quality camera to capture a black and white high resolution image of the iris. The syem then defines the boundaries of the iris estash a coordinate system over the iris.

• Biometric System Module

   Enrolment unit: the enrolment module registers are the indiduals into a biometric system Database. During a biometric system a biometric readers scans the indiual biometric   characteristics to produce repretation.

 

Feature Extraction: feature extraction processes the input sample to generate a compact  n   Repsentation called the template which is stored in a cntral database.

  Matching Unit: the matching unit compares the current input with the telates. If the        system performs identity verification, it compares the new characteristics to the uer’s master and produces a score and a matcher one to one matching. A system performing identificn matches the new characteristics against the master templates of many users resulting in ultiple match values i.e. one too many matching.

Decision maker: the decision maker accepts or rejects the user bsed on a security threshold and matching the scos.

1.5 Material/Tools Required

  Software

• Terminal

Hardware

• 8051 family microcontroller  

• RFID reader

• RFID tags

• LCD

• RFID Module

• Biometric scan

• PCB

• Power supply

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure1: Simple bock diagram of RFID based circuit.

Chapter 2

Analysis, Design Methodology and Implementation

Strategy

2.1  AEIOU Summary

2.1.1 Activities

• Request for internet access

• Fees payment

• Get review

• Receipt generating

• Communication with guided faculties

2.1.2 Environment

• Rainy weather

• Sunny day

• winter

2.1.3 Interaction

• Student

• External guide  

• Professor

• Internet

• Books

2.1.4 Objects

• RIFD

• Biometric

• Microcontroller

• Communication device

• Power supply

• IC’S

 

Figure 2:AEIOU Summary Sheet

2.1.5 Users

• Students

• Faculties

• Experts

• Migrate people

• Tourist

• Refugee

2.2 Empathy Summary

2.2.1 Input Through AEIOU Framework

• Request for internet access

• Receipt generation

• Get reviews

• Staff management

• Fees payent

• attendance report

2.2.2 Scouted Callenges

• data collection

• PCB deign

• Tasting  

• Assemling

• Progamming

 

Figure 3:  Empathy Sumary sheet

    

 2.2.3 Top 5 Problems On The Bases Of Desirability,           

   Feasibi & Viability

• Internet access

• Data b

• Programming

• Comication • Accuracy

2.2.4 Choose Exact Problem from 5 Possibilities Or  

         By Combination of Them           

• Interaon

2.3 Ideation Canvas

2.3.1 ople

• Students

• Experts

• Faculties

• Tourist

• Migrate people

2.3.2 Activities

• Data collection

• PCB design  

• Assembling

• PCB soldering

• Programming

• Testing

• Modification

• Improvement

• Get reviews

2.3.3 Situation/Context/Location

• Airport

• Physical condition

• Mental condition

• Transport

• Awareness

• Reduce human affords

                                               Figure 4: Ideation Canvas

 2.3.4 Props/Possible Solution

• Lack of  knowledge

• Lack of financial support

• Lack of guidance

• Lack of time

• Government policy

 

2.4 Product Development Canvas

2.4.1 Purpose

• Security

• Person identity

2.4.2 PEOPLE

• Students

• Experts

• Faculties

• Tourists

2.4.3 PRODUCT EXPERIENCE

• Motivating

• Energetic

• Satisfaction

 

                          Figure 5: Product Development Canvas  

2.4.4 Product Function

• Data read

• Data write

• Device communication

2.4.5 Product Features

• Biometric

• RFID

• Identification

2.4.6 Components

• RFID • Biometric

• Power supply

• Microcontroller

• Development board

• Communication device

• 7segment

• PCB

2.4.7 Customer Revalidation

• Easy to access

• Safety

• Very useful

2.4.8 Reject / Redesign / Retain

• PCB Resistor

• Controller

2.5 Business Canvas Model

2.5.1 Key Partner

• Biometric

• RFID

• Passport issuer

  2.5.2 Key Activities

• Design circuit

• Installation

2.5.3 Key Resources

• Engineers

• Government

 2.5.4 Value Proposition

• Security

 2.5.5 Customer Relationship

• Constant Communication

• 1to1 / Face to Face

 2.5.6 Channels

• Personally meeting

• Internet

  2.5.7 Customer Segment

• Airport

• Passport Office

• Navy

2.5.8 Cost Structure

• Equipment

 2.5.9 Revenue Stream

• Low cost

• secure

Chapter 4

History, Impact and Current Use

4.1 History            From 1540 the generating of travelling paper became the business of the Privy Council. By this point the term “passport” was being used although whether it originated with the idea of people passing through maritime port or through the gate in city wls remains a matter for debate. A passport from this period issued on June 18, 1641 and sign by Carles I still exist. From 1794, the office of th secretary of state took control issuing passport, afunction that the home office retains today.

4.2 Working of RFID  

  0The main function of this project is to access the passport detail of a passport holder through RFID technology. For this purpose the authorized person is given RFID card. This card contains an integrated circuit that is used for storing, processing information through modulating and demodulating of the radio frequency signal that is being transmitted. Thus, the data stored in this card is referred as the passport details of the person.

    Passport verification and the checking is a very time consuming process. This proposed system simplifies the process by giving them an RFID tag containig all the passport detail like names, passport nuber and nationality etc. once the person places the car in front of the RFID card reader, it reads the dat and verfies it wth that data present in the system and if it match then it displays the details of the passport holder.

   Here we use microntroller from 8051 family. For display a 16*2 LCD is used. The status also can be retrieved from this system by pressing the status button interfacd to a microcontroller.

   The drawback of the RFID can be overcome by fingerprint which alprovides high level of security in the system.

 4.3 DEVICES

 4.3.1 RFID

  4.3.1.1 RFID READER                                                                

 

Figure 6:  RFID Reader

       A radio frequency identification reader (RFID reader) is a device used to gather information from an RFID tag, which is used to track individual objects. Radio waves are used to transfer data from the tag to a reader.

     RFID is a tchnology similar in theory to bar codes. The RFID tag des not have to be scanned directly, nordoes it reuired line of sight to a reader. The RFI ag it must be wthin the range of an RFID reader, which range from 3 to 300 feet, in order to be read. RFID technology always allows several item to be quickly scaned and enables first identification of particular prduct even when it is surrounded by several other items.

    RFID tags have not relace barcode because of their cost and the ned to individually identify every item.

    A RFID chip is activated by a magnetic field from radar and subseqntly broadcast the data that is stored in its memy. The fact that is personal information is being broadcast raises many question about the use of tis technology in such sensitive areas such as a passport. It seems that contact chip technology wld be preferable however the international civil avation space organization, the organization that deloped the standards for electronic passport, analysis this option and excluded contact chip fom use in electronic passport it was argued that contact chip technology which is primarily used in card fomat, would be difficult to put in passport style document. also, because contact chip technology rquired exposed area that required precious contact point with the radar it was postulated that contct chip document would not be able to function for the entry ten year life span of passport. There for, a contact chip technology such as a RFID is used in electronic passport.

 Signaling between the reader and the tag is done in several different incmpatible ways, depending on the frequency band used by the tag. Tags operating on LF and HF bnds are, in terms of radio wavelength, very close to the reader antenna because they are only a small percentage of a wavelength away. In this ner field region, the tag is closely coupled electrically with the transmitter in the reader. The tag can moulate the field produced by the reader by changing the electrical loading the tag represents. By swiching between lower and higher relative loads, the tag produces a change that the reader can detect. At UHF and higher frequencies, the tag is more than one radio wavelength away from the reer, requiring a different approach. The tag can backscatter a signal. Active tags may contain functioly separated transmitters and receivers, and the tag need not respond on a frequency related to te reader\'s interrogation signal.

4.3.1.2  RFID tag  

   A radio-freency identfication system uses tags, or labels attached to theobjects to be        identified. Two-way radio tramitter-receivers called interrogrs or reders send a signal to the tag and read its resps.

   RFID tags can be either passive, active or battry-assied pssive. An active tag has an on-board batery and periodically transmits its ID signal. A batery-asisted pave (BAP) has a small battery on board and is acated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A pave tag is cheaper and smaller because it has no bary; instead, the tag uses the radio energy tratted by the reader. However, to operate a pase tag, it must be illuminated with a power lel roly a thousand times stronger than for signal trnsmission. That makes a difference in interence and in exposure to radiation.

   Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number that is used as a key into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple; \"blank\" tags may be written with an electronic product code by the user.

                      

                                             Figure 7: RFID TAG

   RFID tags contain at least two parts: an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, collecting DC power from the incident reader signal, and other specialized functions; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. The tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively.

An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. The RFID tag receives the message and then responds with its identification and other information. This may be only a unique tag serial number, or may be product-related information such as a stock number, lot or batch number, production date, or other specific information. Since tags have individual serial numbers, the RFID system design can discriminate among several tags that might be within the range of the RFID reader and read them simultaneously.

 

 4.3.2 Biometric

Figure 8: Biometric

 Biometric is the measurement and static analysis of people’s physical and behavioural characteristics. The technology is mainly used for identification and access control or for identifying individual that are under surveillance. The basic permits of biometric authentication are that everyone is unique and an individual can be identified by his/her intrinsic physical or behavioural traits.

There are two main type of biometric identification:

A) Physical Characteristic: The shape or composition of the body.

B) Behavioural characteristics: The behaviour of a person.

               

4.3.3 Microcontroller

     A Microcontroller is small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also included on chip as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontroller is design for embedded application in contrast to the microprocessor used in personal computer or other general purpose application consisting various discrete chips.

    Microcontroller are used in automatically controlled products and device such as a automobile engine control system some microcontroller may use 4-bit word and operated frequency as low as 4 kHz, for a low power consumption they will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt.

4.3.4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

    Most common LCDs connected to the controllers are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. Controller chip which receives data from an external source and communicates directly with the LCD.

    If an 8-bit data is used the LCD will require 11 data lines (3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus). The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS and RW.

EN=enable (used to tell the LCS that you are sending it data)

RS=register select. When RS=0; data is treated as a command & when RS=1; data being sent is text dat.

R/W=read/write. When RW=0; the data written to the LCD & when RW=0; the data reading to the LCD.

 

Figure 9:  LCD

4.3.5 Power supply

  Some DC power supplies use AC mains electricity as an energy source. Such power supplies will sometimes employ a transformer to convert the input voltage to a higher or lower AC voltage. A rectifier is used to convert the transformer output voltage to a varying DC voltage, which in turn is passed through an electronic filter to convert it to an unregulated DC voltage.

 The filter removes most, but not all  of the AC voltage variations; the remaining AC voltage is known as ripple. The electric load\'s tolerance of ripple dictates the minimum amount of filtering that must be provided by a power supply. In some applications, high ripple is tolerated and therefore no filtering is required. For example, in some battery charging applications it is possible to implement a mains-powered DC power supply with nothing more than a transformer and a single rectifier diode, with a resistor in series with the output to limit charging current.

    

Chapter 5

Advantages and disadvantages, future scope, and application

5.1 Advantages

• Easy to use  

• Time consuming

• Provide high security

• Easy to access

   5.2 Disadvantages

• slow internet

• power cut off

5.3 Conclusion

  In this project we came on a conclusion that the RFID passport detail is a time consuming with high security and was easy to use.

5.4 Future Scope

  Voice feedback system can be included in RFID based passport detail identification system.

References

• http://www.epc-rfid.info/rfid

• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller

• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics • http://www.edgefxkits.com/rfid-based-passport-details

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