COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH
PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH OCCUPATIONAL INJURY AMONG WORKERS ENGAGED IN LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES IN DEBREBREHAN TOWN, ETHIOPIA.
A THESIS PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE, DEBRE BERHAN UNIVERSITY, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH (MPH).
Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
Name of investigator Gezahegn Tekle
Name of advisors Dr. Esubalew Tesfahun and Tufa
Full title of the project Prevalence and factors associated with occupational injury among workers engaged in large scale industries in Debre Brehan town, north showa, Ethiopia, 2017.
Duration of project March to April ,2017
Debre Berhan town
Total cost of the project 14340.7 ETB
Address of investigator +251-9-37-63-78-83
Table of Contents
Topics Page No
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Back Ground 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem 2
2. Literature Review 4
2.1 Occupational health and safety 4
3. OBJECTIVES 9
3.1 General objectives: 9
3.2 Specific objectives: 9
4. Methods and Materials 10
4.1. Study design 10
4.2. Study area and period 10
4.3 Source population 10
4.4 The study populations 10
4.4.1 Inclusion criteria: 10
4.4.2 Exclusion criteria: 10
4.5 Sample size determination 11
4.6 Sampling procedure 11
4.7 Data collection tools and procedure 13
4.9 Data quality assurance 13
4.10. Operational definitions 14
4.11. Study variables 14
4.12 Data processing and analysis 14
5. Ethical clearance 15
6. Dissemination of Results 16
7. Work plan 17
8. Budget breakdown 18
9. References 20
10. Annexes 24
Annex 1: English version questionnaire 24
Annex-II Observational checklist for the work environment 30
Annex 2: Amharic version questionnaire 32
Lists of tables
Table 1. Equipment and consumable cost 20
Table 2. Personal costs 21
Lists of figure
Figure 1 conceptual framework of work related injuries and associated factories. Source: Tadesse, T. and Kumie, A. (2007), Tora. Z (2015) …………………………………………………………………………8
Figure 2: Graphical Representation of the sampling procedure. …………………………………….13
First, I would like to thank my advisors Dr. Esubalew Tesfahun and Mr. Tufa for their invaluable comments and advices throughout the development of my thesis proposal.
My acknowledgment also goes to Zonal trade and industry bureau for their permission and support, and for providing me the necessary information to carry out the study in the town.
I would also like to thank my class meets, especially Mr Tadesse Desalegn for his support in gaining all the necessary information from zonal trade and industry office.
Finally my heartfelt thanks also go to Mr. Tesfaye Berhane for his genuine advice and encouragements during my thesis preparation.
AOR Adjusted Odds ration
CI Confidence Interval
DBBF Debre Brehan Blanket Factory
DBWPF Debre Brehan Wood Processing Factory
EPI-info Epidemiological Information
ETB Ethiopian Birr
GB Great Britain
GDP Gross Domestic Product
LSI Large Scale Industries
METCH Metal Engineering And Technology
MPH Masters Of Public Health
MSI Medium Scale Industries
PPS Probability Proportional Sampling
SPSS Statistical Packages For Social Science
SRS Stratified Random Sampling
US United States
Background: An occupational injury is a type of work related incident occurred on a worker as a result of his or her working activity within the industry. In the world 317, million peoples suffer a work related injury. Off these many is absent for long period of time from work and around 2.3 million deaths per year.
Annually, throughout the world 317 million workers suffer work related injuries: many of these resulting in extended absences from work and more than 2.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of occupational injury is 10 to 20 times higher in developing countries including Ethiopia. It poses a major public health problem on workers and their employers that could be prevented if appropriate measures are taken.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work-related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Brehan town, North showa zone Amhara regional state.
Method: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design will be conducted. First large scale industries will be selected based on the number of employees as more than 250 and then the selected industries will be stratified in to five strata based on the type of Large Scale Industries (LSI) and the product the industries manufacture. A total of 503 workers will be selected using simple random sampling and probability proportional allocation technique after stratification by a working department. Trained data collectors will administer a structured questionnaire through face- to face interview. Data will be entered in to the computer using EPI-Info version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 16 where descriptive statistics and logistic regression will be computed to see the association between different factors and occupational injuries.
Work plan and budget: The project will start in March 2017 and end in April 2017. The total budget required for the project is Birr 14340.7 ETB.
1.1. Back Ground
An occupational injury is a type of work related incident occurred on a worker as a result of his or her working activity within the industry. In the world 317, million peoples suffer a work related injury. Off these many is absent for long period of time from work and around 2.3 million deaths per year.
Annually, throughout the world 317 million workers suffer work related injuries: many of these resulting in extended absences from work and more than 2.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of occupational injury is 10 to 20 times higher in developing countries including Ethiopia. It poses a major public health problem on workers and their employers that could be prevented if appropriate measures are taken (1, 3, and 5).
Worldwide, more than three billion workers do not meet the minimum requirements of health and safety standards and guidelines set by World Health Organization and International Labor Organization (3). In developing countries only 5 to 10 percent of workforces have access to occupational health and safety services, whereas the developed nations 20 to 50 percent of workforces have access to occupational health and safety services (4).
Several factors are recognized for the occurrence of workplace injuries by different scholars. Organizational related factors, personal factors, and work related factors are identified in different studies. Personal factors includes sex, age, educational level, Marital status, income, work experience and works behaviour. Work related factors includes job category, shift work, hazards in the work system. Organizational related factors includes management’s commitments towards the implementation of health and safety program, work supervision, coworkers support (7, 11, 12).
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Work related accidents and diseases causes the death of nearly 1,000 and 5,400 more individuals every day. There were also over 313 million non-fatal occupational accidents in 2010, meaning that around the world work provokes injury for approximately 860,000 people every day (5).
In Great Britain, between 2012/13 and 2014/15 annually, around 70,000 manufacturing workers sustained an injury at work. Around a quarter (20,000) of these cases resulted in absence from work of over 7-days (6). Some studies have been done among small, medium and large scale industrial worker in different parts of Ethiopia. A study done in Gondar werda the overall prevalence of occupational injury was 335/1000 exposed workers in small and medium scale industries. Of these 17.1% of them were hospitalized with 40% of them for greater than 24 hours, 53.9% absent from work, 191 days were lost due to injuries (7). Another study done among small scale industry in Mekele city showed that a one year prevalence rate of 58.2% (8). A study done among large scale industrial workers, in Arba Minch textile factory, the prevalence of occupational injury was 31.4%. Of these with 29% percent of the injured workers sustained injury more than one times (9). Another study done among large scale metal factory workers in Ethiopia the prevalence of work related injury was 48.9 %. Out of injured respondents, 29.4% of participants had reported that they were hospitalized or stayed at home. According to this study a total of 3734 working days were lost due to injury (10). A study done in Kombolcha textile factory showed that, occupational injury was 36.9% over one year period (11).
Currently in Ethiopia the number of large scales manufacturing industries are increasing rapidly as per GTP of the country and majorities are privately owned. With this growing number of industries, safety and health of workers is major concern so as to be proactive and hence they achieve what they want to achieve. Even though some researches have been done in an individual factory basis in different parts of Ethiopia, little has been done in a collective manner and hence unable to compare between factories. The prevalence of occupational injuries in different region showed different findings including 31% Arbaminch textile, 36.9%, Kombolcha 48% Metal manufacturing industry in Ethiopia, 58.2% in SSL in Mekele city, and 33.8% in MSI in North Gondar zone (7-11).
Therefore results of this study will help to compare the prevalence of occupational injuries among different types of large scale industries and can avoid inconsistency on the findings of previous studies and draw the attention of policy makers, governments, and the trade unions in their efforts to improve occupational health and safety in large scale industries in Ethiopia.
1.3. Justification of the Study
There is rapid industrialization due to favorable investment policy, which may result in increased number of industries and employment in Ethiopia. Even though there are some studies with inconsistent result that suggest large-scale industries are dangerous to work in, epidemiological information regarding health and safety condition of workforce in large scale industries is not good enough. In addition the study setting and study populations of those studies are differ from this study. Therefore, it is important to know the prevalence, severity and determinants of work-related injuries among these workers.
The main aim of this study is therefore, to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and factors affecting injury among large scale industrial workers in Debre Berhan town, North showa Amhara Regional State. Such information can be used to develop preventive measures and effective intervention priorities to safeguard the health and safety condition of the work force in large scale industries. As part of prevention and information dissemination, the information got will help program planners and policy makers to improve and strengthen their efforts on the issue. It will also be part of baseline information for policy makers and further researchers.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Occupational health and safety
Occupational health and safety is one of the most important concerns of human and non-human primates. It is concerned with the control of workplace hazards that arise from or as a result of working activities. It is aiming at an adaptation of work to man and each man to his job for the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social wellbeing of workers in all occupations and if possible to his or her family (12).
Its importance has been seen nationally as well as globally. The impact of occupational health program locally may be observed in reducing work related disease and injuries. That means there is a reduction in work absence, wage losses and decreased compensation costs. The reduction of absenteeism is of great importance concerning skilled labor, especially so in countries where there is a shortage of skilled labor (12 & 13).
Occupational injuries or diseases are very costly and can have many serious direct and indirect impacts on the lives of workers and their families. For workers some of the direct costs of an injury or illness are: the pain and suffering of the injury or illness; the loss of income; loss of a job; health-care costs. It has been estimated that the indirect costs of an accident or illness can be 4 to 10 times greater than the direct costs (13). Although, it is difficult to measure the indirect cost of occupational injuries, human suffering is one of the most obvious indirect costs, which cannot be compensated with money. For a worker with small wages or income, the cost of even one accident can be a financial disaster. Some of the direct costs for employers are: payment for work not performed, medical and compensation payments, repair or replacement of damaged assets and equipment, reduction in production, reduction in the quality of work and demoralization of co-workers.
Some of the indirect costs for employers are: training for the replaced worker and time to adjust him/her, it also takes time to produce products as a rate of the former worker. Accidents often initiate the concern of co-workers and influence their relations in a negative way, poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations. Generally the costs of most work-related injuries or illnesses to employees and their families and to employers are very high (13, and 14).
2.2. Magnitude of work related injuries
Even though it is a difficult task to estimation of the global burden of disease due to occupational factors, including injury, every occupational injuries and illnesses cause employers, workers, and society to pay enormous costs for workers’ compensation and other insurance, medical expenses, lost wages and productivity, and the personal and societal costs associated with day to day living for injured and ill workers (15).
According to NIOSH 2011 statistic, an estimated 2.9 million workers were treated in emergency departments for occupational injuries and illnesses, and approximately 150,000 of these workers were hospitalized. In 2012, more than 4,383 U.S. workers died from occupational injuries. That means annually about 49,000 deaths are attributed to work-related illness. In the same year, an estimated 3.8 million workers in private industry and state and local government had a nonfatal occupational injury or illness (15). NIODH 2013/2014 estimated that 629,000 injuries occurred at work in US. Of these injuries 203,000 led to more than 3 days absence from work. Of these, over 148,000 resulted in the victim being absent from work for more than 7 days (16).
According 2014/15 HSE statistics of Great Britain, an estimated 2.4 million working days (full-day equivalent) were lost in the Manufacturing sector due to workplace injury (0.3 million) and work-related illness (2.1 million). That is the equivalent of 0.89 working days lost per worker, broadly similar to the average days lost per worker across all industries (0.9 days). Assuming a full-time working year equates to 225 working days, this is equivalent to around 11,000 full-time workers being absent from the workforce for the whole year in the Manufacturing sector in 2014/15 (6)
In Ethiopia, some attempts in small and medium scale but few in large scale manufacturing industries have been made to identify work-related injuries and their determinants. A study done among small and medium scale workers showed that prevalence of occupational injuries was 35.5 % (9). Another study, done among workers of SSIs in Mekele city, showed that the prevalence rate of at least one occupational injury was 58.2% (8). A study done among industrial workers in Addis Ababa indicates an injury rate of 80 % per year (8).
Study done among textile factory workers in Addis Ababa and Arba Minch revealed the injury rate of 20% and 31.4 % per year respectively (9,17).
2.3. Part of body affected, type, causes and day of the week of work related injuries
Occupational injury affects different parts of the body. Among parts of the body eyes, hands, foot, legs, spine, head, bones and skin are the commonest body parts according to 2014 U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics(18).
The commonest body parts among workers of Iron and Steel Industries workers Addis Ababa was finger injury which accounts for 11.4% followed by hand injury 8.6%, eye injury 7.6%, and leg injury 7.6% (19). Among workers of kombolcha Textile factory hand 48.8%, toe 15.9%, back 14.7%, and eye 13.5% were the commonest body parts affected by occupational injury (11). The commonest injured body parts according to study in large scale metal factories in Ethiopia were hands 46.4%, finger 33.3%, toe 32.3%, and eye 27.7% (10).
Regarding the type of injury 6.3% had burn, 5.7% cut and eye injury, 5.3% abrasion and 5.1% dislocation were the most commonly affected body parts in iron and steel factories in Addis Ababa (19).
In Kombolcha textile factory puncture 32.7%, abrasion/laceration 32.1%, fracture 18.2%, cut 17% were predominant types of injury (11). Abrasion or laceration 52.8%, eye injury 27.7%, cut 21.5%, puncture 18.8% and dislocation 14.8% were the predominantly occurred types of injury among workers of large scale Metal factories in Ethiopia (10).
The commonest cause of injury were machines 49.7%, lifting heavy objects 18.9% , splinters 17.2% and fall 13% respectively in Kombolcha textile factory. In iron steel factories in Addis Ababa 22.8% got the injury from the machine they were working with, 15.1% when lifting heavy objects, 12.9% fire and 12% splintering objects (10, 11).
Regarding days of injury 14% and 11.4% injuries occurred on Wednesday and Tuesday respectively (11). But 51.4% didn’t now days of injury occur and 31.2% and 24.0% of the injury were occurred in the afternoon and morning respectively (19).
2.4. Factors Associated with occupational Injuries
Work-related injuries result from a complex interplay of multiple risk factors. Exposure to physical, mechanical and chemical hazards and the performance of unsafe practices by workers are the leading causes of work-related injuries. Socio demographic factors such as sex, age, educational status and employment condition were significantly associated with work related injury as stated in different studies.
However, studies conducted in Arbaminch textile factory revealed that only age category (< 29 years) showed significant association in bivariate logistic regression [COR: 0.49, 95% CI: (0.3,0.8,P= 0.006)] but sex, marital status, educational level, employment condition, and work experience did not show any association with occupational injury (17). Similarly sex has no association with occupational injury but age, work experience and job category have an association as stated in the study of small and medium scale industry in Gondar. In contrary males were 3.32 times more likely to be injured when compared to females [AOR: 3.32, 95% CI: (1.88, 5.85)] in large scale metal factories (10). Another study done among workers of iron and steel factories in Addis Ababa revealed that sex, Age, educational status and employment condition were significantly associated with work related injury in bivariate logistic regression. In this study Males were 1.96 times more likely to get injury when compared with females [AOR: 1.96, 95%CI: (1.05, 3.67)] and temporary workers were 2.65 times more likely get injured compared with permanent workers (19).
From behavioral work environment factors smoking, sleeping disorder, not using personal protective equipment, working more than 48 hours per week, lack of health and safety supervision were the most common work related factors (10, 11, and 19). According to a study done among workers of large scale metal manufacturing industries in Ethiopia, behavioral factors such as cigarette smoking, chawing chat, drinking alcohol sleep disorder were identified as a risk factor for occupational injuries (10). But in another study, Chat chewing, cigarette smoking, PPE use and job satisfaction did not show significant association (17).
Figure 1 conceptual framework of work related injuries and associated factories. Source: Tadesse, T. and Kumie, A. (2007), Tora. Z (2015).
3.1 General objectives:
To assess the prevalence of work-related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Brehan town, North Showa Zone Amhara Regional State.
3.2 Specific objectives:
To determine the prevalence of work-related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Berhan.
To assess the severity of work-related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Berhan.
To identify factors associated with work-related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Berhan.
4. Methods and Materials
4.1. Study design
Institutional-based cross-sectional study design will be conducted to assess the prevalence and associated factors of work related injuries among large scale industrial workers in Debre Berhan Town.
4.2. Study area and period
The study will be conducted in Debre Berhan town, which is the capital of the North Showa zone. The town is located 130 km North East of Addis Ababa on the paved highway to dessie. Based on 2007 census conducted by the CSA of Ethiopia this town has a total population of 65,231 and projected to be 102,100 in 2015 (27, 28).
A report from Trade industry (2016) showed that the town has 16 industries of which 10 and 6 medium and large scale industries respectively. A total of 10, 591 workers engaged in all types of industries. Of these 3,610 workers are employed in 6 large scale industries and majority of them are young aged (21). The study period will be on April 2017.
4.3 Source population
The source population will be all employees working in the selected large scale industries in the study area.
4.4 The study populations
The stud populations will be sampled employees in large scale industries in Debre Brehan Town.
4.5 Inclusion and exclusion criteria:
4.5.1 Inclusion criteria:
All permanent and temporary employees who had worked for at least 12 months and who are directly engaged in the production process in the selected industries irrespective of sex and age.
4.5.2 Exclusion criteria:
All administrative workers will be excluded because by virtue of their occupation they will not be exposed to occupational health and safety hazards.
4.6 Sample size determination
Sample size will be determined using the following assumptions and single population proportion formula.
P= 35% (according to 2015 study among iron and steel industries in Addis Ababa)
95 % confidence interval
D= 5 % confidence limit
Z α/2= a standard Z score which is 1.96, corresponding to a 95% confidence level.
Design effect = 1.5
N = 3610 total employees
n = sample size?
n = (Z α/2) 2 p* q
Therefore, based on the above single population proportion formula the sample size can be calculated as:
n= (1.96)2 (0.35) (0.65)*1.5
n = 523
Since the total population is less than 10,000 (3610) the following correction formula will be used.
Finally by adding 10 % non-response rate the total sample size will be 503 respondents.
4.6 Sampling procedure
First the 6 large scale industries will be stratified in to 5 strata based on the type industries and the products the industry manufacture. The two brewery factories will be considered having similar characteristics. Then the calculated sample size will be proportionally allocated to each stratum.
Sampling frame consisted of all workers in production sites will be obtained from each industry management and simple random sampling technique will be administered to recruit study subjects.
Figure 2: Graphical Representation of the sampling procedure.
4.7 Data collection tools and procedure
A structured questionnaire and observational checklist will be used by adapting from literatures with some modification (7 & 19). This will be translated in to Amharic and back to English after data collection.
A check list will be developed so as to document the observable occupational hazards and to interview key informants. Data will be collected using a structured questionnaire. It will be administered by trained data collectors to collect quantitative data. Physical examination will be done on injured workers to identify the part of body affected and type of injury. Record review and workplace observation will be done to supplement quantitative data. The questionnaire will composes four parts: socio demographic, injury characteristics, work environment and behavioral variables. The socio demographic portion asked: gender, sex, religion, education level, marital status, monthly salary, working experience and area of residence. Injury characteristics portion: inquired about causes of work related injuries, part of body affected, type, severity and time of injury. Work environment part: hours worked per week, workplace supervision, health and safety training and behavioral portion: alcoholic drink consumption, chat chewing, sleep disorder, job satisfaction, and use of personal protective equipment. Five diploma Nurses and one BSc degree environmental health professional will be recruited for data collection and supervision respectively. Training will be given for data collectors and supervisors. The questionnaire will be pre tested for its understandability and metric characteristics in 5% of the sample having similar characteristics with the study subjects. Based on the pretest results, the questionnaire will be adjusted contextually, terminologically, and will be administered on the whole sample of workers in April 2017.
4.9 Data quality assurance
Before data collection pretest will be done among workers having similar characteristics. Data will be collected by trained data collectors and the completed questionnaires will be handled to the supervisors on each day of data collection. After checking for consistency and completeness, the supervisors will submit the filled questionnaires to the principal investigator. Incorrectly filled or missed ones will be sent back to data collectors for correction. Anything, which will be unclear and ambiguous, will be corrected on the next day.
4.10. Operational definitions
Excessive heat: heat is recorded as excessive if a worker is found sweating when naked or with light clothing; if investigator feels as sudden heat wave when entering into the industry (23).
Excessive noise: noise that makes it difficult to communicate with your neighbor without shouting (23).
Large scale industry: any industry that uses power driven machine and employ more than 10 workers (10).
Severity of injury: any injury that cause death, more than 24 hours hospitalization and absence from work for more than three days in one year period (24).
Work related injury: a condition sustained by a worker in connection with the performance of his or her work (25)
4.11. Study variables
Dependent variable: work-related injuries.
1. Socio demographic variables : Sex, age, religion, educational level, marital status, monthly salary, working experience, job category, area of residence.
2. Work environment variables: hours worked per week, workplace supervision, health and safety training.
3. Behavioral variable: alcoholic drink consumption, chat chewing, sleep disorder, job satisfaction, and use of personal protective equipment.
4.12 Data processing and analysis
The collected data will be entered; cleaned using EPI info version 7 and it will be exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 for analysis.
Descriptive statistics of the collected data will be performed for most variables such as socio demographic and behavioral variables in the study using standard statistical parameters: percentages, means and standard deviations.
So as to identify the factors associated with work related injury, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses will be performed and p-value < 0.05 will be considered to indicate statistical significance.
Variables with P at < 0.3 during bivariate logistic regression analysis will be included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis to see the effect of confounding variables. Adjusted odds ratio with confidence interval at P < 0.05 as significant level will be calculated.
5. Ethical clearance
The study will be carried out after getting permission from the ethical clearance committee of Debre Brehan University, College of health science. Then, data will be collected after getting written consent from North Showa Zonal trade and industry office.
Informed verbal consent will be obtained from the owners of each industry and study participant. Confidentiality will be insured for information collected from each industry and study participant. Each respondent will be informed about the objective of the study and privacy during interview.
6. Dissemination of Results
The result of the study will be presented to the department of Public health as part of MPH thesis and will present to those who are in need of this result and accordingly will advocate for those who can implement it, i.e. zonal Labour social Affaire, Zonal industry office, Zonal health office and a copy of this finding will be submitted to each company owners.
7. Work plan
A GANTT chart showing a work plan to assess the prevalence of work related injuries and associated factors among large scale manufacturing industries in Debre Berhan town, North showa Ethiopia.
Activity Res. November December January February March April May Jun
Topic selection PI
Proposal preparation PI
1st draft proposal submission PI
2nd & 3rd draft proposal submission PI
Defense &Final proposal submission PI
Ethical clearance ECC
Training of data collector PI
Pre test Pi.Dc
Data collection Dc,
Data entry Data Clerk
Data analysis S
First draft submission PI
Thesis defense PI
Final paper submission PI
Key, pi=principal investigator, Dc=data collector S =supervisor, Res=responsibility
Items unit Quantity Unit price Total price Remarks
Birr cents Birr Cents
1 Paper for photocopy and printing Packs 06 126 00 756 00
2 Duplication page 0.5x828 0 50 3312 0
3 Note-book number 6 20 00 120 00
4 Binder number 6 50 00 300 00
5 Pen, (Kenya-Bic) ½ pack 25 5 0 125 00
6 Pencil ((Lily-730HB) number 10 2 00 20 00
7 Eraser number 6 4 00 24 00
8 Marker Number 6 15 00 80 00
Sub total 4737
8. Budget breakdown
Table1: Equipment and consumable cost
Table 1. Personal costs
Sr. No Work type qualification Quantity Perdiem(Rate per day) Duration of work Total Birr Remark
1 Data collector diploma nurse 5 150 8 6000
2 Supervisors Degree 1 200 8 1600
4 Training diploma nurse 5 100 1 500
Trainees 1 200 1 200
Sub total 8300
8.1. Cost Summary:
1. Equipment and Consumable 4737.00
2. Personal cost ------8300.00
Total: -----13037 ETB = 10% of contingency
Grand Total= 14340.7 ETB.
...(download the rest of the essay above)