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I have taken effort in this project. However, it would not have been

possible without the support and help of many individuals,

organization and My all team members. I would like to extend my

sincere thanks to all of them.

I am highly indebted to Miss Pooja Mam and Mr. Harsad Sir for

their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing

necessary information regarding the project & also for their support

in completing the project and all progress. I also thanks to Shree

Shreenath Forge industry to give us to opportunity for making

Project in their industry. I would like to express my special gratitude

toward my Parents and Member of our collage for their kind cooperation

and encouragement which help me in any time. Special

thanks for My all Friends who always to ready for any kind of help

in our project.

I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to industry

person for giving me such attention and time.

My thanks and appreciations also go to My Colleague in

developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out

with their abilities.

Page III



Mechatronics Engineering Department



This is certifying that Project–II (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Kaneriya Meet (130960120009) under my guidance in fulfilment of

the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics Engineering

(7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page IV



Mechatronics Engineering Department



This is certifying that Project–II (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Patel Manasvi (130960120016) under my guidance in fulfilment of

the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics Engineering

(7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page V



Mechatronics Engineering Department



This is certifying that Project–I (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Chhodavadiya Uttam(130960120002) under my guidance in

fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics

Engineering (7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University,

Ahmadabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page VI


We Chhodavadiya Uttamn, Kaneriaya Meet, Patel Manasvi ,the student of

Mechatronics Branch, having Enrolment Number 130960120002, 130960120009,

130960120016 enrolled at Arun Muchhala Engineering College-Dhari hereby certify and

declare the following:

1. I/we have defined my/our project based on inputs at Utilize Energy In Forging Press By

Piezo Electric Sensor and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt to solve

the challenges. We will attempt the project work at my college or at any location under the

direct and consistent monitoring of Prof.Ashif Hathiyari. We will adopt all ethical practices

to share credit amongst all the contributors based on their contributions during the project


2. We have not purchased the solutions developed by any 3rd party directly and the efforts

are made by me/we under the guidance of guides.

3. The project work is not copied from any previously done projects directly. (Same project

can be done in different ways but if it has been done in same manner before then it may not

be accepted)

4. Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor to the best of my knowledge

is a genuine industry engaged in the professional service/social organizations.

5. We understand and accept that he above declaration if found to be untrue, it can result in

punishment/cancellation of project definition to me/we including failure in the subject of

project work.


Contact Numbers: 7698036245 / 9978818526 / 9737737408


Place: Dhari

 Chhodavadiya Uttam

 Kaneriaya Meet

 Patel Manasvi


Page VII


Now a day so many Energy source available in world. Like wind

energy, solar energy, tidal energy, nuclear energy, and so on. Same

like as We develop one more new source of energy. It’s name is

“Piezo electric power energy”. It is totally Eco- friendly and Non

pollute source.

When we apply force then piezo produces energy in turn of

electric energy. We use this principle in forging industry. When forge

press machine apply force in down word to its direction then piezo

electric sensor produce power. For applying this system in forging

industry we can produce energy which are goes to waste in now a



List of Figure

Sr. No. Figure Name Page No.

1 Piezo Electric Sensor 7


Half section of piezo sensor


3 Construction of sensor 7

4 Graph voltage vs Force 9

5 Circuit diagram 10

6 Circuit diagram-2 12

7 Forging press 15

8 Concept of forging 16

9 Inverter 24

10 Rectifier 24

Page IX

List of Table

Sr.No. Table no. Table Name Page No.

1 1 Property of piezo 7

Page X


Chapter No. Chapter Name Page No.

1)History 1




2)Piezoelectric sensor 6

Principle of operation 8

Transverse effect 8

Longitudinal effect 8

Electrical properties 9

Sensing materials 11

Sensor design 11

Sensor design calculation 13

Graphical representation 16

3) Forging 18

Definition 18

Press forging 19

Special feature of Forging machine 22

Press forging equipment 22

4) Concept 23

5) Reference 25

6) Appendix 26

PPR(Periodic Progress Report )

Business model canvas

PED(pattern drafting exercise)

Industrial competition certificates

Plagiarism report

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Page 1


The first experimental demonstration of a connection between macroscopic

piezoelectric phenomena and crystallographic structure was published in 1880 by

Pierre and Jacques Curie. Their experiment consisted of a conclusive measurement

of surface charges appearing on specially prepared crystals (tourmaline, quartz,

topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt among them) which were subjected to

mechanical stress. These results were a credit to the Curies\' imagination and

perseverance, considering that they were obtained with nothing more than tinfoil,

glue, wire, magnets and a jeweler\'s saw.

In the scientific circles of the day, this effect was considered quite a

\"discovery,\" and was quickly dubbed as \"piezoelectricity\" in order to

distinguish it from other areas of scientific phenomenological experience such

as \"contact electricity\" (friction generated static electricity) and

\"piezoelectricity\" (electricity generated from crystals by heating).

The Curie brothers asserted, however, that there was a one-to-one

correspondence between the electrical effects of temperature change and

mechanical stress in a given crystal, and that they had used this correspondence

not only to pick the crystals for the experiment, but also to determine the cuts of

those crystals. To them, their demonstration was a confirmation of predictions

which followed naturally from their understanding of the microscopic

crystallographic origins of pyroelectricity (i.e., from certain crystal asymmetries).

The Curie brothers did not, however, predict that crystals exhibiting the direct

piezoelectric effect (electricity from applied stress) would also exhibit the

converse piezoelectric effect (stress in response to applied electric field). This

property was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic

principles by Lippmann in 1881. The Curies immediately confirmed the existence

of the \"converse effect,\" and continued on to obtain quantitative proof of the

complete reversibility of electro-elasto-mechanical deformations in piezoelectric


The first serious applications work on piezoelectric devices took place during

World War I. In 1917, P. Langevin and French co-workers began to

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perfect an ultrasonic submarine detector. Their transducer was a mosaic of thin

quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant

frequency of about 50 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion.

Working on past the end of the war, they did achieve their goal of emitting a high

frequency \"chirp\" underwater and measuring depth by timing the return echo. The

strategic importance of their achievement was not overlooked by any industrial

nation, however, and since that time the development of sonar transducers, circuits,

systems, and materials has never ceased.



1920 - 1940

The success of sonar stimulated intense development activity on all kinds

of piezoelectric devices, both resonating and non-resonating. Some

examples of this activity include:

 Megacycle quartz resonators were developed as frequency stabilizers for

vacuum-tube oscillators, resulting in a ten-fold increase in stability.

 A new class of materials testing methods was developed based on the

propagation of ultrasonic waves. For the first time, elastic and viscous

properties of liquids and gases could be determined with comparative

ease, and previously invisible flaws in solid metal structural members

could be detected. Even acoustic holographic techniques were

successfully demonstrated.

 Also, new ranges of transient pressure measurement were opened up

permitting the study of explosives and internal combustion engines, along

with a host of other previously unmeasurable vibrations, accelerations,

and impacts.

In fact, during this revival following World War I, most of the classic

piezoelectric applications with which we are now familiar (microphones,

accelerometers, ultrasonic transducers, bender element actuators, phonograph pickups,

signal filters, etc.) were conceived and reduced to practice. It is important to

remember, however, that the materials available at the time often limited device

performance and certainly limited commercial exploitation.

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1940 – 1965

During World War II, in the U.S., Japan and the Soviet Union, isolated

research groups working on improved capacitor materials discovered that

certain ceramic materials (prepared by sintering metallic oxide powders)

exhibited dielectric constants up to 100 times higher than common cut

crystals. Furthermore, the same class of materials (called ferroelectrics) were

made to exhibit similar improvements in piezoelectric properties. The

discovery of easily manufactured piezoelectric ceramics with astonishing

performance characteristics naturally touched off a revival of intense

research and development into piezoelectric devices.

The advances in materials science that were made during this phase fall

into three categories:

1. Development of the barium titanate family of piezoceramics and later the

lead zirconate titanate family.

2. The development of an understanding of the correspondence of the

perovskite crystal structure to electro-mechanical activity.

3. The development of a rationale for doping both of these families with

metallic impurities in order to achieve desired properties such as dielectric

constant, stiffness, piezoelectric coupling coefficients, ease of poling, etc.

All of these advances contributed to establishing an entirely new method of

piezoelectric device development - namely, tailoring a material to a specific

application. Historically speaking, it had always been the other way around.

This \"lock-step\" material and device development proceeded the world over, but

was dominated by industrial groups in the U.S. who secured an early lead with

strong patents. The number of applications worked on was staggering, including

the following highlights and curiosities:

 Powerful sonar - based on new transducer geometries (such as spheres

and cylinders) and sizes achieved with ceramic casting.

 Ceramic phono cartridge - cheap, high signal elements simplified

circuit design.

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 Piezo ignition systems - single cylinder engine ignition systems which

generated spark voltages by compressing a ceramic \"pill\".

 Sonobouy - sensitive hydrophone listening/radio transmitting bouys for

monitoring ocean vessel movement.

 Small, sensitive microphones - became the rule rather than the


 Ceramic audio tone transducer - small, low power, low voltage, audio tone

transducer consisting of a disc of ceramic laminated to a disc of sheet metal.

 Relays - snap action relays were constructed and studied, at least one

piezo relay was manufactured

It is worth noting that during this revival, especially in the U.S., device

development was conducted along with piezo material development within

individual companies. As a matter of policy, these companies did not

communicate. The reasons for this were threefold: first, the improved materials

were developed under wartime research conditions, so the experienced workers

were accustomed to working in a \"classified\" atmosphere; second, post war

entrepreneurs saw the promise of high profits secured by both strong patents and

secret processes; and third, the fact that by nature piezoceramic materials are

extraordinarily difficult to develop, yet easy to replicate once the process is


From a business perspective, the market development for piezoelectric devices

lagged behind the technical development by a considerable margin. Even though

all the materials in common use today were developed by 1970, at that same point

in time only a few high volume commercial applications had evolved (phono

cartridges and filter elements, for instance). Considering this fact with hindsight, it

is obvious that while new material and device developments thrived in an

atmosphere of secrecy, new market development did not - and the growth of this

industry was severely hampered.

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1965 – 1980

In contrast to the \"secrecy policy\" practiced among U.S. piezoceramic

manufacturers at the outset of the industry, several Japanese companies and

universities formed a \"competitively cooperative\" association, established

as the Barium Titanate Application Research Committee, in 1951. This

association set an organizational precedent for successfully surmounting

not only technical challenges and manufacturing hurdles, but also for

defining new market areas.

Beginning in 1965 Japanese commercial enterprises began to reap the

benefits of steady applications and materials development work which

began with a successful fish-finder test in 1951. From an international

business perspective they were \"carrying the ball,\" i.e., developing new

knowledge, new applications, new processes, and new commercial market

areas in a coherent and profitable way.

Persistent efforts in materials research had created new piezoceramic

families which were competitive with Vernitron\'s PZT, but free of patent

restrictions. With these materials available, Japanese manufacturers

quickly developed several types of piezoceramic signal filters, which

addressed needs arising in television, radio, and communications

equipment markets; and piezoceramic igniters for natural gas/butane


As time progressed, the markets for these products continued to grow, and

other similarly valuable ones were found. Most notable were audio buzzers

(smoke alarms, TTL compatible tone generators), air ultrasonic transducers

(television remote controls and intrusion alarms) and SAW filter devices

(devices employing Surface Acoustic Wave effects to achieve high

frequency signal filtering).

By comparison to the commercial activity in Japan, the rest of the

world was slow, even declining. Globally, however, there was still

much pioneering research work taking place as well as device invention

and patenting.

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Piezoelectric sensor

A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect, to

measure changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or

force by converting them to an electrical charge. The prefix piezo- is

Greek for \'press\' or \'squeeze\'.

The main principle of a piezoelectric transducer is that a force, when

applied on the quartz crystal, produces electric charges on the crystal

surface. The charge thus produced can be called as piezoelectricity.

Piezo electricity can be defined as the electrical polarization produced

by mechanical strain on certain class of crystals.

The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of

inherent advantages. The high modulus of elasticity of many

piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of many metals and goes up

to 106 N/m².

Even though piezoelectric sensors are electromechanical systems that

react to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection.

This gives piezoelectric sensors ruggedness, an extremely high natural

frequency and an excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range.

Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to electromagnetic

fields and radiation, enabling measurements under harsh conditions.

Some materials used (especially gallium phosphate or tourmaline) are

extremely stable at high temperatures, enabling sensors to have a

working range of up to 1000 °C. Tourmaline shows pyroelectricity in

addition to the piezoelectric effect; this is the ability to generate an

electrical signal when the temperature of the crystal changes. This effect

is also common to piezoceramic materials. Gautschi in Piezoelectric

Sensorics (2002) offers this comparison table of characteristics of piezo

sensor materials vs other types.

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Principle Strain Threshold Span to

Sensitivity [με] threshold

[V/με] ratio

Piezoelectric 5.0 0.00001 100,000,000

Piezoresistive 0.0001 0.0001 2,500,000

Inductive 0.001 0.0005 2,000,000

Capacitive 0.005 0.0001 750,000

Resistive 0.000005 0.01 50,000

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Principle of operation

The way a piezoelectric material is cut produces three main

operational modes:

 Transverse

 Longitudinal

 Shear.

Transverse effect

A force applied along a neutral axis (y) generates charges along the (x) direction,

perpendicular to the line of force. The amount of charge depends on the

geometrical dimensions of the respective piezoelectric element. When dimensions

A,B,C apply ;


where a is the dimension in line with the neutral axis, b is in line with the charge

generating axis and d is the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient.

Longitudinal effect

The amount of charge produced is strictly proportional to the applied force and

independent of the piezoelectric element size and shape. Putting several elements

mechanically in series and electrically in parallel is the only way to increase the

charge output. The resulting charge is


where dxx is the piezoelectric coefficient for a charge in x-direction released by

forces applied along x-direction . Fx is the applied Force in x-direction and n

corresponds to the number of stacked elements.

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Electrical properties

A piezoelectric transducer has very high DC output impedance and can be

modeled as a proportional voltage source and filter network. The voltage V at the

source is directly proportional to the applied force, pressure, or strain.The output

signal is then related to this mechanical force as if it had passed through the

equivalent circuit.

Frequency response of a piezoelectric sensor; output voltage vs applied force

A detailed model includes the effects of the sensor\'s mechanical construction and

other non-idealities. The inductance Lm is due to the seismic mass and inertia of

the sensor itself. Ce is inversely proportional to the mechanical elasticity of the

sensor. C0 represents the static capacitance of the transducer, resulting from an

inertial mass of infinite size. Ri is the insulation leakage resistance of the

transducer element. If the sensor is connected to a load resistance, this also acts in

parallel with the insulation resistance, both increasing the high-pass cutoff


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In the flat region, the sensor can be modeled as a voltage source in series with the

sensor\'s capacitance or a charge source in parallel with the capacitance

For use as a sensor, the flat region of the frequency response plot is typically used,

between the high-pass cutoff and the resonant peak. The load and leakage

resistance must be large enough that low frequencies of interest are not lost. A

simplified equivalent circuit model can be used in this region, in which Cs

represents the capacitance of the sensor surface itself, determined by the standard

formula for capacitance of parallel plates. It can also be modelled as a charge

source in parallel with the source capacitance, with the charge directly

proportional to the applied force, as above.

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Sensing materials


 Two main groups of materials are used for piezoelectric sensors:

piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal materials. The ceramic

materials (such as PZT ceramic) have a piezoelectric

constant/sensitivity that is roughly two orders of magnitude higher

than those of the natural single crystal materials and can be produced

by inexpensive sintering processes. The piezoeffect in piezoceramics

is \"trained\", so their high sensitivity degrades over time. This

degradation is highly correlated with increased temperature.

 The less-sensitive, natural, single-crystal materials (gallium

phosphate, quartz, tourmaline) have a higher – when carefully

handled, almost unlimited – long term stability. There are also new

single-crystal materials commercially available such as Lead

Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT). These materials offer

improved sensitivity over PZT but have a lower maximum operating

temperature and are currently more expensive to manufacture. 

 

Sensor design


 Based on piezoelectric technology various physical quantities can be

measured; the most common are pressure and acceleration. For

pressure sensors, a thin membrane and a massive base is used,

ensuring that an applied pressure specifically loads the elements in one

direction. For accelerometers, a seismic mass is attached to the

crystal elements. When the accelerometer experiences a motion, the

invariant seismic mass loads the elements according to Newton\'s

second law of motion .

 The main difference in working principle between these two cases is the

way they apply forces to the sensing elements. In a pressure sensor, a

thin membrane transfers the force to the elements, while in

accelerometers an attached seismic mass applies the forces.

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 Sensors often tend to be sensitive to more than one physical quantity. Pressure

sensors show false signal when they are exposed to vibrations. Sophisticated

pressure sensors therefore use acceleration compensation elements in addition

to the pressure sensing elements. By carefully matching those elements, the

acceleration signal (released from the compensation element) is subtracted from

the combined signal of pressure and acceleration to derive the true pressure


 Vibration sensors can also harvest otherwise wasted energy from mechanical

vibrations. This is accomplished by using piezoelectric materials to convert

mechanical strain into usable electrical energy.

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Sensor design Calculation

We consider a piezoelectric bender, excited at one end by sinusoidal vibration of

amplitude and frequency , with a proof mass attached to the other end.

The model of the device is established for the actuator mode and is derived from

equations proposed . In this modelling, the mass of the piezoelectric material is not taken

into account, and the model is valid for frequencies below the first vibration mode of the

bender and its mass. We name the voltage across the piezoelectric material; if the

piezoelectric bender is supposed to exhibit a linear behaviour, with a mechanical

stiffness ks and an internal damping Ds , the equation of the displacement of the bender’s

tip is given by;

where is an internal piezoelectric force facc and is the equivalent force due to the

structure’s oscillations; facc is given by

The piezoelectric conversion does not take into account any nonlinearity; therefore we


where im is a motional equivalent current and N is called the piezoelectric force factor.

Finally, the electrical behaviour is modelled using , where i is the current supplied to the

bender and Cb is the equivalent blocked capacitance of the piezoelectric generator

This model can be represented using the energetic macroscopic representation because

this representation tool is suitable not only to deduce by inversion control laws but also to

obtain the power flowing into the system. For the purpose of a better understanding of the

representation, introduces two variables fs and f given by;

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Energetic macroscopic representation of the system.

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As per Proportionality relation The variation of the efficiency with the dynamic

load range. As expected the efficiency of the piezo crystal increases with

increasing load range.

A voltage of about 10 V at a load level of 50 N. Without the external resistor,

the cyclic voltage, measured in this study was bi-directional with a total range

(minimum to maximum) of ~ 5 V. Because relation of power , voltage and

resister are as below;


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Graphical representation

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The content also focuses on the different methods of forging like open or closed

die forging, hammer forging, etc.

What is Forging?

The manufacturing stages which involve processing of metal objects through a

planned heating/cooling treatments along with intermediate compression

procedures is called forging. Forged parts vary in size ranging from a few pounds

up to 300 tons, and can be called small, medium, and heavy forgings. Small parts

include tools such as chisels and tools used in cutting and carving wood. Medium

forgings include car axles, small crankshafts, connecting rods, levers, and hooks.

Heavier forgings are shafts of power plant generators, ship crankshafts, turbines,

and columns of presses and rolls for rolling mills.

 Forging Equipment

The following forging equipment is normally found in industrial settings.

 Forging Machine

A forging machine includes an anvil mass and a ram block, to be released and

struck against, between which forging is carried out. The machine comprises a

damping mass, which experiences the blow and moves in a large amplitude of

motion in comparison with the amplitude of motion of the anvil mass, to damp the

blows conducted from the anvil mass to the stationary foundation of the machine.

 Hydraulic Forging Press

It consists of the press, the hydraulic intensifier, and the auxiliary water tank. A

piece of work is compressed between the dies. Numerous shapes of dies may be

used. The press head is forced down by hydraulic pressure on the ram in the

cylinder, and is lifted by steam pressure under the two pistons in the cylinders. The

vertical motion of the press head is directed by the four columns which hold the

press firmly against distortion. Water pressure is exerted through the pipe from the

steam intensifier. Steam admitted under the piston imparts the pressure to the


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Press forging

Press forging is variation of drop-hammer forging. Unlike drop-hammer

forging, press forges work slowly by applying continuous pressure or force. The

amount of time the dies are in contact with the work piece is measured in

seconds (as compared to the milliseconds of drop-hammer forges). The main

advantage of press forging, as compared to drop-hammer forging, is its ability to

deform the complete work piece. Drop-hammer forging usually only deforms the

surfaces of the work piece in contact with the hammer and anvil; the interior of

the work piece will stay relatively undeformed. There are a few disadvantages to

this process, most stemming from the work piece being in contact with the dies

for such an extended period of time. The work piece will cool faster because the

dies are in contact with work piece; the dies facilitate drastically more heat

transfer than the surrounding atmosphere. As the work piece cools it becomes

stronger and less ductile, which may induce cracking if deformation continues.

Therefore heated dies usually used to reduce heat loss, promote surface flow, and

enable the production of finer details and closer tolerances. The work piece may

also need to be reheated. Press forging can be used to perform all types of

forging, including open-die and impression-die forging. Impression-die press

forging usually requires less draft than drop forging and has better dimensional

accuracy.Also, press forgings can often be done in one closing of the dies,

allowing for easy automation. The working sequences before and after the actual

forging are frequently performed on hydraulic presses. On hydraulic pre-form

presses, pre-forms are generated so that there will be a mass distribution

appropriate for the die. Having a pre-form with a good structure reduces the

amount of material used and also reduces the forming forces required during

forging. The die life is improved.

Following die forging, the flash is trimmed off and any required piercing and

coining work is performed on hydraulic trimming and calibrating presses. These

working sequences can either be combined in one die or performed consecutively

in several stations.

Hydraulic forging presses are used wherever high forces and long working

travel distances are required. This is revealed in numerous special applications up

to press forces of 300.000 kN and working travel distances of 4 m. Examples

include hot forging presses, piercing presses and presses for partial forging of

fittings and thick-walled pipes.

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 Special feature of Forging machine

Eight open die hydraulic presses coupled with modern mobile manipulators and

the latest in electronics and hydraulics produce a limitless variety of shapes and

sizes in both ferrous and non-ferrous materials up to 100,000 lbs. The creativity

and skill of our forge masters allow the versatility to produce complex open and

semi-closed die forgings. Industry-leading resources and redundant press capacity

provide added assurance for time-critical application

 Press forging equipment

  1 - 5,500 ton 2-post press 

 1 - 4,500 ton 2-post press 

  2 - 3,000 ton 2-post press 

 1 - 2,000 ton 2-post press 

 2 - 1,250 ton 2-post press 

 1 - 750 ton 4-post press 

 1 - 2,000 ton upset press 

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 We create a new invention and develop new source of energy.

 We Fix the Piezo-electric Sensor in Lower plate of Forging Machine. So

When we applied a force on lower plate of forging Machine then we get

Energy in term of electrical energy. We see earlier that forging machine can

able apply 1,2,3,4 and 5 ton force on lower plate.

 Piezo-electric sensor can produce energy proposal to applied force. We use

this principal for produce energy. We fix piezo plate on lower plate of

forging machine. When we start forging machine do job at that time piezo

plate which fitted in lower plate produce energy. Use of this system we can

get Eco-friendly energy. Use wherever we want in that industry and other

place by storing energy.

 We get energy in term of electrical voltage , we have to convert it into AC


 A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that

changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage,

output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the

design of the specific device or circuitry.

 We have to to convert DC to AC because of “A/c supply cannot store

because in A/c supply in first half cycle it charge (store) and other half it

discharge. In A/c supply terminal are change in it is not possible”.

 Now transmit it to DC storage battery, so we have to again convert back to

AC to DC. Because of “transmission required high voltage for reduce the

losses . D.C. voltage is not step up thru transformer .we can not generate

very high voltage”.

 Use one of the rectifier circuits (half wave, full wave or bridge rectifier)

to convert the AC voltage to DC. If you need a voltage lesser or greater

than the AC voltage, use an appropriate transformer to bring the voltage to

the level you need before connecting the rectifier.

 Then when we need to use generated power , we can use after convert DC

from DC storage battery to AC and transmit to required through cable.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

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Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 25


 Google

 Wikipedia

 Hyper physics


 Assistance professor Purvisha Dobariya and Assistance

professor Harshad kherada


Business Model Canvas Report

[Utilize Energy By using Piezo-Electric Sensors]

Thus business model canvas can be used to visualize such market problems and

customer expectations.This exercise will increase the market potential and penetration of

technology goods and services.This will make them more effective in market.

1. Key Partnerships:

It is always recommended to map Key Partners to Key Activities.If an activity is

key,it’s still part of business model.This is a way to denote which specific Partners are

handling various Key Activities for you.

 Forging Industry

 Developer

 Induatrial labor

 Investor

 Employee/worker

2. Key Activities:

The Key Activites block aims to the main activity of system what kind of activity performs

in project.

 Piezo electric power

 Power production at low cost

 Easy operation

 Selling

3. Key Resources:

This segment of the business model canvas use to define the resources what kind of

resource are need in this project.

 Forging press

 Piezoelectric sensors

 Guard plate

 Power controller

 Converter

4. Value Propositions:

The Value Propositions business block aims at providing answers to the following


 What value do we deliver to the customer?

 Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve?

 What bundles of product and services are we offering to each Customer


 Which customer needs are we satisfying?

The following are the propositions of our project…..

 Good utilization capability

 Good stability

 Batter module size

 Shock proof material

 Save money

 High strength

 Easy controlling

 Efficient/reliable/accurate

5. Customer Segments:

Customer Segment block is to present the list of Persons,organized by Customer

Segment.Following are customer segment..

 Heavy industries

6. Channels:

This business block comprises of a list of important Channels,linked to Persons

or Segments if they differ substantially. Make notes on what steps are relevant for each


 Plan & policy

 Advertisement

 Industrial events

7. Customer Relationship:

The customer relationship business is what type of relationship does each of our

customer expect us to establish and maintain with them.

 Unique continuous source

 User friendly environment

 Easy installation

8. Revenue streams:

Revenue Streams block of block of Business Model Canvas aims at future plans

and actions.

 More option for payment

 Online report system

 Small module size

 More features

9. Cost Structure:

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