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Page I

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Chandkheda, Ahmedabad

Affiliated

ARUN MUCHHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE - DHARI

A Report on

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor

Under subject of

Project – II (2182005)

B.E., Semester-VIII

(Mechatronics)

Submitted by:-

Sr. Name of Student Enrolment No.

1. Kaneriya Meet C 130960120009

2. Patel Manasvi J 130960120016

3. Chhodavadiya Uttam J 130960120002

ASSI. Pro. Purvisha Dobariya ASSI. Pro. Ashif Hathiyari

(Faculty Guide) (Head of the Department)

Academic year

(2016-2017)

Page II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have taken effort in this project. However, it would not have been

possible without the support and help of many individuals,

organization and My all team members. I would like to extend my

sincere thanks to all of them.

I am highly indebted to Miss Pooja Mam and Mr. Harsad Sir for

their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing

necessary information regarding the project & also for their support

in completing the project and all progress. I also thanks to Shree

Shreenath Forge industry to give us to opportunity for making

Project in their industry. I would like to express my special gratitude

toward my Parents and Member of our collage for their kind cooperation

and encouragement which help me in any time. Special

thanks for My all Friends who always to ready for any kind of help

in our project.

I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to industry

person for giving me such attention and time.

My thanks and appreciations also go to My Colleague in

developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out

with their abilities.

Page III

ARUN MUCHHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DHARI

Mechatronics Engineering Department

CERTIFICATE

Date:-________________

This is certifying that Project–II (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Kaneriya Meet (130960120009) under my guidance in fulfilment of

the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics Engineering

(7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page IV

ARUN MUCHHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DHARI

Mechatronics Engineering Department

CERTIFICATE

Date:-________________

This is certifying that Project–II (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Patel Manasvi (130960120016) under my guidance in fulfilment of

the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics Engineering

(7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page V

ARUN MUCHHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DHARI

Mechatronics Engineering Department

CERTIFICATE

Date:-________________

This is certifying that Project–I (2182005) project report on Utilize

Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor has been carried by

Chhodavadiya Uttam(130960120002) under my guidance in

fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechatronics

Engineering (7th& 8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University,

Ahmadabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Head of Department

Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner

___________________________ ___________________________

Page VI

SELF - DECLARATION (BY STUDENTS)

We Chhodavadiya Uttamn, Kaneriaya Meet, Patel Manasvi ,the student of

Mechatronics Branch, having Enrolment Number 130960120002, 130960120009,

130960120016 enrolled at Arun Muchhala Engineering College-Dhari hereby certify and

declare the following:

1. I/we have defined my/our project based on inputs at Utilize Energy In Forging Press By

Piezo Electric Sensor and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt to solve

the challenges. We will attempt the project work at my college or at any location under the

direct and consistent monitoring of Prof.Ashif Hathiyari. We will adopt all ethical practices

to share credit amongst all the contributors based on their contributions during the project

work.

2. We have not purchased the solutions developed by any 3rd party directly and the efforts

are made by me/we under the guidance of guides.

3. The project work is not copied from any previously done projects directly. (Same project

can be done in different ways but if it has been done in same manner before then it may not

be accepted)

4. Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor to the best of my knowledge

is a genuine industry engaged in the professional service/social organizations.

5. We understand and accept that he above declaration if found to be untrue, it can result in

punishment/cancellation of project definition to me/we including failure in the subject of

project work.

Names:

Contact Numbers: 7698036245 / 9978818526 / 9737737408

Date:

Place: Dhari

 Chhodavadiya Uttam

 Kaneriaya Meet

 Patel Manasvi

Signs

Page VII

ABSTRACT

Now a day so many Energy source available in world. Like wind

energy, solar energy, tidal energy, nuclear energy, and so on. Same

like as We develop one more new source of energy. It’s name is

“Piezo electric power energy”. It is totally Eco- friendly and Non

pollute source.

When we apply force then piezo produces energy in turn of

electric energy. We use this principle in forging industry. When forge

press machine apply force in down word to its direction then piezo

electric sensor produce power. For applying this system in forging

industry we can produce energy which are goes to waste in now a

days.

Page VIII

List of Figure

Sr. No. Figure Name Page No.

1 Piezo Electric Sensor 7

2

Half section of piezo sensor

7

3 Construction of sensor 7

4 Graph voltage vs Force 9

5 Circuit diagram 10

6 Circuit diagram-2 12

7 Forging press 15

8 Concept of forging 16

9 Inverter 24

10 Rectifier 24

Page IX

List of Table

Sr.No. Table no. Table Name Page No.

1 1 Property of piezo 7

Page X

INDEX

Chapter No. Chapter Name Page No.

1)History 1

FIRST GENERATION APPLICATIONS 2

SECOND GENERATION APPLICATIONS 3

JAPANESE DEVELOPMENTS 5

2)Piezoelectric sensor 6

Principle of operation 8

Transverse effect 8

Longitudinal effect 8

Electrical properties 9

Sensing materials 11

Sensor design 11

Sensor design calculation 13

Graphical representation 16

3) Forging 18

Definition 18

Press forging 19

Special feature of Forging machine 22

Press forging equipment 22

4) Concept 23

5) Reference 25

6) Appendix 26

PPR(Periodic Progress Report )

Business model canvas

PED(pattern drafting exercise)

Industrial competition certificates

Plagiarism report

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 1

History

The first experimental demonstration of a connection between macroscopic

piezoelectric phenomena and crystallographic structure was published in 1880 by

Pierre and Jacques Curie. Their experiment consisted of a conclusive measurement

of surface charges appearing on specially prepared crystals (tourmaline, quartz,

topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt among them) which were subjected to

mechanical stress. These results were a credit to the Curies\' imagination and

perseverance, considering that they were obtained with nothing more than tinfoil,

glue, wire, magnets and a jeweler\'s saw.

In the scientific circles of the day, this effect was considered quite a

\"discovery,\" and was quickly dubbed as \"piezoelectricity\" in order to

distinguish it from other areas of scientific phenomenological experience such

as \"contact electricity\" (friction generated static electricity) and

\"piezoelectricity\" (electricity generated from crystals by heating).

The Curie brothers asserted, however, that there was a one-to-one

correspondence between the electrical effects of temperature change and

mechanical stress in a given crystal, and that they had used this correspondence

not only to pick the crystals for the experiment, but also to determine the cuts of

those crystals. To them, their demonstration was a confirmation of predictions

which followed naturally from their understanding of the microscopic

crystallographic origins of pyroelectricity (i.e., from certain crystal asymmetries).

The Curie brothers did not, however, predict that crystals exhibiting the direct

piezoelectric effect (electricity from applied stress) would also exhibit the

converse piezoelectric effect (stress in response to applied electric field). This

property was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic

principles by Lippmann in 1881. The Curies immediately confirmed the existence

of the \"converse effect,\" and continued on to obtain quantitative proof of the

complete reversibility of electro-elasto-mechanical deformations in piezoelectric

crystals.

The first serious applications work on piezoelectric devices took place during

World War I. In 1917, P. Langevin and French co-workers began to

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 2

perfect an ultrasonic submarine detector. Their transducer was a mosaic of thin

quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant

frequency of about 50 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion.

Working on past the end of the war, they did achieve their goal of emitting a high

frequency \"chirp\" underwater and measuring depth by timing the return echo. The

strategic importance of their achievement was not overlooked by any industrial

nation, however, and since that time the development of sonar transducers, circuits,

systems, and materials has never ceased.

 FIRST GENERATION APPLICATIONS WITH NATURAL

CRYSTALS

1920 - 1940

The success of sonar stimulated intense development activity on all kinds

of piezoelectric devices, both resonating and non-resonating. Some

examples of this activity include:

 Megacycle quartz resonators were developed as frequency stabilizers for

vacuum-tube oscillators, resulting in a ten-fold increase in stability.

 A new class of materials testing methods was developed based on the

propagation of ultrasonic waves. For the first time, elastic and viscous

properties of liquids and gases could be determined with comparative

ease, and previously invisible flaws in solid metal structural members

could be detected. Even acoustic holographic techniques were

successfully demonstrated.

 Also, new ranges of transient pressure measurement were opened up

permitting the study of explosives and internal combustion engines, along

with a host of other previously unmeasurable vibrations, accelerations,

and impacts.

In fact, during this revival following World War I, most of the classic

piezoelectric applications with which we are now familiar (microphones,

accelerometers, ultrasonic transducers, bender element actuators, phonograph pickups,

signal filters, etc.) were conceived and reduced to practice. It is important to

remember, however, that the materials available at the time often limited device

performance and certainly limited commercial exploitation.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 3

 SECOND GENERATION APPLICATIONS WITH

PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS

1940 – 1965

During World War II, in the U.S., Japan and the Soviet Union, isolated

research groups working on improved capacitor materials discovered that

certain ceramic materials (prepared by sintering metallic oxide powders)

exhibited dielectric constants up to 100 times higher than common cut

crystals. Furthermore, the same class of materials (called ferroelectrics) were

made to exhibit similar improvements in piezoelectric properties. The

discovery of easily manufactured piezoelectric ceramics with astonishing

performance characteristics naturally touched off a revival of intense

research and development into piezoelectric devices.

The advances in materials science that were made during this phase fall

into three categories:

1. Development of the barium titanate family of piezoceramics and later the

lead zirconate titanate family.

2. The development of an understanding of the correspondence of the

perovskite crystal structure to electro-mechanical activity.

3. The development of a rationale for doping both of these families with

metallic impurities in order to achieve desired properties such as dielectric

constant, stiffness, piezoelectric coupling coefficients, ease of poling, etc.

All of these advances contributed to establishing an entirely new method of

piezoelectric device development - namely, tailoring a material to a specific

application. Historically speaking, it had always been the other way around.

This \"lock-step\" material and device development proceeded the world over, but

was dominated by industrial groups in the U.S. who secured an early lead with

strong patents. The number of applications worked on was staggering, including

the following highlights and curiosities:

 Powerful sonar - based on new transducer geometries (such as spheres

and cylinders) and sizes achieved with ceramic casting.

 Ceramic phono cartridge - cheap, high signal elements simplified

circuit design.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 4

 Piezo ignition systems - single cylinder engine ignition systems which

generated spark voltages by compressing a ceramic \"pill\".

 Sonobouy - sensitive hydrophone listening/radio transmitting bouys for

monitoring ocean vessel movement.

 Small, sensitive microphones - became the rule rather than the

exception.

 Ceramic audio tone transducer - small, low power, low voltage, audio tone

transducer consisting of a disc of ceramic laminated to a disc of sheet metal.

 Relays - snap action relays were constructed and studied, at least one

piezo relay was manufactured

It is worth noting that during this revival, especially in the U.S., device

development was conducted along with piezo material development within

individual companies. As a matter of policy, these companies did not

communicate. The reasons for this were threefold: first, the improved materials

were developed under wartime research conditions, so the experienced workers

were accustomed to working in a \"classified\" atmosphere; second, post war

entrepreneurs saw the promise of high profits secured by both strong patents and

secret processes; and third, the fact that by nature piezoceramic materials are

extraordinarily difficult to develop, yet easy to replicate once the process is

known.

From a business perspective, the market development for piezoelectric devices

lagged behind the technical development by a considerable margin. Even though

all the materials in common use today were developed by 1970, at that same point

in time only a few high volume commercial applications had evolved (phono

cartridges and filter elements, for instance). Considering this fact with hindsight, it

is obvious that while new material and device developments thrived in an

atmosphere of secrecy, new market development did not - and the growth of this

industry was severely hampered.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 5

 JAPANESE DEVELOPMENTS

1965 – 1980

In contrast to the \"secrecy policy\" practiced among U.S. piezoceramic

manufacturers at the outset of the industry, several Japanese companies and

universities formed a \"competitively cooperative\" association, established

as the Barium Titanate Application Research Committee, in 1951. This

association set an organizational precedent for successfully surmounting

not only technical challenges and manufacturing hurdles, but also for

defining new market areas.

Beginning in 1965 Japanese commercial enterprises began to reap the

benefits of steady applications and materials development work which

began with a successful fish-finder test in 1951. From an international

business perspective they were \"carrying the ball,\" i.e., developing new

knowledge, new applications, new processes, and new commercial market

areas in a coherent and profitable way.

Persistent efforts in materials research had created new piezoceramic

families which were competitive with Vernitron\'s PZT, but free of patent

restrictions. With these materials available, Japanese manufacturers

quickly developed several types of piezoceramic signal filters, which

addressed needs arising in television, radio, and communications

equipment markets; and piezoceramic igniters for natural gas/butane

appliances.

As time progressed, the markets for these products continued to grow, and

other similarly valuable ones were found. Most notable were audio buzzers

(smoke alarms, TTL compatible tone generators), air ultrasonic transducers

(television remote controls and intrusion alarms) and SAW filter devices

(devices employing Surface Acoustic Wave effects to achieve high

frequency signal filtering).

By comparison to the commercial activity in Japan, the rest of the

world was slow, even declining. Globally, however, there was still

much pioneering research work taking place as well as device invention

and patenting.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 6

Piezoelectric sensor

A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect, to

measure changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or

force by converting them to an electrical charge. The prefix piezo- is

Greek for \'press\' or \'squeeze\'.

The main principle of a piezoelectric transducer is that a force, when

applied on the quartz crystal, produces electric charges on the crystal

surface. The charge thus produced can be called as piezoelectricity.

Piezo electricity can be defined as the electrical polarization produced

by mechanical strain on certain class of crystals.

The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of

inherent advantages. The high modulus of elasticity of many

piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of many metals and goes up

to 106 N/m².

Even though piezoelectric sensors are electromechanical systems that

react to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection.

This gives piezoelectric sensors ruggedness, an extremely high natural

frequency and an excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range.

Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to electromagnetic

fields and radiation, enabling measurements under harsh conditions.

Some materials used (especially gallium phosphate or tourmaline) are

extremely stable at high temperatures, enabling sensors to have a

working range of up to 1000 °C. Tourmaline shows pyroelectricity in

addition to the piezoelectric effect; this is the ability to generate an

electrical signal when the temperature of the crystal changes. This effect

is also common to piezoceramic materials. Gautschi in Piezoelectric

Sensorics (2002) offers this comparison table of characteristics of piezo

sensor materials vs other types.

Utilize Energy In Forging Press By Piezo Electric Sensor 2016/17

Page 7

Principle Strain Threshold Span to

Sensitivity [με] threshold

[V/με] ratio

Piezoelectric 5.0 0.00001 100,000,000

Piezoresistive 0.0001 0.0001 2,500,000

Inductive 0.001 0.0

N

Business Model Canvas Report

[Utilize Energy By using Piezo-Electric Sensors]

Thus business model canvas can be used to visualize such market problems and

customer expectations.This exercise will increase the market potential and penetration of

technology goods and services.This will make them more effective in market.

1. Key Partnerships:

It is always recommended to map Key Partners to Key Activities.If an activity is

key,it’s still part of business model.This is a way to denote which specific Partners are

handling various Key Activities for you.

 Forging Industry

 Developer

 Induatrial labor

 Investor

 Employee/worker

2. Key Activities:

The Key Activites block aims to the main activity of system what kind of activity performs

in project.

 Piezo electric power

 Power production at low cost

 Easy operation

 Selling

3. Key Resources:

This segment of the business model canvas use to define the resources what kind of

resource are need in this project.

 Forging press

 Piezoelectric sensors

 Guard plate

 Power controller

 Converter

4. Value Propositions:

The Value Propositions business block aims at providing answers to the following

questions:

 What value do we deliver to the customer?

 Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve?

 What bundles of product and services are we offering to each Customer

segment?

 Which customer needs are we satisfying?

The following are the propositions of our project…..

 Good utilization capability

 Good stability

 Batter module size

 Shock proof material

 Save money

 High strength

 Easy controlling

 Efficient/reliable/accurate

5. Customer Segments:

Customer Segment block is to present the list of Persons,organized by Customer

Segment.Following are customer segment..

 Heavy industries

6. Channels:

This business block comprises of a list of important Channels,linked to Persons

or Segments if they differ substantially. Make notes on what steps are relevant for each

promotion,sales,service,etc.

 Plan & policy

 Advertisement

 Industrial events

7. Customer Relationship:

The customer relationship business is what type of relationship does each of our

customer expect us to establish and maintain with them.

 Unique continuous source

 User friendly environment

 Easy installation

8. Revenue streams:

Revenue Streams block of block of Business Model Canvas aims at future plans

and actions.

 More option for payment

 Online report system

 Small module size

 More features

9. Cost Structure:

Cost Structur business block provides a list of cost structure elements with notes

on their relationship to Key Activities.

 Cost of resource

 Cost of maintenance

 Cost of employee

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