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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Introduction:

My topic is based on cloning the great debate and would it have an influence on humankind. I think it will have its benefits on the advancement in biotechnology; curing diseases and improving humans with disabilities but also on the other hand it can affects the true purpose of evolution of humans.

Cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. This process is done by the reproduction of cells and DNA tissue from the human embryo. There are three different types of cloning that all have an affecting on the evolution of humankind. This is shown through the imagery below whereby an extract of an organism’s gene is being isolated and for cloning to take place. Cloning a gene usually involves a smaller manipulated piece of DNA, to allow for easier study of an individual gene in the laboratory. Cited from National Human Genome Research Institution. (2016)

Evolution

The theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin entails the evolving through natural selection of all life on earth. It states that new generations are born with different inheritable traits, and that the traits that are superior will survive and be passed on to new generations. Cited from Science Home.(AllAboutScience, 2002).

Evolution is slowly disappear due to technological advancement, which allow for creation of medications and processes like cloning that prevents the process of evolution to take place because evolution is the mechanism that allows for the evolving of humankind and without this process humankind would not exist. Cited from Naoya Katoh, (ResearchGate, 1994).

Stem Cells

Stem cells build, maintain, and repair the body throughout our lives with these processes occur naturally, they can be manipulated to repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues. But stem cells transferred from one person to another and they usually trigger an immune response. Stem cells can be very beneficial in the process of cloning as a way to create genetically identical cells. These cells could then be used for medical purposes; research studies and possibly even for growing whole organs. Genetic Science Learning Center. (Salt Lake City (UT), 2014)

Stem cells are very important, as in current efforts of human cloning are focused on creating embryonic stem cells for research and medical reasons and affect on evolution of man through modifications and improvement of humankind. This image indicated the different areas where stem cells can be found and indicates the ability of this stem cell. Cited from National institute of health, (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, 2016).

Chromosomes:

A Chromosome is a cell that can only be seen under the microscope, they are found in the cell nucleus and they are thread like structures that are very important for carrying the genetic information of the human genome that form genes. There are two different sets of chromosomes, the XY chromosome, which identifies the male chromosome and the XX chromosome, identifying the female chromosome and these are shown in the visual below of the Karyotype, which is important in identifying of an organism sex and this is an important in the process in DNA replication. Chromosomes are made up of DNA molecules, which are tightly coiled around proteins called histones and help in the structure of the chromosomes. Cited from Life Science, Mind action series textbook. (Jen Grogan and Ruth Suter, 2011)

Chromosomes play an important role in the process of cloning as they are used for further studies of genetic information and allow for taking of genetic material if needed for process of cloning, this occurs through the isolation of a gene within the chromosome and modify or duplicating. Cited from Molecule Biology, Garland Science. (Albert B, Johnson A, Lewis J et al. 2002).

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA or Genetics)

DNA can be any material part of the body, which specifically identifies everyone as an organism, as DNA is different within ever individual. Cited from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Genetics Home Reference of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), 2017).

DNA is known as a polymer made of up of a double helix structure formed by the nitrogenous based of adenine; guanine: cytosine and thymine included with a phosphate molecule and a deoxyribose sugar to form a nucleotide. DNA is located in the cell nucleus and the mitochondria. DNA is an important factor needed during the procedure of cloning, as a gene is extracted from the DNA molecule to be cloned or modified, which will benefit in curing of diseases and disabilities. Mind Action Series. (Jen Grogan, 2011, Module 3:page 3.1.1).

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes help to make molecules called proteins. The DNA in each chromosome consists of many genes. Therefore chromosomes are of much importance with DNA. The DNA also contains large sequences that do not code for any protein and they are known of junk DNA. Cited from Genetic home reference. (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2017).  

DNA replication

This is a process of whereby DNA is replicated through the double helix stranded molecule being separated into two single strands, whereby it must be “unzipped”. It is important that the bases separate correctly to allow for correct binding. The replication stages are very important in the replacement and repair of new DNA molecules to be replicated, which is required in the stage of cloning to isolate the DNA and clone of the genes. This stage is very important because if DNA is not replicated then the process of cloning cannot take place as the DNA molecules are not repaired and replaced and can cause in mutations. Cited from HowStuffWorks a division of InfoSpace Holding LLC. (Craig Freudenrich, PH.D. 2017).

There are three steps involving the replication of the DNA strand:

Initiation, where two complementary strands are separated. Special enzymes, including a helicase are used in the separation of the two strands, which allows for duplication of the DNA. Elongation, each strand becomes a template along which a new complementary strand is built. This growing strand continues to be built until it has fully complemented the template strand this allows for the forming of DNA molecules. Termination, Mistakes made during DNA replication, such as the accidental addition of an inappropriate nucleotide, have the potential to render a gene dysfunctional and this can be effective on cloning of the DNA and this process is displayed in the image below.  Cited from Anatomy and Physiology book, (OpenStax, 2010, Unit 3 (chapter 1).

Junk DNA           

Junk DNA refers to DNA that is non-coded. DNA contains instructions (coding) that are used to create proteins in the cell. However, the amount of DNA contained inside each cell is vast and not all of the genetic sequences present within a DNA molecule, junk DNA is found 98% throughout our genome shown in the image alongside. Some of this non-coding DNA is used to produce non-coding RNA components such as tRNA, regulatory and rRNA. Junk DNA supposedly has no purpose but is actually useful as it helps ensures that mRNA and proteins are made only in the right cells at the right time in the right amounts. The importance of junk DNA is that it can only specifically be used to identify an individual, as it will only match your genetic make-up. This purpose of junk DNA will be used in cloning of an individuals unique coding of DNA found in the chromosomes. Cited from News Medical Life Science. (Dr Ananya Mandal, MD.  2000).

DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting can also be known as DNA profiling and this is just like your actual fingerprint something you are born with that makes you unique. DNA fingerprinting is a technique that simultaneously detects lots of minisatellites in the genome to produce a pattern unique to an individual, as shown in the image below. DNA fingerprinting is also used to establish paternity, which can be important in finding the origin of the individuals through DNA and identifying the bloodlines of the DNA profile, which has occurred through evolution. Cited from GeneEd, (U.S. National Library of Medicine. Genetics, Education, Discovery). DNA profiles is very important in cloning as it will be used to identify or study an individuals private DNA sample, which can be positive in the study but negative in their privacy. (J Clin Microbiol Enger L, Joly S, Pajol C, Simonson P, Pfaller M and Soll DR, 2001).

Genetic Engineering

This occurs in stages whereby the gene is enhanced or modified by its characteristics within an individual’s genes. Genes can be turned on and off and can even be deleted or deactivated, which allows for many possibilities to arise through this process. This is a fast growing process, which can be used in many different fields of science, like modifying in agriculture. This can be beneficial to species and helpful towards curing diseases and tackling disabilities in humans but this also has side effects that can occur during the process of modifying and cause in mutations. This process is similar to cloning as it involves isolating the gene and improving or modifying it. Cited from Yourgenome (Hannah Wilgar, 2017).

Genetic Mutation

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from the original sequence as shown in the image below of the DNA nucleotides not matching up causing in a mutation of the DNA of the species. Mutations range in size; they can occur from a single DNA building block (base pair) to a large segment of a chromosome that includes multiple genes.

Gene mutations can be classified in two major ways: Hereditary mutations, which are inherited from a parent and are present throughout a person’s life in every cell in the body. If this DNA has a mutation, the child that grows from the fertilized egg will have the mutation in each of his or her cells. Somatic mutations occur at some time during a person’s life and are present only in certain cells, not in every cell. These changes can be caused by environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation from the sun, or can occur if a mistake is made as DNA copies itself during cell division. Acquired mutations in somatic cells (cells other than sperm and egg cells) cannot be passed on to the next generation. Cited from U.S. Department of Health & Human service. (2017)

Genetic counseling

Genetic counselling is used to help providing information and supporting people who have or may be at risk for genetic disorder. The process occurs when you will meet with a qualified genetic counsellor who will discuss genetic risks or you may approach if in planning or expectance of a baby. This could even follow to you taking a genetic testing for gathering more information, like your genetic make-up; a pregnancy or even genetic conditions.

There are many reasons to seek genetic counseling because it may help in knowing if there were any genetic conditions found in the family of a genetic condition at birth, some examples would be: Planning for a pregnancy and get advice from a counseling in need to require background information. Have had two or more pregnancy losses or a baby who died or the reason for miscarry, this can be resolve issues occurring in the genetic make-up through ultrasound or screening tests that suggest a possible problem, allows for further information on getting tests done in resolving the issues occurring to the genetics. Cited from U.S. National Library of Medicine, Genetic Counselling. (Medline Plus, 2016)

Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international thirteen-year project, The main goal of the project was to determine the sequence of human DNA and identifying the mapping all of the genes in the human genome. The motive was to identify the many genes that were suspected to be responsible for inherited diseases and prepare a way in treating of them that are influential on the evolution of humankind. This is a discovery for humankind but will have an effective on the evolution of humans.

The HGP was devoted to the development of improved biotechnologies for accelerating the elucidation of the genome. This technology would then be beneficial to scientists and specific in curing of diseases and tackling disabilities. This would also help in the studying of the human genome and the genetics involved in the humans. This project is still a great debate because technology is still not advanced enough and can be a big risk to humankind. This project was a great success round the world and beneficial to millions of lives. This project is very helpful towards cloning as it allows for understanding of the human gene, therefore allowing for an easier procedure but has an effect on the purpose of evolution, due to the advancement of technology on humankind. Cited from National Human Genome Research Institute. (2016)

Clashing of Cloning on evolution:

‘’The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from the earlier forms during the history of the earth.’’ (Oxford Dictionary,2017)

Cloning can be very useful in the process for curing human disorders; diseases, which allows for people to survive these diseases that could cause death but on the other hand it can also be an affect towards evolution as it is a change in everyone being able to survive and reproduce that will prevent the whole purpose of life and being able to live and die. This will result in the gene pools being eliminated. Cloning can also bring about symptoms like organ deformity, premature ageing, obesity and damaging to the immune system, this can be a problem as cloning is expensive and has a low success rate, which makes it quite a risk. Cited from Prezi Incorporation, Cloning vs Evolution. (Colter Christian, 2014.)

The prospect of cloning humans is highly controversial, and it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast majority of scientists and lawmakers view human cloning as a purpose of making a baby immoral, which will advance in society. Far-fetched views describe farms filled with cloned organs that are harvested for transplantation. For now, risks and technical challenges as well as laws make it illegal. Even though many species have been cloned successfully, the process is still technically difficult and inefficient, embryos fail to develop, and many pregnancies end in miscarriage. However, cloning can be very dangerous and once techniques become more streamlined and efficient, they fear that some may be tempted to take that next step. Cited from US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health. (Francisco. J. Ayala, 2015)

The process cloning is an asexual reproduction and therefore bypasses both the biological benefits of normal reproduction and the emotional, psychological, and social aspects. Even more importantly, if cloning became the main mode of reproduction, human evolution would stop in its tracks. Cited from Genetic Science Learning Center. (Salt Lake City (UT), 2014).

Tissue organ rejection

These harmful substances have proteins called antigens coating their surfaces. As soon as these antigens enter the body, the immune system recognizes and knows they are \"foreign,\" and attacks them. When a person receives an organ from someone else during transplant surgery, that person\'s immune system may recognize that it is foreign. Mismatched organs, or organs that are not matched closely enough, can trigger a blood transfusion reaction or transplant rejection. There are three types of rejection; Hyperacute rejection occurs after the transplant when the antigens are completely unmatched and the tissue must be removed right away so the recipient does not die. This type of rejection occurs when given the wrong blood. Acute rejection may occur any time. Chronic rejection can take place over long time. This can be effective to cloning because some bodies will reject the cloned organ placed in the system. Cited from American Accreditation Healthcare Commission (A.D.A.M). (2017)

Tissue Culture

In tissue culture, a somatic cell (body cells) grown in the laboratory in dishes and when the cells divides the new cells are cloned from the original cell.  Tissue culture involves the dispersal of cells in an artificial environment composed of nutrient solutions, a suitable surface to support the growth of cells, and ideal conditions of temperature and gaseous atmosphere. In such a system it can precisely measure the response of the cell’s alterations in culture, prospective drugs, the presence or absence of other kinds of cells, carcinogenic agents, and viruses. Cited from Coriell Institute for Medical Research. (2017)

Tissue culturing has paved the path for scientist to look for cures in diseased patients and it can also have advancements in the studies of human cells that could not be done otherwise and in the process of cloning this benefits this process to be more successful and overall affect the purpose of evolution. Cited from National Institution of Health. (1998)

Human Evolution

This process occurred in Africa about six millions years ago that describes us as humans today originating from our ancestors, to make us who we are today as modern humans. This then allowed for the understanding of the evolving of humans through the study of mitochondrial DNA and fossils. Cited from National Museum of National History, (Dr Rich Potts, 2016).

Human evolution is the study between humans and understanding of the similar or different characteristics of human’s genetic make-up; physically features and the behaviour of the species, which help in the studies of the human genome and understand the evolution line of how humans have originated in history. This all came about from the studies of Charles Darwins theory of evolution and natural selection of the variation in different environment and the process of survival of the fittest.  All this evolving of biotechnology and cloning go against human evolvution and bring about depletion of the cycle of human evolution. Cited from Infoplease, Sandbox Network. (Karen Barss, 2000).

Ethics of cloning and the effect it has on evolution

I disagree with the opinion of cloning as it is too risky and we are not full acknowledged and advanced in this field, which can cause in death of humans from this procedure of cloning. My view is that with the advancement over time the process of cloning one day will be implemented in the world to help people as it is a beneficial process but can be more of cheating God by using technology to live longer and bring about an ethical and religious disagreement towards cloning.

Although many advocates support development of cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs, and to stave off the effects of aging. Parents are able modify or recreate their children through reproductive cloning.

Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe, that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans from tissues rejection), and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families.

The big worry is where will evolution be in the next few years is the big question with cloning largely being used and more advanced procedure of curing humans and affecting the evolving of humans and rather designing and modifying of humankind.

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