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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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IPM strongly focuses on supporting natural mortality factors like pests, natural enemies. IPM  requires a great deal of sampling, monitoring, and decision making to be effective.

IPM is effective to all types of pests from insects and mites, to fungi, bacteria, weeds and nematodes. There are number of control methods but cultural and biological methods  preferred first to save environmental pollution, crops and beneficial pests because pesticides (fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, weedicides etc.) kill about 98% of the pest and 99% of the enemies.   

IPM was first introduced by RF Smith and R Van de Bosch in 1967 and formalized by US National Academy of sciences in 1969.Integrated Pest Management is known as crop protection or pest management system which comes under farming systems. It is a sustainable agricultural approach with a sound ecological foundation. Integrated pest management used in commer''cial agriculture since the 1970s. IPM is a systematic approach to pest management which focuses on preventing plant pathogens. It involves monitoring pest populations, identifying pests and choosing a combi''nation of tactics to keep pest populations at an acceptable level. Tactics include cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods of pest management. IPM stresses trying the least toxic methods first. IPM has a traditional "low input" approach. According to Rabb (1972) integrated pest management is the "intelligent selection and  use  of  pest  control actions that  will ensure favorable economic, ecological, and sociological consequences".    This is underlined in the economic threshold concept whereas pesticides are not applied unless pest levels are high enough to potentially reduce profits. Economic thresholds ensure that there is a sound economic foundation for the use of  pesticides.

There are other several definitions given by different scientists-

"Integrated control is defined as: 'Applied pest control which combines and integrates biological and chemical control. Chemical control is used as necessary and in a manner which is least disruptive to biological control. Integrated control may make use of naturally occurring biological control as well as biological control effected by manipulated or induced biotic agents'." (Stern et al., 1959).

 "The management of pests by integrating host resistance, cultural, biological and chemical controls in a manner that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks.'( CPM Crop Protection Manager. 1997)

 "IPM is a decision support system for the selection and use of pest control tactics, singly or harmoniously coordinated into a management strategy, based on cost/benefit analyses that take into account the interests of and impacts on producers, society, and the environment.'( Marcos Kogan. 1998)

"An approach to the management of pests in public facilities that combines biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks.' (Bajwa & Kogan 2002)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and nontarget organisms (Steve Dreistadt, 2004).

According to (Kogan 1998) about 30 years ago IPM appeared in press. 'Integrated control is the combination of chemical as well as biological control measures ((Michelbacher and Bacon 1952). Initially integrated management of agricultural pests proposed by Australian ecologists during 1961 ((Geier and Clark 1961). Agriculture sustainability is the substitution of chemicals and provides knowledge of biological inputs. Sustainability adopt sophisticate approach which maintain high productivity and farm profits without harming the environment and resources.

 Why IPM is most popular? There are many reasons to apply IPM:

' It helps to keep a balanced ecosystem and promotes a healthy environment: Chemicals can destroy beneficial fungi and insects and affect soil and soil microflora and disturb the environment.

' Pests can become resistance to pesticides hence pesticides can be ineffective.

' Applications of IPM maintain a good public image: IPM protect home and business structure, farmers economy, livestock health, human health.

  Objectives of IPM

1. To identify and monitoring pest problems.

2. To reduce the initial inoculums and effectiveness.

3. To increase the resistance of the host and delay the onset of the disease.

4. To slow the secondary cycle.

5. To keep record and evaluate the program.

Components of IPM

There are main three components 'monitoring, Prevention and intervention.

1. Monitoring: Monitoring is the foundation of IPM which provides knowledge of current pest and crop situation which will help to select the best possible combinations of the pest management strategies. Pheromone traps are highly effective monitoring device and very cheap to purchase and provide benefits including identification of pest problems (hot spots).

2. Prevention: it includes cultural and physical control measures

Cultural methods: Cultural methods include location of the crop in the field and Selection of the varieties (resistant to diseases, insects or nematodes), sanitation (elimination of the pest), crop rotation (intercropping, mixed cropping etc.), tillage, soil and water management, plant nutrition, harvesting and storage and preserving biodiversity are used for prevention from infection as well as infestation.  

Location of the crop in the field: Location of the growing crops in the field is best suited to climate, soil, pH and topography provides them congenial conditions with appropriate land preparation.

Seed treatment: Treated seeds with specific pesticides (fungicide, insecticide or nematicide) prevent pre-inoculation of the pathogen. Seed treated with emisan protect from fungal infection, chlorpyriphos reduce white grub population, higher dose of chlorpyriphose kill cotton surface weevil. Avicta Complete bean, Avicta 500 FS and Apron Maxx provide immediate and reliable complete protection to soybean plant against insects and nematodes like Root knot, lesion, cyst, stunt etc. nematodes and thrips, leafhopper, white grub, beetles, maggots etc. and fungi like Phytophthora, Fusarium, Pyhtium, Rhizoctonia, Phomopsis etc. Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 2-4g/100 gm and per kg, Carbandazim @ 1g/100 gm seed,  Pseudomonas  fluorescens @ 10gm/kg, Chlorpyriphos @ 4 ml/kg seed, Endosulfan @ 7ml / kg seeds, Thiram 75% WP, Carboxin 75 % WP, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas flourescens 2.5 ' 5 kg in 100kg FYM, Pseudomonas flourescens,@10gm/kg. Captan 75 WS @ 1.5 to 2.5 gm a.i./litre for soil drenching. Carbofuran/Carbosulfan 3% (w/w) etc. effective against soil and seed borne infection caused by fungi, insects and nematodes of the crops like agricultural, vegetable and horticultural crops.

Soil solarization: Soil solarization in summer in the intercropping period helps neutralize thermosensible pathogens at depths up to 20 cm, like root-knot nematodes. Soil amendments with composts or manures can stimulate natural microbial soil flora and have a repressive effect on phytoparasitic nematode populations.

Selection of resistant varieties: Crop varieties which are resistant to diseases and pests can be obtained through cross breeding, micropropagation and  genetic engineering by introducing resistant genes to the affected plant variety and than that variety become resistant to specific plant pathogens. Incorporation of genetic material from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in cotton, corn and potatoes makes the plant tissues toxic to the fungi, insects and nematods.  

Crop rotation: Crop rotation is the oldest and cheapest method adopted in agriculture to eradication of certain types of pathogens from infested soil.

Crop rotation after 2-3 years provides good prevention from pathogens and weeds. It is very important for soil fertility management, disease management, insect, nematode and weed management. Mixed cropping, intercropping and use of barrier crops essential for the success of sustainable agriculture.  

Soil and water management: Tillage turns the soil, crop debris and weeds before the preparation of seed bed. Tillage provides optimum aeration for beneficial microorganisms and enhancing nutrient cycle and organic matter decomposition. In water management, rain water management reduces evapotranspiration and irrigation water management includes irrigation schedule at appropriate time with proper quantity of water without causing alkalinity, salinity and waterlogging.

Plant nutrition management: Plants require a proper given quantity and mix of nutrients to produce good yield, shortage of nutrients can inhibit the plant growth and plants become more susceptible to diseases and pests due to nutrient deficiency. Different type of soil contain different types of nutrient improve soil fertility. The continuous recycling of nutrients into and out of the soil involves complex biological and chemical interaction.

Harvesting and storage: Different crops have variations in harvesting and storage. After harvesting healthy seeds collect for storage and before storage that room should be cleaned reduce fungi, bacteria, insects development in storage. If there is no proper harvesting and storage practices then food loss occur quantitatively

Preserving biodiversity: Biodiversity can be conserved by protecting natural habitats near farmland. Careful management of trees, plants, edges and hedges are important for wildlife habitat, beneficial and predatory insect and animals.

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