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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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- Introduction:

In this project we will search much information about Egypt and especially about the media and how it affects with them. We will take a lot of information about Egypt that announcement for us.  So, this way we will learn more things about other country.

Overview of the Media System in the Egypt:

In the past, Egypt was didn't know much about media and communications. But with the July Revolution on 1952, it realized the important of it.

Now Egypt is a transitional democracy, where it moves from authoritarian where the government decide what information will show to the people to a libertarian system so it have now freedom from governmental control. On the other hands, people believe that the media is controlled by the government where the government funds all Egypt  media content, so people have no choice to what they can and cannot to see.

- Background of the country  

The current media situation:

'A map

- Country Location and Geographic Information:

Population: 80,471,869 (July 2010 estimate)

Capital: Cairo

Area: 386,662 square miles (1,001,450 sq km)

Coastline: 1,522 miles (2,450 km)

Highest Point: Mount Catherine at 8,625 feet (2,629 m)

Lowest Point: Qattara Depression at -436 feet (-133 m)

Egypt is a country located in northern Africa along the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Egypt is known for its ancient history, desert landscapes and large pyramids.

- Demographics:

- Population of Egypt

According to survey conducted in July 2007 that is estimated to be around 80,335,036. The estimated rate of growth of population in Egypt is 1.721%. Egypt is considered to be one of the populous countries in Africa. The sex ratio of Egypt population is 1.017 miles per female. Egypt is one of the countries that have most populous.

The population of Egypt doubled 7 times through the 20th century, a growth which by itself is not very dramatic. However, Egypt was already in 1900 a country with a substantial population about 10 million.

After decades of considerable but stable growth.  By 2009 it is at 1.6% per year and the Egyptian mothers give birth to 2.7 children so, the median age is 24 years, and there are about 4 births for every death case. Projections indicate between 110 and 120 million inhabitants by 2050.

- Languages

The official language of Egypt is Standard Arabic. they use it in schools and thus spoken by everyone. With the exception of a small minority, mainly uneducated individuals, Bedouins, and desert dwellers. Standard Arabic is the Arabic used in official forms such as television, newspapers, government speeches, and teaching and educational institutions. The language is the only common form that is understood by all the different countries of the Arab world except Western Sahara, Mauritania and Chad.

Egyptian language is the oldest known indigenous language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC and making it one of the oldest recorded languages known outside of Sumerian. Egyptian people was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic.

The national language of modern day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt.

- Economy

By world standards Egypt is a poor country. As we know Informal trade is rife and makes an important contribution to the economy. There are some exports such as oil, gas and cotton are also vital earns though their relative value is low. 'Invisible' they need money from tourism overseas works and the Suez Canal are increasingly needed to boost the countries wealth.

The Egyptian economy is a diverse. It has passed over several phases and many patterns; the pattern of open market is the feature of economy of Egypt that led to the increase of foreign investment.

The economy of Egypt depends mainly on many things such as agriculture, tourism, and money remittances from workers who are outside the country, oil, petrochemical industrious, media and revenues of Suez Canal.

The economy of Egypt is considered to be one of the few multi economic in the Middle East and it does not depend on oil as it is in Gulf States and Iraq. But in Egypt there is a stock.

The rate of economic  growth was ranging from 4- 5  during the past quarter century but now the annual growth of GDP is 6% and the  Egyptian economy considered is the second largest  in the Arab Countries after Saudi Arabia, but it is the largest economy in terms of non-oil depending economy .

Moreover, Egypt is classified as rising markets that is characterized by a dynamic and diverse economy increasing of its population and young people. The rate of unemployment is very low the by 9.1%.

- Access to internet/phones/communication technologies

They use the Internet and phones to communicate with others.

Internet Egypt is the largest private sector Internet Provider in Egypt, providing a complete range of networking solutions and Internet services to corporations, private.

Phones: Currently, there is a single company in charge of Landline Telephony, Telecom Egypt which is also government-controlled. The government is planning to start the process for licensing a second national operator for voice and transport services by 2008, with a view to this company starting operations in 2009.

- TV stations/radio stations/ISPs

TV:(ERTU) means Egyptian ground broadcast television that the government controlled and depends heavily on commercial revenue. ETV sells its specially produced programs and soap operas to all Arab world. ETV has two main channels, six regional channels, and three satellite channels. Of the two main channels, Channel I uses mainly Arabic. Also they have another Channel that dedicated to foreigners and more cultured viewers, broadcasting news in English and French as well as Arabic.

Egypt began its television system in 1960 and considered one of the most extensive and effective among some countries of Asia and Africa . Due to a well-financed radio service and film industry already in existence Egypt and unlike other Arab countries was able to start television production without importing engineering staff from abroad. Even with this beginning, however, the development of television has been complicated by many other social and cultural factors.

Radio: In Egypt is almost all government controlled by using 44 short wave frequencies, 18 medium wave stations, and four citation needed FM stations. There are seven regional radio stations covering the country. Egyptian Radio transmits 60 hours daily overseas in 33 languages and three hundred hours daily within Egypt. In 2000 Radio Cairo introduced new specialized channels on its FM station. So far, they include news, music, and sports. Radio enjoys more freedom than TV in its news programs, talk shows and analysis.

ISPs: There are some major Service Provider companies which sell their services to smaller ISPs.

Egypt internet is one of the leading internet service providers in Egypt, offering DSL services with efficiency and also offering a complete range of network solutions. Egypt internet also provides other services such as leased lines, web design & development, web hosting, E-marketing, and IT service.

The internet in Egypt have a team of web designers and developers with the highest level of efficiency and professionalism, building all kinds of websites, whether for different sizes such as large, small, medium or complex websites As well as building portals according to customer needs and budget. As an internet service provider in Egypt, They also provide different services:

- Web Design and Development: Build your website with the latest technology according to your budget.

- Web Hosting: Get best hosting prices with the highest quality level.

- E-Marketing and SEO: Get your Website listed on top Search Engines Results.

- E-Commerce: We provide readymade customizable e-commerce packages for low budgets, as well as tailored-commerce websites with specific workflows and cycles for medium to enterprise customers.

- IT Services: Leased Line, VPN, Maintenance and Network Security.

Internet users/social media users/broadband users Use statistics/graphs/visuals/photographs to support your work

- Internet users in Egypt

Internet users in Egypt was last measured at 31933476.31 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Internet users in Egypt.

- Social Media in Egypt

This article examines the role of social media in political and social revolution in Egypt. It reveals how social media enhanced and ignited people's desire for democracy and socio-economic advancement stalled by the long term authoritarian government. The main focus is on the importance of social media as a platform for discussion of ideas, experiences, and knowledge exchange: The big social media networks like Facebook and Twitter and individual blogs have emerged as powerful channels that allowed people in Egypt to bypass government censorship, spread the words of political reform, and break the barrier of fear. They mobilized millions of citizens to participate in political action and emerged as authoring agents and organizational power structures. The paper includes information about the demographics, education, and young age of the population of Egypt contributing to the political uprisings.

- Broadband access

Broadband Internet access was introduced commercially to Egypt in 2000 as ADSL. The service was offered in select central offices in big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria and gradually spread to cover more Governorates of Egypt. There are numerous 220 according to regulatory authority numbers Internet service providers (ISPs) in Egypt offering an ADSL service. There are some companies own the infrastructure and they are called ISPs: NOL, Vodafone data and Noor communication. Etisalat Egypt has bought both Nile Online and Egynet to expand their Internet presence. They sell to other ISPs which sell to the rest of the ISPs.

Politics, the media and Media ownership

- The political theory behind the media:

New communication technologies is one of especially social media via the Internet have become important resources for organization and implementation of social movements around the world. The development of social media created opportunities for Web fueled social movements or cyber activism to change the landscape of collective action.

In addition to supporting political and social movements in more conventional ways by providing opportunities for political expression, symbolic identification for collective actors, and information exchange new communication technologies may serve a novel instrumental function.

Della Porta and Mosca (2005) found that Internet based communication technologies provide an important additional resource for social movements implemented by 'resource poor' actors it is offering a means for mass communication that may have previously been restricted by financial, temporal, or spatial constraints.

- Owns or controls the media:   

owner & controls the media

In fact, most of media are controlled by government. Starting with Radio, where government controlled and operated by media through ERTU (Egyptian Radio and Television Union). Even that, all radio station are also owned by government. Going to TV control where it similar to radio, government control it but with different levels of censorship, and more freedom of expression without going to certain lines that government put it.

Newspaper have three type of control according to ownership: governmental, partisan and independent. Government control the main three national newspaper: Al-Ahram (The Pyramids), Al-Akhbar (The News), and Al Goumhurya (The Republic). All editors of this newspapers are appointed by the president through a recommendation of the High Council of the Press. The main idea of this news are avoiding government criticism, so we can said they have a loyalty to government. The second owner of media are Partisan, where political and oppositional parties can publish their own newspapers, also they focus on addressing government policies, taboos and sensitive issues. They have more freedom from censorship than government newspaper. Al-Ahrar (The Free), AlWafd (The Delegation) and Al Ghad (Tomorrow) are examples of these newspaper. Independent newspapers grow more than before in Egypt, Al Masry-Al Youm (The Egyptian Today), Nahdet Misr (Egypt Awakening), and Al Sherouq (The Sunrise) are examples of independent newspapers. They didn't controlled by government so they able to write about taboos, criticize the government's performance, but with maintain professional standards of journalism in terms of accuracy, objectivity and credibility.

In fact, there are some rich Egyptians who control on media such as:

Naguib Sawiris, third-richest Egyptian businessmen and the owner of many of the Egyptian economic and trade companies. He founded and co-founded   "ON TV" channed, he also owns a portion in one of the most famous Egyptian private newspaper 'Egyptian newspapers today'.

Mohammad Al Amin. One of the largest owners of satellite channels in Egypt, he own 14 satellite channel and 3 Newspapers, in addition to 'Four Media for Advertising Company'.

Mr. Badawi, Presides over the Council network management channels "Al Hayat". 'etc.

Mohammed Abu Alaanen who own 'Sada Al Balad channel' and 'Sada Al Balad news site'.

The free flow of information

Flow of information are issue in Egypt, where government control on the flow by put more rules that constraint the freedom right of the media which placed in by the constitution. After January 25th revolution, the free flow of information increased, where most media show the real image of what happen there what government and people do. Media show the true fact without intervention. After the revolution the performance of the media are changed, it be more transparency and credibility, also they now dealing with events differently, and government newspapers have become bolder and more explicit.

factors that affect the flow of information

The right of law said: Journalists have no authority over them in the performance of their work.  A journalist has the right of access to information and news that permissible published from their sources and they have a right to published.  Prohibits the imposition of any restrictions hamper the free flow of information. Even of this law, there are many law besieging the media from all the side prevent activation of the principle of the exchange of information. The law punish incitement to change system of governance or hate it or contempt.

But, there are some factory that affect the free flow of information in Egypt. Starting with the main idea that effect the free flow of information which is the political factor. Where government control and own the media, so it control on flow of information. Also, the geographic characteristics of Egypt can also affect. Egypt is big country that have inhospitable terrain, and some village are far from media centers. Although, Lack of objectivity, Greed, and Loss of credibility are under media factor which we can see it when January 25th revolution happen and how some of journalist write some wrong information.

The type of ownership have on the perspective of the media? Is there one or many perspectives?

Use Examples

It popped the question of media ownership and its impact on the performance of the channels or newspapers with the first private satellite channels in Egypt and the emergence of starting the satellite Nilesat in the nineties of the last century.

With the 1952 revolution and the nationalization of newspapers and publications, and the establishment of the Egyptian state television it has been standardized property; the state is controlled by the media and thus determine the agenda, which is all that is said or printed in the country.

In the seventies party newspapers reappeared again, and thus was the ownership of the parties created. But state-owned newspapers, which are the most actively traded continued and widespread in Egypt.

And it became the ownership of the media in Egypt pattern either inform the "national" is owned and supported by the state, or special media founded by businessmen and media representatives.

Examples:

- Open the door to businessmen and investors for the establishment of private newspapers, and adopted these newspapers mainly on the younger generation of journalists did not find his chances in the state-owned national newspapers.

- Egypt's new constitution lays the legislative basis satisfactory to the future of the Egyptian media, and added that solves the problem of ownership of the media of the state and subjects them to independent institutions and to establish a control body oversees the media industry.

Media Current Trends

People faced a difficult to use a media in Egypt because they were used but not widespread and was under the control of the government to control the Internet that disappeared for a period which reduced the use of the media. After that the media have evolved and the trends then they let people using social media a lot. There are some negative things with using media such as they select unethical images and they spread them. Also they used In-credible sources that means no one can deny the ever rising media trend, in an age of web based journalism of relying on stories sourced from other journalists. But after all that it has spread the use of the media after the grant freedom to them by the government.

Three trends and the evidence

Officially, Facebook has remained on its role in the protests in Egypt, which grew into full on revolutions. There are reports have surfaced that reveal a somewhat active involvement in the events and outline Facebook's support of democracy and civic engagement.

Facebook reportedly worked to protect the identity of Egyptian activists, according to The Daily Beast. The news site claims to have obtained e-mail correspondence from Facebook executives and the administrators of the Facebook Page that was the revolution's digital epicenter.

The term Twitter Revolution refers to different revolutions and protests, all of which were coordinated using the social networking site Twitter to plan the protests, mobilize the demonstrators and update the news to all around the world.

Also people in Egypt are using YouTube to see videos but it is less than using face book and twitter.

- Globalization

The impact of globalization on the Arab world culture is not a matter of simple statistics and reports. It is, in essence, a diagnostic line of analysis to consider its pluses and minuses on the Arab general public.

globalization promotes integration of the world and calls for the removal of all cultural barriers. Although globalization is a vital process toward transferring knowledge and education to the world, it still has its negative effects on most cultures and civilizations. Its impact on cultures, in this case the Arabic culture.

While its advocates rationalize that with the support of those momentous technological information devices and applications, such as satellites, internet and social media, Arab culture can be acclimatized to retain most globalized concepts regardless of the variances with Western culture and the distinctions between their respective historical and religious roots.

The magnification of global media networks and satellite communication technologies enable some dominant powers to have a truly global reach. Technological superiority is a definite advantage when it comes to originating a culture as it formulates its universal appeal. Though it is a necessary credit, it is also insufficient.

The declared goal of globalization is a public service of humanity and the standardization of the determination and the removal of geographic barriers, and to promote human values and protection and unify efforts to improve human life through modern publishing technology from their positions in the developed world to the far ends of the earth, and to help solve love problems of all States in the goodness of humanity.

Some of them believe that globalization threatens the Arab and Islamic identity, and should be rejected altogether while another team believes that all goodness in the coming globalization them of advanced societies and the latest in science of the modern means of communication and technology and should seize this opportunity and keep up with developments to take advantage of it.

Appendix (1)In this chart shows Egypt occupies third place by 82% of using Facebook. They use Facebook more than any social media.   

Appendix (2): This chart shows that Egypt uses twitter a lot and the number of tweets per hour is very high.

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