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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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A project report on

AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING FOR TWO WHEELER

Submitted by

KANPARIYA VIMAL B. (130430119064)

SOJITRA PURANJANKUMAR N. (130430119111)

SUKHADIYA RITULKUMAR G. (130430119112)

In fulfillment of the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SHANTILAL SHAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE BHAVNAGAR

Gujarat Technological University

Ahmedabad

May 2017

SHANTILAL SHAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE BHAVNAGAR

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

B.E. – VIII 2017

CERTIFICATE

DATE:

This is to certified that the thesis entitled “AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING FOR TWO WHEELER” has been carried out by KANPARIYA VIMAL, SOJITRA PURANJAN, SUKHADIYA RITUL under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of BACHOLER OF ENGINEERING in MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT (8TH semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Internal Guide Head of Department

Prof. D. B. Patel Prof. H. S. Trivedi

 SHANTILAL SHAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE BHAVNAGAR

CERTIFICATE

FOR

USER DEFINED PROJECT (UDP)

Name and Designation Of

Internal Guide

Prof. D. B. Patel

Project ID (As Registered

in GTU)

80026

Project Title

Automatic Gear Shifting For Two Wheeler

Student wise Feedback

from Internal Guide

Enrollment No.

Name

130430119064

Kanpariya Vimal

130430119111

Sojitra Puranjan

130430119112

Sukhadiya Ritul

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING FOR TWO WHEELER” has been carried out by KANPARIYA VIMAL, SOJITRA PURANJAN, SUKHADIYA RITUL under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (8TH semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Signature

(Asst Prof. D. B. Patel)                         Organization Seal/Stamp

FEEDBACK

OF

USER DEFINED PROJECT (UDP)

Student wise Feedback from  Guide

Enrollment No.

Name

Attendance

(%)

Performance Evaluation

(out of 10)

130430119064

Kanpariya Vimal

130430119111

Sojitra Puranjan

130430119112

Sukhadiya Ritul

Detail Feedback On Project Group (if any)

Signature

(Asst Prof. D. B. Patel)                      Organization Seal/Stamp

ACKNOWLEDGEGEMENT

 We would like to take the opportunity to take people who guided and supported us during our project work related to “AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFTING FOR TWO WHEELER”.

 It is our proud privilege to express regards and sincere thanks to Prof. D. B. Patel Mechanical Engineering Department, SSEC BHAVNAGAR for guiding us effectively and enabling us to work with our full capabilities.

We sincerely offer our gratitude towards to Prof. H. S. Trivedi  Head of  Department of  Mechanical engineering  department  SSEC, for giving us an opportunity to do our Bachelor Degree Project and for all kinds of support during our studies.

KANPARIYA VIMAL B. (130430119064)

SOJITRA PURANJANKUMAR N. (130430119111)

SUKHADIYA RITULKUMAR G. (130430119112)

ABSTRACT

The recent survey shows that continuous variable transmission (CVT) are in demand compared to the gear featured bikes. CVT’s do not have the concept of meshing of gears which enhances a smooth ride, but the fuel efficiency is comparatively lesser when compared to the gear featured vehicles.

The main objective of our project is to automate the gear transmission in a gear featured bike to ease the driving and also to maintain the efficiency of the bike. This mechanism is used in auto-clutch featured bike to smoothen the gear meshing and can be implemented in clutch featured bike. The aim is to develop of automatic transmission system which shifts the gears with respect to the speed of the wheel. Simplifying the transmission and improving the fuel economy are the major objectives of our project. This technology is implemented in an auto-clutch featured bike which shifts the gears to eliminate the human interference and results in easy driving. Automation of gears transmission can be achieved by embedded system. Embedded system is a special purpose computer system. Embedded system is preferable because it can reduce the number of electrical components and probability of failure is minimum. It has easy interfacing. Either a microprocessor or a microcontroller is used in all the embedded systems. Microcontroller Atmel 89S52 is used in our project. Suitable software is used to write the assembly level language in the microcontroller. Embedded ‘C’ Language is written and stored in the ROM of the microcontroller.

By implementing this system into an auto-clutch feature bike, automatic transmission of gears while driving the motor bike can be achieved. This automated transmission can be controlled by the acceleration, since it is with respect to the speed of the bike. The fuel efficiency can be tested after fabricating the bike according the above mechanism.

Nomenclature

Symbol

Description

Unit

Q

Discharge

liter/s

h

Supply head

m

d

Pipe diameter

m

L

Pipe length

m

Vd

Velocity of fluid

m/s

Ad

Area of drive pipe

m2

ʋ

Kinematic viscosity

m2/s

Re

Reynold number

-

f

Friction factor

-

Fd

Drag force

N

Cd

Coefficient of discharge

-

Av

Area of waste valve

m2

Vt

Velocity at T section

m/s

dv/dt

Change in velocity with respect to time

m/s2

Pw

Pressure on waste valve

Pa

P

Power generated

W

Qw

Waste water discharge

liter/s

Ƞ

Efficiency of hydram

%

List of Figures

Figure no.

Figure description

Page no.

1.5 (a)

Water hammer effect

15

1.5 (b)

Acceleration in ram pump

16

1.5 (c)

Delivery in ram pump

17

1.5 (d)

Recoiling in ram pump

17

2.2 (a)

Determining Qs

21

2.2 (b)

Determining Qs

22

2.2 (c)

Determination of H

22

2.2 (d)

Determination of h

23

2.4 (a)

Implementation of ram pump

27

2.5 (a)

AEIOU canvas

28

2.5 (b)

Empathy canvas

28

2.5 (c)

Ideation canvas

29

2.5 (d)

Product development canvas

29

3.2 (a)

Ram pump

31

List of tables

Table no.

Table name

Page no.

1

Material of component

19

2

Patent survey

39

Index

Table of content

Page no.

Introduction

11

Problem summary and introduction

11

Aim and objective of project

13

Problem specification

13

Brief literature review

14

Working principle and working

14

Material and tool requirement

18

Design

21

Design factors

21

Design of component

21

Methodology

25

Implementation strategy

26

Design engineering canvas

28

Implementation

31

Market demand

31

Result

31

Cost estimation

32

Maintenance

33

Summary

35

Advantages

35

Limitation

35

Application

35

Comparison

36

Future scope

37

Recommendation

38

Conclusion

38

Bibliography

39

Patent survey

39

Reference books

39

 1 Introduction

1.1 Problem Summary and Introduction

Introduction to transportation and transmission

Transportation decisions impact many aspects of urban life. Young and old alike are affected by the viability and relative ease of travelling to destinations on foot, by bike, transit, or reliance on private vehicles. Transportation investments are arguably the single largest shaper of urban spaces and of development patterns. The safety, speed, and comfort for a particular mode of travel are a function of the investments that have been made in specific types of travel options. Regions, and parts of regions, vary considerably in terms of their supportiveness of travelling in ways that are health promoting (active) and environmentally sustainable.

Transmission system transmits mechanical power from the engine to give kinetic energy to the wheels. It is an interconnected system of gears, shafts, and other electrical gadgets that form a bridge to transfer power and energy from the engine to the wheels. The complete set up of the system helps to maintain the cruising speed of the vehicle without any disturbance to the performance. The oldest variant of the transmission system in India is the manual transmission that has undergone various modifications and alterations to form the present day automatic transmission.

A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using different gear ratios. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. A transmission will have multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies. This switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may also be provided, such as forward and reverse gears.

In motor vehicle applications, the transmission will generally be connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The output of the transmission is transmitted through chain drive, which in turn gives motion the rear wheel.

Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox will rotate at slower rate than the input shaft, and this reduction in speed will produce a mechanical advantage, causing an increase in torque.

Types of transmission

There are two major types of transmission, namely manual gear transmission and automatic gear transmission

Manual gear transmission

A manual transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission; and a gear selector operated by hand or by foot. Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear pedal. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those commonly mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear. This type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.

In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine\'s crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.

There are two basic types of manual transmissions. The sliding-gear type and the constant mesh design. With the basic and now obsolete sliding-gear type, nothing is turning inside the transmission case except the main drive gear and cluster gear when the transmission is in neutral. In order to mesh the gears, apply engine power to move the vehicle. One of the basic methods is shown in Fig. 1.1(a)

Fig. 1.1(a)

All modern transmissions are of the constant-mesh type, which still uses a similar gear arrangement as the sliding-gear type. However, all the main shaft gears are in constant mesh with the cluster gears as shown in Fig. 1.1(b). This is possible because the gears on the main shaft are not splinted to the shaft, but are free to rotate on it. With a constant-mesh gearbox, the main drive gear, cluster gear and all the main shaft gears are always turning, even when the transmission is in neutral.

Fig. 1.1(b)

Automatic Transmission

An automatic transmission, also called as self-shifting transmission, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel.

The most popular type found in automobiles is hydraulic automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch, and accomplishes gear changes by hydraulically locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears. These systems have a defined set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl that locks the output shaft of the transmission to keep the vehicle from rolling either forward or backward. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn mowers, only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels.

Besides the traditional hydraulic automatic transmissions, there are also other types of automated transmissions, such as Fig. 1.1(c) Transmission Low and High Gear Ratio transmission system. That free from the driver from having to shift gears manually, by using the transmission\'s computer to change gear, if for example the driver were redlining the engine. Despite superficial similarity to other transmissions, traditional automatic transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and driver\'s feel from semiautomatics and CVT’s. In contrast to conventional automatic transmissions, a CVT uses a belt or other torque transmission scheme to allow an \"infinite\" number of gear ratios instead of a fixed number of gear ratios. A semi-automatic retains a clutch like a manual transmission, but controls the clutch through electro hydraulic. The ability to shift gears manually, often via paddle shifters, can also be found on certain automated transmissions semi-automatics and CVT’s.

Fig. 1.1(c)

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project  

The research of current market clearly indicates the gap in fabrication of the automated manual gear shifting mechanism in the conventional motor bikes, in order to bridge this gap gear shifting mechanism is designed and fabricated in the following project work.

Aim:

To design and fabricate the automated manual gear transmission mechanism for  motor bikes.

Objectives:

To design the gear shifting mechanism and modify the vehicle according to the designed mechanism.

To program the microcontroller according to the needs of the mechanism and build the electronic circuit.

To calibrate the gear shifting mechanism and also to check for the improvements in the efficiency if any.

1.3 Problem Specification

There is already invention has been done of gearbox for motorcycle for transmit the torque from engine crankshaft to the rear wheel of the motorcycle. The gearbox is used for increase or decrease the torque as required for motorcycle riding positions. The gearbox increases the required torque for start the ride and put the motorcycle in to motion. After the starting the running of the motorcycle there is no need of high torque so now gearbox is transmits the optimum torque to the rear wheel at high speed. For the operation of gearbox and shifting the gear there is need of some effort of driver of motorcycle. There is foot paddle in the left side of the engine near to left leg for shifting the gear in most of the motorcycles. And there is clutch mechanism for engage disengage between engine crankshaft and input shaft of gearbox. So for flaw less and jerk less driving of motorcycle there is need of timing in operating the clutch and gearbox. Without experience of driving motorcycle and shifting its gear driver cannot drive motorcycle jerk less. So there is need of auto transmission for rapid shifting of gear and increase the efficiency of engine.

The topic of current interest in the area of controller development for automatic transmissions with a finite number of gear shifts which transmits the gears automatically with respect to speed. Gear shifts in automatic transmissions involve a change in the power flow path through the transmission. Advantages of these automatic transmissions include simplicity of mechanical design and savings in transmission weight and size, which are beneficial in terms of fuel economy and production costs.

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