From ancient times to current times of painting tall building high rise painting was and still is the method endorsed by the world. High Rise Painting is the method controlled by man. However, over the years this method has posed danger to man such as to the extremity of death upon man.
As a result of this outcome, the proposals of the unmanned painting machine will reduce/elimate the dangers exposed to man. Various concepts will be produced and will be investigate and benchmarks will be established. Concept such robotics, cage, frame, drivetrain and cable system etc will be generated and a final concept will be chosen that best meets the criteria obtained from the client. The design package will include detailed analysis of the design concept, CAD drawings for each part, sub and final assembly will be submitted, specifications and testing requirements. With the aid of Solid edge Finite Element Analysis on necessary frame structures will be conducted. The overview of a full cost analysis together with a motivation for the reasoning of the implementation of this machine is also added.
2. Durban University of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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1. I confirm that I know and understand what constitutes plagiarism.
2. I confirm that the report which I hereby submit for assessment is my own work.
3. I confirm that I have properly referenced the work of other people that I have used.
4. I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work.
Name: Student no. Signature:
1. ELDON DOUGLAS MUNSAMY 21108015
2. ADHEESH LALLA 20801717
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 1
2. Durban University of Technology 2
3. Introduction 4
3.1 Project Description 4
3.2 Problem Statement 4
3.3 Project Objective and aim 4
4. Literature Review 5
4.1 Overview and history 5
4.2 Elevation Systems and painting techniques: 5
4.2.1 Self propelled work platform 5
4.2.2 Self propelled painting equipment 8
4.2.3 Suspended Platforms 10
4.2.4 Rope access painting 13
4.3 The Unmanned painting machine 14
4.3.1 The Painting System 15
4.3.2 The Crane System 15
4.3.3 Overall System 15
5. Product Design Specifications (PDS) 16
6. Conclusion 21
7. References 22
3.1 Project Description
The project entails the design of an unmanned painting machine for tall building. This new innovation of the painting machine will be able to paint a minimum of twenty stories’ high
3.2 Problem Statement
The process of high rise painting has a large potential of danger to the painters and to the people in the surrounding areas. As a result, in some cases there were incidence, death and even closure of companies that were found not following the rules and regulations such as OSH act, ISO Standards, etc. Considering the process to be labour driven it lacks the efficiency of machines which work at a much faster rate and produces better quality finishes.
3.3 Project Objective and aim
This project will eliminate and reduce the use of man painting at elevated heights which in turn reduces the risk of injuries or in some cases death upon man. The project is mostly aimed at large painting companies who on a daily basis would use this equipment efficiently and over a period of time be able to regain their cost to company. Once the machine has been established, the daily use is estimated to bring in large profits, increase efficiency, increase effectiveness, reduce injury and leave the client will the satisfaction of a good quality painted building. This system helps companies live up to their vision and mission statements of SAFTY being their number one priority. The following criteria’s will be evaluated:
4. Literature Review
4.1 Overview and history
From ancient to current times the method of high rise painting has and is still the method and means of man physically completing the job by rope access painting. Over the years there have been some engineering development and progress in different methods such as the mobile self propelled work platform method or the use of a suspended platform. However, none of which of these methods have reduced an engineering method by which man will no longer be required to expose himself to the dangers of heights. 
4.2 Elevation Systems and painting techniques:
4.2.1 Self propelled work platform
Current designs of elevated painting are currently completed by the use of self propelled work platform. This design has its advantages and disadvantages. Advantage such as fast and easy use of elevation, it is mobile and it is a stable system (within operating conditions). The disadvantages are it can only elevated to maximum 9.7m high and it required human assistance to complete the painting.
Such a design is as follows: 
The specifications as follows below:
4.2.2 Self propelled painting equipment
The second elevation method is the self propelled painting equipment of which it has a somewhat design similarity in the application of elevation when compared to the self propelled work platform. However, its design allows it to elevate to higher heights. Below is a image of self propelled painting:
[Figure 2]: Self-propelled building painting equipment
The specification for this equipment is a maximum height of 15.98m of which is an improvement to the self-propelled work platform. Another outstanding factor is the weight that this system can carry which is 480kg. This means that the painter together with the weight of the paint is sufficient for the limit which the design can withstand. 
Below are specifications of the machine:
Self-propelled building painting equipment
14m self-propelled telescopic boom
Platform height maximum 14.28m
Working height, maximum 15.98m
Horizontal reach maximum 12.6m
Maximum load capacity 480 kg
Turntable rotation (degrees) 360° continuous
Platform rotation 160°
Maximum allowable 90 lbs
side force (CE) 400 N
Control voltage 24V DC
Tire size 33×12-20
Type solid tire
Hydraulic tank 190 liters
Travel speed, stowed 6.3km/h
Engine Model Cummins B3.3-C60
SAUER DANFOSS hydraulic system; EPEC electric system.Solid tire.
4.2.3 Suspended Platforms
The third method of high rise painting is common to most painting companies known as suspended platforms. Temporary suspended access platforms are a cost effective and safe method (if followed as per working instructions). They are many uses of this method such as preparation of walls, painting, sandblasting, waterproofing, general inspections and building maintenance. These mentioned jobs are carried out timeously and effectively but requires man to go to elevated levels of a building. However, on the bright side the advantage is that these platforms are structurally rigid and are very strong. Suspended platforms can be used in dry or wet weather conditions, which of-coarse is advantageous to a painting company as time is not wasted. These platforms can be designed from ranges of 1m up to 9m and can be designed to carry multiple workers. Each of these platforms is tailor made or selected based on various factors. The operation of these platforms can be manually or electrically powered for elevation. 
Below are specifications of different types of platforms:
[Figure 3 and 4]
4.2.4 Rope access painting
The fourth method of high rise painting is rope access painting. The method of rope access painting is an element of danger for painters considering the heights on needs to escalate to. This type of method required very high skilled professionals to establish safety parameters with regards to setting up the system correctly. It is vital that these professionals make no mistake in their procedure. Rope access painting setup is verified by trained individuals who are in accordance to following standards of the heights legislation. This is a combination of safety at work legislation, with specific rules and regulations when it comes to rope access painting. The application of access rope painting is a very compatible method with almost any building. This method consist of safety practises related to health practise with regards to altitudes and weather condition a painter can be exposed to. This technique is crucial if used in wet weather conditions. The disadvantage of this method is dropping of equipment or material from elevated heights has a profound ramification for passerby on the ground floor solely because the area underneath is not barricaded. Below is a picture of access rope painting: 
Even though access rope painting may seem very effective, at high altitudes there is a risk of a painting losing consciousness and passing out, leaving the person hanging in mid air which in turn may be as severe as a person breaking their neck and snapping the air pipe causing death. Gases also play a negative role to the severity of death because gases are light and it rises which could also suffocate the painter. 
4.3 The Unmanned painting machine
The accumulation of extensive research and application of engineering techniques have been combined in the design to produce a new innovation of a painting technique which is unmanned. As described in the introduction the purpose of this design was to eliminate the use of painters physically going to elevated heights. This will reduce danger to them and prevent death and this is the greatest advantage of this new innovative design.
However, as far as the innovation of Robotics into the design of high rise painting, it is imperative to understand there are some limitations to this design. One of the limitation is the system is only capable of working on a flat roof and a flat set of blocks.
The unmanned painting machine is broken up into two systems:
1. The painting system
2. Crane system – which would take the machine to elevated heights.
4.3.1 The Painting System
The painting system would consist of a nozzle in an enclosed cage system. The nozzle is attached to a robotic arm which will enhance the nozzle to reach difficult places to paint. The cage is enclosed by welded sheets which are shaped to endure aerodynamics. Attached to this box are 3 sets of cameras which will be used to analysis the painting quality completed by the painting system. The nozzle requirement for specification selection will be based on a spraying painting nozzle which will provide precision painting.
4.3.2 The Crane System
The crane system is designed to function on a flat set of blocks. The crane system will be designed along factors which will affect the weight of the machine it needs to carry, type of cables to use in the design, motor which would drive the vertical moment of the machine, the second motor which is responsible for movement in the horizontal direction, the rail material, the material strength.
Physical Specification with regards to the mechanical cable will deal with factors such as diameter, length required, breaking strength (tensile strength) and the core type.
Selecting a Motor for the cable system will surround factors around the weight of the spray painting machine, torque and the speed at which it should move.
4.3.3 Overall System
The overall system will be is designed to operate with AC electrical power. However, in newly built flats which have no electricity the system can be improvised to work on fuel generators. The system will be controlled by the operator on the ground floor and will be aided be making use of the cameras attached to the machine. The system is designed for easy set up and will be conducted by trained and qualified painters who will have to work according to the laws, rules, regulations, ISO standards and OSH act. The system will work in complete harmony if the system limitations are adhered to.
Bearing in mind the above current methods, this design will be an improvised design which will increase the quality of painting by the use of robotics, eliminate the use of man going to elevated heights, the system is designed for easy assembly cutting down on excessive time required, however most of all, the target is met by reducing danger to human life.
5. Product Design Specifications (PDS)
1. Performance Requirements
Requirement Measure Target
1.1.1 Machine must stay above ground. Stories To paint a minimum of 20 story’s flats.
1.1.2. Machine must be able to move in horizontal and vertical direction. Velocity Robot velocity to ensure that the painting is not defective. Minimum and maximum velocity to be calculated.
1.2.1 Machine must be aerodynamic
Velocity m/s (wind speed) Machine to withstand windy conditions. Maximum wind speed to be calculated for which machine can withstand.
1.3.1. Life expectancy Years 25 years
1.4.1 Machine to be function only under specified weather conditions
º C To operate machine in dry weather conditions and no excessive wind force, as well as to operable as temperatures as high as 40 º C
1.5 COST FACTOR
1.5.1 Total Cost of Design and Manufacture Rands R500 000.00
1.6.1 Quality of good paint finish Quality Assurance Standard To achieve excellent quality grade finish, the machine is robustly designed and scheduled for maintenance after every job completed.
1.7.1Machine Must be light weight Mass In-order for easy mobility the weight of the machine should be at minimal.
1.8. Noise pollution to be at minimal Db 35Db
2. MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS
2.1.1 Frame Structure N/A Frame structure to be manually fabricated.
2.1.2 Shell Structure of the machine N/A To be metal pressed into shape (Shape considered for aerodynamics).
2.1.3 Balance of sub assembly components Rands and Quality Assurance To be outsourced at the cheapest rates but best quality.
2.2.1Materials used in the design are to be high in yield strength, light weight and must contain surface protection N/A -Non-ferrous Metals
-anti corrosive protective layer.
2.3.1 Design must be transported via a truck or trailer and must be assembled on site N/A System to be designed for easy assembly.
2.4.1Sub Assembly components to be bubbled wrapped and inserted into foldable crates N/A Packaging process to ensure damaged free components.
3. ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS
3.1. All parts that are welded must be welded to its specifications ISO Standards Will satisfy ISO standards
3.2. Welding tests must be done on all welds ISO Standards Will satisfy ISO standards
3.3. Machine must be designed to comply with OSHA standards OSHA Standards OSHA Standards
3.4. Machine must comply with RIA standards RIA Standards RAI Standards
3.5. Machine must comply with ANSI standards ANSI Standards ANSI Standards
3.5. Machine must be tested for stability and other necessary requirements N/A
Machine must be able to stay above ground and be able to manoeuvre in the vertical and horizontal direction.
3.6. Motors must be tested N/A Should not exceed noise allowance.
Must stay attached to unit during operation.
3.7. Cables must be tested N/A Cable should not exceed maximum tensile stress.
4. Operational Requirements
4.1. Motors should be checked regularly Time Before every use
4.2. Cables should be checked regularly Time Before every use
4.3. Any hazardous risks should be checked and fixed regularly Time Before every use
4.5. The machine must be safe to operate N/A Will comply with the OSH Act.
4.6. Maintenance should be done regularly N/A After 3 to 4 uses
The extensive research has engraved a foundation of knowledge into conceptualizing, designing and implementing of the innovation of the unmanned painting machine. As to reference with the effectively populated PDS and QFD it can be concluded that the objective criteria’s are met. Due to the lack of this type of design being currently implemented in the field, benchmarking it is virtually close to impossible, however the standards to which the system is designed may always be improvised in the near future, and engineering techniques will aid in the field.
Specifications have been designed and established to which the project will be successful, however after testing and evaluating, the performance may not be at its peak and as result it is imperative to take cognizance that specifications are subject to change in order for the system to be optimized.
Attention to detail will be given to factors that affect the quality of the good paint finish such stability of the system and precision painting. As per reference to the Gantt chart it can be seen that ample time is given to designing the system aerodynamically and durably.
Factors around safety are motivated for, as a result once this system works efficiently, effectively and reduces injury to man we know the target and objective of this project has been met.
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