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  UDP PROJECT REPORT

DESIGN & FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC PAPER CUTTING MACHINE USING GENEVA MECHANISM

By

               DOLERA KRUNAL         (130040119025)

               FATEPARA PIYUSH       (130040119027)

               GORFAD NILESH            (130040119037)

Under the guidance of

Prof. Dilavar Dodia

A project report submitted to

Gujarat Technological University in

Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the

Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Department of

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

OCTOBER 2016

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled “DESIGN & FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC PAPER CUTTING MACHINE USING GENEVA MECHANISM” Was carried out by DOLERA KRUNAL (130040119025) FATEPARA PIYUSHKUMAR (130040119027) GORFAD NILESH (130040119037) At B.H. GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY for partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This research work has been carried out under my supervision and is to my satisfaction.

Date:     /     / 2017

Place: Rajkot

Internal guide : H.O.D.

Prof. D.D.DODIA Prof. V.H.Oza

SIGN:

  SIGN:

  

CANDIDATE DECLARATION

I declare that the dissertation report presented here for Bachelor of Engineering. (Mechanical) entitled “DESIGN & FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC PEPER CUTTING MACHIME USING GENEVA MECHANISM” is my own work conducted under the guidance of Prof.D.D. DODIA

I further declare that to the best of my knowledge, this dissertation report does not contain any part of work, which has been submitted for the award of any degree either in this university or in other university/ deemed university without proper citation.

   Signature of Student:

Name of Student: DOLERA KRUNAL

                        FATEPARA PIYUSH

                   GORFAD NILESH

 Enrolment No: 130040119025

                         130040119027

                         130040119037

Name of Guide: Prof. DILAVAR DODIA

Signature of Guide:

         Department of MECHANICAL Engineering

B.H. GARDI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“SUCCESS IS THE MIXTURE OF GUIDELINES, HARDWORK,

INTELLIGENCE ANDCO-OPERATION.”

We pray for the blessing of divine authority governing this world and think him for all the courage and power that he gave in course of progress of our project.

We are grateful to prof. H.O.D. V.H.Oza SIR Mechanical department for giving us such a nice opportunity for developing ourselves. We sincerely thank to our collage guide Prof. DILAVAR DODIA SIR for his personal guidance care and enthusiasm that helped us to make our report concrete one. We would like to be thankful to our collage us for cooperation in completing this report work. Last but not least. We would like to be thankful for our family members, friends and well-wishers who directly or indirectly helped us a lot. We have to express our feelings.

                                              Dolera krunal           (130040119025)

                                              Fatepara piyush        (130040119027)

                                              Gorfad nilesh            (130040119037)

                                                       

                                               

DATE:___/___/2017 NAME & SIGN OF STUDENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE……………………………………….……………….ii

CANDIDATE DECLARATION.………………………………...…..iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………… 4

LIST OF FIGURE………………………...……………….…………..7

LIST OF TABLE……………………....……………….……………...8

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………......9

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………..10

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………..11

CHAPTER-3 CANVAS ACTIVITY REPORT……………………...15

 5.1 OBSERVATION MATRIX/EMPATHY SUMMARY……….....15

    5.2 AEIOU SUMMARY……………………………………………..17

    5.3 IDEATION CANVAS………………………………………...…19

    5.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT………………………………..…20

    5.5 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS……………………………..….22

CHAPTER-4 DESIGN CALCULATION OF MACHINE COMPONENTS..……24

3.1 DESIGN CALCULATION OF CHAIN DRIVE…………..……24

 3.2 DESIGN OF GENEVA MECHANISM…. ………………..….….31

3.3 DESIGN OF SHAFT………………………….…………..……….33

CHAPTER-5 MODELING IN NX…………………..…...…………35

CHAPTER-6 PLANE OF WORK………………………………..…...38

6.1 DRAFTING OF MODEL………………………………..…….38

  6.2 PURCHASE OF MATERIAL…………………………………38

   6.3 DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL……….………………………38

CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION…………..……...……….…….….…40

APPENDIX-A ORAGINALITY REPORT…….………………...41

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. No.               Figure Description                                                 Page no.

    2.1                  Mechanism of Geneva wheel                                                 11

    2.2                  Layout of a four slot Geneva wheel using Cadence            12  

    2.3                  External Geneva mechanism                                                13

    3.1                  Observation matrix/empathy summary                              15

    3.2                  AEIOU summary                                                                  17

    3.3                   Ideation canvas                                                                    19

    3.4                   Product development canvas                                              20

   3.5                   Business model canvas  22

    4.1                   Profile of chain sprocket                                                     24

    5.1                   Design of Geneva sprocket                                                 35

    5.2                   Design of Geneva driver                                                     35

    5.3                   Assembly of Geneva mechanism                                       36

    5.4                   Design of chain sprocket                                                    36

    5.5                   Assembly of all parts of the machine in NX                     37

  6.1                     Geneva Mechanism                                                            38

   6.2                    Assembly of all parts of the model                                    39

    

                                   LIST OF TABLES

Table No.          Table Description                                                    Page no.

    4.1                       Power rating (in kW) of simple roller chain                              25

    4.2                       Characteristics of roller chains according to IS: 2403-1991     26

    4.3                       Selected parameters of roller chain                                            26

    4.4                       Factor of safety (n) for bush roller and silent chain                  27

ABSTRACT

 In current there are many machines based on paper cutting but it has some demerits like large in size, costly, need skilled people to operate. The main aim for this machine is to reduce timing for paper cutting and neglect the time for marking the paper. This aim is achieved by use of Geneva mechanism. The use of Geneva mechanism is very useful in small scale industries.

 The design and fabrication of paper cutting machine using Geneva mechanism is very useful to cut papers in equal and accurate dimensions. Geneva drive is an indexing mechanism that converts the continuous motion into intermittent motion. Due to the intermittent motion, the paper is moved between the time intervals of cutting periods. Then the paper cutting is achieved by the crank and lever mechanism. The cutter will be back to its original position by the spring effect. This project is designed with using Geneva mechanism and paper cutting machine. Paper cutting machine designed with mechanical arrangement in which movements are controlled by Geneva mechanism. In this paper cutting machine using Geneva mechanism consist of two sections. One is automatic paper cutting machine and second   section is conversion of rotary motion into intermittent motion of paper roller. The first section consists of Geneva wheel disc keyed with a shaft of one end and the other ends is connected to the chain sprocket wheel. The Geneva wheel shaft is supported on two Plummer block bearings. This sprocket wheel transmits the rotary motion to the Geneva wheel.

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

1.1OBJECTIVE

   Our objective is to design and fabricate automatic paper cutting machine. This would help in cut the paper in accurate and equal dimensions and reduce the time for marking the dimension.

1.2 BRIEF INTRODUCTION

    Now days, there is lot of competition in the market.  So there is need of developing a new method or process for effective manufacturing. That process or methods should fulfill the requirement about accuracy Productivity etc.  

It is necessary to reduce the total matching time. There are various Ways by which the total matching time can be effectively minimized. There are various time consuming steps or sub process, which can be, minimize by various methods.

  This project is designed with using Geneva mechanism and paper cutting machine. Paper cutting machine designed with mechanical arrangement in which movements are controlled by Geneva mechanism.

  In this paper cutting machine using Geneva mechanism consist of two sections. One is automatic paper cutting machine and second   section is conversion of rotary motion into intermittent motion of paper roller. The first section consists of Geneva wheel disc keyed with a shaft of one end and the other ends is connected to the chain sprocket wheel. The Geneva wheel shaft is supported on two Plummer block bearings. This sprocket wheel transmits the rotary motion to the Geneva wheel.

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 From paper: Design of a Micro machined Geneva Wheel as a mechanism to obtain intermittent motion from a constantly rotating source Varadarajan Vidya (Department of electric engineering) and Palani Kumaresan (Department of Mechanical Engineering) University of California, Berkeley

The basic structure of a four slot Geneva wheel is shown in Fig.1. The system consists of a constantly rotating disk coupled with a slotted disk, which gives rise to the desired discrete motion. A rotation of 2p radians of the former causes 2p/N radians of rotation of the latter, where N is the number of slots available on the slotted disk. Thus, one complete rotation of the slotted wheel requires N complete rotations of the other disk, thereby also increasing the total time period. The conversion mechanism of this disk system is as follows.  

                                  Fig2.1: mechanism of Geneva wheel

Wheel design

 Two types of slot designs for the Geneva wheel were considered. The designs were laid out using the Cadence software for MEMS layouts. Since the technology file available with the software allowed for only three levels of polysilicon, the structural poly0 level was not laid down.   

                   Fig2.2: Layout of a four slot Geneva wheel using Cadence

The layout of a four slotted wheel in Cadence is shown in Fig.  with projections on the constantly rotating wheel to so that it can be moved with a probe. The constantly rotating disk can be rotated using a Sandia microengine driven by comb-drives. The gears of the microengine can be made to mesh with the gears of the constantly rotating wheel that can be provided on it. To avoid unintentional rotation of the Geneva wheel, a truncated wheel (with a chopped arc angle of 4p/N radians) is placed on the constantly moving disk, which stops any rotation of the Geneva wheel when the pin is moving freely and is not engaged with any of the slots.   

The design should therefore, have the truncated disk and the Geneva wheel on the same polysilicon layer and the constantly moving disk in another layer, which would mesh with the microengine. The Geneva wheel and the chopped disk are made on the Poly2 layer and the constantly moving disk lies below in the Poly1 layer. The engaging pin on this disk is placed on Poly2 layer. The pins holding the Geneva wheel and the other disks are then placed on Poly3 layer, which gets contacted to the Poly0 layer and allows rotation of the disks after release.   

A gear can be fabricated on poly1 layer concentric with the Geneva wheel, which can then be meshed with a rack to convert the intermittent rotation of the disk into discrete linear motion. This can then be applied to micro mirrors and other systems requiring such motions.  

2.2 From paper: VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING OF CLASSIC EXTERNAL GENEVA MECHANISM by Iulian STANASEL1, Florin BLAGA2 1University of Oradea, [email protected] 2 University of Oradea, [email protected]

                                  Fig2.3: External Geneva mechanism

GENEVA mechanism is used as a mechanism for transforming rotary motion into intermittent motion running with acceleration jumps at the beginning and the end of the active phases [1]. The mechanism provides a precise positioning movement and its blockage, which makes it usable in many areas [2].  Synthesis of mechanism aims to determine the size and number of channels constructive established by different coefficients and in function of acting time [3]. Geneva mechanism (Fig.) consists of, the crank (1) and the wheel (2), which has several slots. Movement is

Transmitted from the crank to the wheel through the bolt (3), which keeps moving the wheel (2) until the exit from the slot.

CHAPTER-3 CANVAS ACTIVITY REPORT

3.1 OBSERVATION MATRIX/EMPATHY SUMMARY

                   Fig3.1: observation matrix/empathy summary

3.1.1 OBSERVATION:

   When we started observation for the project we came to know many different things out of this is important observation were noted and are as the time requirement for paper cutting in small scale industries is more, the size of continupus paper cutting machine is very large, price of that machine is aslo high.

3.1.2 SCOUTED CHALLENGES

 The scouted challenges are listed below:

• Size of paper cutting machine is large

• Need skilled people to operate the machine

• More time required for paper marking & cutting

• Noise generated by machine

• More paper wastage

• Less cost effective

3.1.3 TOP 5 PROBLEM ON THE BASIS OF DESIRABLE, FLEXIBILITY AND VIABILITY

After analyzing  all the problem top 5 problem were selected and the problem are:

• Marking required for paper cutting

• Large size of the machine

• High cost of machine

• Skilled people required to operate the machine

• More paper wastage

3.1.4 FINAL PROBLEM SELECTED 1 FROM TOP 5

• Thus the finalize problem is, the marking of paper is requires for paper cutting and the size and the cost of the machine.

3.2 AEIOU SUMMARY

                                        Fig3.2:  AEIOU summary

3.2.1 ENVIRONMENT

• Except noise pollution mostly pollution free

• Paper wastage

3.2.2 INTERACTIONS

By interacting different people in different areas which listed below,

• Supplier

• QC & production person

• Consumer

3.2.3 OBJECTS

The Objects are used in our project are Sprocket Roller, chainPaper,  rollerPaper , paper cutter, Geneva mechanism, Shaft & spring

3.2.4 ACTIVITIES

   The activities Detail study, designing,  Modelling, Collecting components, Commissioning

3.2.5 USERS

The users of our project can be Industries,  Book seller, Writer,  Stationers, Students,                   School & colleges.

3.3 IDEATION CANVAS

                                  Fig3.3:  ideation canvas

3.3.1 People:

End users like students, designer, industries, book sellers.

3.3.2 Activities:

As we discus earlier for this project are Detail study, designing, Modeling, Collecting components, Commissioning

3.3.3 Situation/Context/Location:

This word means that how our project applicable in different areas means circumstances and location. And the locations are industries, stationeries, and school & colleges.

3.2.4 Props/Possible Solution:

Props / possible solutions are continuous cutting of paper, low cost and compact size of machine, cut paper in equal and accurate dimensions and reduce the time for marking the dimensions of paper.

3.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS

                            Fig3.4:  product development canvas

3.4.1 Purpose:

Our project will fulfill following purposes:

• Reduce time for marking of paper

• Low cost

• Compact size

• Cut paper in equal & accurate dimensions

3.4.2 People:

The end users that we are having for our product are book sellers, writers, students and stationers.

3.4.3 Product experience:

• Easy to control

• Light weight

• Simple in operations

3.4.4 Product Function & Future:

• For equal size paper cutting

3.4.5 Components:

The components are used in our project are Sprocket, Roller chain, Paper roller, paper cutter, Geneva mechanism, Shaft & spring

3.5 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS

3.5.1 Key Partners

• Geneva Mechanism

• Chain Drive

• Electric motor

• Paper roller

• Paper cutter

3.5.2 Key Activity

• Welding

• Drilling

• Design & Analysis

3.5.3 Key Resource

• Wooden factory

• Contributor

• Wooden manufacturer

• Auto Part Manufacturer

3.5.4 Value Propositions

• Eco Friendly

• Sustainable

• Economic

• Easy to Operate

3.5.5 Customer Relationship

• Paper Industries

• Stationary

• Book Seller

• Student

3.5.6 Channels

• Distributor

• Evaluation

• Advertisements

3.5.7 Customer Segment

• Feedback

• Mfg. Industry

3.5.8 Revenue Streams

• Magnify Year Value

• Be Flexible

• Recurring Revenue

• Attract Investors

• Transaction Revenue

3.5.9 Cost Structure

• Manufacturing

• Transportation

• Transmission Converter

• Maintenance Cost

CHAPTER-4 DESIGN CALCULATION OF MACHINE COMPONENTS

4.1 DESIGN CALCULATION OF CHAIN DRIVE

                  Fig 4.1: profile of chain sprocket

The velocity ratio of chain drive is V.C.=1

From the book of machine design by R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta

For moderate speed selected teeth is 18, so teeth of the sprocket are 18.

Design power = Rated power × Service factor

We have selected rated power is 0.5Kw

And service factor is

KS = K1.K2. K3

K1 = load factor

Value of k1 is 1 for continuous load

K2 = lubrication factor

Value of k2 is 1.5 for periodic lubrication

K3 = rating factor

Value of k3 is 1.5 for continuous service

1) KS = K1.K2. K3

     Ks =1×1.5×1.5

     Ks = 2.25

2) Design power = rated power × service factor

                           =0.5 × 2.25 =1.125 kW

so the selected type of chain pitch, roller diameter, minimum width of roller,etc are as below,

so for power rating 1.125kW the selected chain is 08B and speed of sprocket is 200rpm.

                 Table 4.1: power rating (in kW) of simple roller chain

So, selected chain is 08B,

Table 4.2: characteristics of roller chains according to IS:2403-1991

The parameter of the chain 08B is

Sr. no. Parameter name Value

1. ISO chain number 08B

2. Roller diameter (d1) mm maximum 8.51

3. Width between inner plates(b1) mm maximum 7.75

4. Transverse pitch (p1) mm 13.92

5. Breaking load (kN) minimum for simple chain 17.8

            Table 4.3: selected parameters of roller chain

3) Pitch circle diameter =p/sin(180/T)

                                     =12.70/sin(180/T)

                                     =73.13mm =0.07313m

4) Pitch line velocity = πdn/60

                                  =3.14×0.07313×200/60

                                  =0.7654 m/s

5) Load on the chain

     W = rated power / pitch line velocity

         =0.5/0.7654

         =0.653229 kN

        =653.229 N

6) Factor of safety = breaking load(Wb)/load on the chain(W)

                              =17.8×10^3 / 0.653229 ×10^3

                               =27.249

            Table 4.4: factor of safety (n) for bush roller and silent chain

For the pitch 12.70 and 200rpm the factor of safety is minimum 7.8, the FOS of this designed chain is more than that value so, design is safe.

7) Centre distance between sprockets,

From the design of chin drive the minimum center distance between the sprocket should be 30 to 50 times the pitch. So, let us take 30. So,

X=30p

X=30×12.70

X=381mm

8) The number of chain links,

        K = T1 + T2/2 + 2X/p + {[T2 – T1 /2π] ^2} (p/X)

         K= 18+18/2 + 2×381/12.70 + 0

         K= 78

9) Length of chain,

        L=K×p

        L= 78×12.70

        L=990.6mm

       L=0.9906m

10) Tooth flank radius (Re)

  Maximum = 0.08d1(T^2 + 180)

                   =0.08(8.51) (18^2 + 180)

                   =342.123

D1=roller diameter

   T= number of teeth

      Minimum = 0.12 d1 (T + 2)

                       = 20.424

11) Roller seating radius (Ri)

      Maximum = 0.505d1 + 0.063(d1) ^1/3

                        =0.505×8.51 + 0.063(8.51) ^1/3

                        =4.4261

       Minimum = 0.505d1

                        =0.505 (8.51)

                  =4.2975

12) Roller seating angle (α)

Maximum = 140 – 90/T

                 = 140 – 90/18

                 =135

  Minimum = 120 – 90/T

               =120 – 90/18

              =115

13) Tooth height above the pitch polygon(ha)

  Maximum = 0.625p – 0.5d1 + 0.8p/T

                 =0.625(12.70) – 0.5(8.51) + 0.8(12.70)/18

                 =4.0769

  Minimum = 0.5(p-d1)

                =0.5(12.70-8.51)

                =2.095

14) Top diameter (Da)

  Maximum = D +1.25p –d1

                =73.13 +1.25(12.70) –8.51

                =80.505mm

  Minimum = D + p (1 - 1.6/T) – d1

               =73.13 + 12.70(1 – 1.6/1.8) – 8.51

              =76.201mm

15) Root diameter (Df)

           = D –Ri

           =73.13 -2(4.4261)

           =64.277mm

3.2 DESIGN CALCULATION OF GENEVA MECHANISM

  Equations taken from wales, Ronald A, Handbook of Machining and metal working calculations, MC-Graw hill professional, 2009

a=drive crank radius which is taken as 80mm

n=driven slot quantity which is 5 slots,

p= drive pin diameter which is 10mm

t=allotted clearance which is taken as 10mm

1) canter distance

    c = a/sin(180/n)

    c = 80/sin(180/n)

   c = 136.104mm

2) Geneva wheel radius (b)

    b= (c^2 –a^2) ^1/2

    b = (136.104^2 80^2) ^1/2

    b=110.11mm

3) slot center length (S)

      = (a + b) – c

      = (80+110.11) – 136.104

      =54.006mm

4) slot width(W)

      W = P + t

          =10+10

          =20mm

5) stop arc radius (Y)

          =a- (P×1.5)

          =80-(10×1.5)

          =65

6) stop disc radius (Z)

       = y + t  

      =65+10

     = 75mm

7) clearance arc (V)

     =b×z/a

     =110.11×75/80

     =103.228

3.3 DESIGN CALCULATIONS OF SHAFT

The sprockets are mounted on shafts,

1) Pitch circle diameter of sprockets

  D = 73.13mm = 0.07313mm

2) Power rating P = 0.5 kW

                            = 500W

3) Speed N = 200rpm

4) Length of the shaft is taken as L = 150mm

                                                        =0.15mm

5) Torque transmitted by the shaft,

     T = p×60/2πN

     T = 500×60 / 2×3.14×200

     T = 23.885 Nm

6) Tangential force on the sprockets,

    Ft = 2T/D

        = 2×23.885/0.07313

  Ft = 653.220N

  The load acting on the sprocket is W = 653.229N taken from chain design calculations,

 The sprocket are mounted at the middle of the shaft so,

7) maximum bending moment at the center of the sprocket,

    M = W×L/4

        =653.229×0.15/4

        M = 24.496 Nm

8) Equivalent twisting moment,

 Te = (M^2 + T^2) ^1/2

 Te= (24.496^2 + 23.885^2) ^1/2

 Te = 34.213 Nm

 Te = 34.213×10^3 Nmm

The another equation of equivalent twisting moment is

 Te = π/16 × τ × d^3

   d = 14.269mm

so, the diameter of the shaft is 14.269mm

CHAPTER-5 MODELING

1. Geneva driven wheel in NX software

                    Fig 5.1 Design of Geneva sprocket

2. Geneva driver in NX software

                     Fig 5.2: Design of Geneva driver

3. Geneva assembly in NX

                      Fig 5.3: Assembly of Geneva mechanism

4. Chain sprocket in NX

                 Fig 5.4: Design of chain sprocket

5. Full assembly of model in NX

             Fig 5.5: assembly of all parts of the machine in NX

Chapter-6: PLANE OF WORK

6.1 DRAFTING OF MODEL:

• For employing the linear & for converting continuous rotary motion into intermittent motion we require Geneva mechanism in our project model.

• The paper moves into forward direction with the help of paper roller.

6.2 PURCHASE OF MATERIAL:

• After drafting the model we started purchasing of the materials that would be required in our model.

• Various material that we have purchased were as follow:

• 08B chain and Sprockets.

• Four Axles for uses as shafts.

• Wooden base and some wooden blocks uses as polls.

• Wooden block for Geneva mechanism.

• Paper roller.

• Paper cutter.

6.3 DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT MODEL:

• After obtaining the required materials, we started manufacturing of the project model.

               Fig. 6.1 Geneva Mechanism

             Fig 6.2: assembly of all parts of the machine

    CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION

The design and fabrication of paper cutting machine using the Geneva mechanism is will be very useful in small scale industries. There are many machines based on paper cutting but it has some demerits like large in size, costly, need skilled people to operate. But our machine will overcome this demerit by compact in size, less cost, no need for skilled people and there is no need for electrical input. The design procedure is done for fabricating the Geneva wheel and other elements of this machine. The main aim for this machine is to reduce timing for paper cutting and neglect the time for marking the paper, this aim is achieved in our paper cutting machine using Geneva mechanism.

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