A REVIEW PAPER ON
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF BANANA FIBER EXTRACTION MACHINE
'SUHAIB A.SHEIKH'^1 'PROF.S.S.KUMBHALKAR'^2
1 DEPARTMRNT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, GHRCE, NAGPUR, MH, INDIA
2 ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AT MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, GHRCE, NAGPUR, MH, INDIA
The present paper is aimed at to design and develop an automated process to extract high quality natural fibers from the banana pseudo stems. Though the manual process of extraction yields good quality of fiber but it is quite un-economical due to its labor extensive and low output (200gm/person/day) characteristics. Hence efficient extraction of banana fiber can only be possible through mechanization. Now days machines exist for extracting banana fiber but are manually operated and cannot be applied for mass production. The other main disadvantages of existing machine are impurities present in rolled fiber. The efficiency of existing machine is average. It consumes time & the process is not safe.
Keywords - banana fiber, design of fiber extraction machine, analysis, spinning technology
BANANA FIBER '
Banana fiber is environmentally friendly like jute fiber. The technology of banana fiber extraction has been developed in South India where in a good number of banana fiber extraction units have been running very successfully. Some firms are exporting the banana fiber products. The stem of banana plant is usually thrown away once the plantain is harvested. The stem forms major waste material in large scale banana plantation. The disposal of these stem is real problem. Fiber can be extracted from stem by both manually and mechanically extractor. A wide range of product including bags, baskets, wall hangings, floor mat, etc. can be made with banana fiber. The high quality fiber is used for making papers. In some countries, banana fiber is used for making currency paper. Banana fiber is a best fiber with relatively good mechanical properties due to its high alpha cellulose and low lignin percentage .
fig.1 world banana production
Banana fiber is also preferred over other natural and artificial fibers due to its low lignin and high ''-cellulose value.
fig-2 physical and chemical properties of fibers
Banana fiber can be obtained from waste stalk, leaf and roots of banana plant. Generally abundant of banana fiber is obtained from surface near to the outer sheath of stem. It can be peeled-off easily in ribbons of strips of 5-10 cm wide and 2-5 mm thick along the entire length of the sheath. The undressing process is known as Tuxying and the ribbons are called Tuxies.
2.1.1 Bacnis Process
It is the simple stripping process in which trunks are pulled apart and sheath is undressed. The fiber is obtained by removing pulpy and pulling away the ribbons (tuxy)
2.1.2 Loenit Process
In this process a knife or any sharp pointed tool is used for obtaining ribbons. Ribbons are obtained from one sheath at a time. 20-25 kg of fiber is dried, cleaned and bundled.
2.2 CHEMICAL EXTRACTION
For chemical extraction, alkali treatment is used. The alkali NaOH reduces roughness of fiber and good quality of fiber is obtained
Fiber-OH + NaOH -------Fiber-O-Na++ H2O
Fig. 3 Plot pH against no of days
Thus main disadvantage of chemical extraction is time period taken in the whole process. It can be seen from above graph to produce good quality fiber, chemical extraction takes 35-40 days. The process is costly. There is lot of wastage in the process.
MECHANICAL EXTRACTION -
The machine consists of a rigid frame on which the roller rotates. The roller consists of twenty seven mild steel or stainless steel horizontals blades (6 mm size) with blunt edges all around and rotates on a free moving shaft. The roller could be driven by a standard one horse power single phase electric motor by belt and pulley arrangement, which is fixed over the rigid frame. The machine reduces labor work and increases fiber making by 20-25 times as compared to manual process. In this process, cut stems of banana plants of 100-200 cm in length are crushed between two drum rollers. Due to crushing the pulpy part is removed and fiber is obtained.
Certain care is needed to avoid damage.
Impurities in the rolled fibers such as Pigments, broken fibers, knots.
The manual extraction of banana fibers was time consuming, and caused damage to the fiber.
This type of technique cannot be recommended for mass production.
Fibers produced are not of uniform size.
In addition, there is a safety issue. It is reported that many accidents have happened in past
This is the initial machine design developed for fiber extraction consist of two crushing roller. The gear and rope pulley mechanism was used for transmission. It consumes too much power and fiber quality was poor
This is the developed model consisting of single roller. Gears were eliminated. Still the fiber quality was average. Production quantity was less. 1HP motor is used. Additional problems were garbage and waste removed from pseudo-stem.
This model is developed by Tech Pro. It consist of single roller, 1 hp motor. It is designed such that cleanliness can be maintained. Its structure is made compact and it is light in weight. sometimes it is also provided with wheels for easy transportation.
Fig. 6 Existing machine
Banana fiber is a natural fiber textiles which is popular used and supported from government presently . Fiber is mostly produced by farmers using manual scraping leading to a slow process and failure to meet a demand requirement. This study emphasizes on physical properties of banana leaf sheath such as moisture content, dimension, weight, a percent of fiber and extraction. The comparison of extraction fiber machine of rasp bar and saw-tooth bar was studied.
Fig.7 Roller with saw toothrasp bar roller
This basic information can be used for mechanical design, construction and testing the performance of the extraction fiber machine in a farmer scale. The testing factors of this study were clearances of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mm,extraction drum speeds of 645, 775, and 905 rpm (6.8, 8.1 and 9.5 m/s, respectively) and feeding positions of 45 and 90 degree. The results found that the average moisture content was 94.6''1.44%wb with a percent of fiber of 15.6''3.3%. For the banana leaf sheath prepared from the second to the sixth layer at the length of0.8 m, it found that the width, thickness and weight of banana stems were not significantly difference (pd 0.05). When compared the extraction fiber unit, the rasp bar type could separate a good texture of banana leaf sheath, while the saw-tooth bar type made a damage texture until the machine could not work
Good Quality Fiber Bad Quality Fiber
Fig.8 Fiber Quality
Fig.9 Types of banana fiber based upon their quality
The results of factors affecting machine operation found that the extraction drum speed and Clearance had no significant (pd 0.05) effect on percent of fiber extraction and force, while, the feed position had a significant (pd 0.05) difference on percent of fiber extraction and force. The clearance of 1.5 mm, drum speed of 645 rpm and feed position of 90 degree were suitable condition for extraction with provided a good quality of fiber by visual observations which gave the least residual amount of tissue and a small damage fiber. It was separated for 15.52 percent of fiber with the fiber force of 18.06 kgN. Moreover, the extraction capacity was 231 of prepared sheath/h that was higher than using the existing machine and manual scrapping approximately 1.5-2 and 20-34 times, respectively. 
Table 1 Parameters affecting quality of fiber
CLEARANCE(MM) SEED(RPM) FEED ANGLE YIELD OF FIBER(%) QUALITY TYPE
0.75 645 45 17.46 A
0.75 645 90 13.44 A
0.75 775 45 18.06 B
0.75 775 90 15.53 A
0.75 905 45 11.62 C
0.75 905 90 24.88 B
1.00 645 45 16.31 A
1.00 645 90 23.35 B
1.00 775 45 14.60 A
1.00 775 90 21.05 A
1.00 905 45 17.38 B
1.00 905 90 21.30 A
1.25 645 45 15.52 B
1.25 645 90 24.04 A
1.25 775 45 10.51 B
1.25 775 90 17.38 C
1.25 905 45 18.76 B
1.25 905 90 19.82 B
The new banana fiber extraction machine can be designed with higher efficiency. This machine will reduce manual work and is suitable for mass production. Compact structure and easy disassembling will be another advantage. The problem of impurities and knots can be solved with this kind of design. The factors affecting quality of fiber are roller speed, feed angle and clearance also affect the production quantity of fiber. By choosing this factors correctly quality and production of fiber can be increased . By the application automatic feeder and conveyor time and effort can be saved.
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