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PastINDUSTRY PROFILE

The business services industry includes those companies providing business-related services to other companies. Companies belonging to this industry provide a variety of different services, such as marketing, advertising, legal services, consulting, logistic, shipping, staffing, human resources, leasing, outsourcing, facility management and security etc. The Business Services is a highly fragmented industry. Its production is divided among various other companies, none of the single company has large enough market share in order to affect the direction and price levels of the industry.

The industry's demand depends upon the spending level of business, which is measured by the overall economic health. The profit level of each companiy depends upon the efficient and effective operations. Huge companies have the advantage of economies of scale and can compete on globally, whereas small companies can compete only by providing highly specialized services, or by high quality customer service. Business services industry is a combination of companies that offer some additional supportive services to other market players. Thus, the main business of one company can be cnsidered as a business service for another company.

Companies focus on functions and activities that are closely related to their core competence with the help of their operating efficiencies. These core functions help them by providing the advantage of economies of scale, and also help in improving their competitive advantage. Ultimately, this creates a way for business services companies to offer these services. This industry makes use of the latest technology in order to provide highly specialized services. The service providers can reduce the operational cost with the help of these specialized services, and also the overall cost of companies, throuch which the margins are benefited. Hence those companies opting for such specialized services can increase their volumes for service providers. This would reduce the service cost and in turn reduce the costs of companies.

One of the major challenges which is faced by this industry is companies spending in order to acquire services from business service providers. In fact, this is directly connected to the company's economy health. This industry continuously incurs cost on research and development, training programmes, and retaining skilled labourers as it offers specialized services. But continuous R&D helps it to adapt new services for further development, training and maintaining skilled labourers, reduce high turnover rate etc. Another threat for this industry is the increase in competition. As the main business of one company can be a business service for another, the business service providers have to face risk in order to maintain and increase the share of the market.

Mergers and acquisitions play a key role in not only strengthening a company's favourable position by grabbing more market share but also in obtaining an edge over the competitors. The business industry has seen a quick progress of acquisitions in recent years. Future growth possibilities can be impacted by lack of skilled labor in the business services industry. Non-availability of accurate quality workforce can increase the overall operational costs. Because of the highly fragmented nature of this industry, setting a different trend or predicting a definite and specific future for it is very difficult. The expected annual compounded growth rate of this indusry from 2010 to 2015 is 4%.

New investors are attracted by this industry, as nearly one-third of the companies under the coverage of the business service industry shares profits with their shareholders in the form of dividends. Dividend payments help in retaining the confidence of stockholders' in a company. Companies also enhance shareholders value by introducing repurchase of shares.

Generating employment is becoming a crucial issue because of increase in population and economic uncertainity which is a constant aspect. As this industry is labor intensive, it involves lower capital investments. Countries which are emerging economies such as India and China are becoming important destinations for the business service industries. In fact, these economies also provide difficulties to the growth of employment in developed countries.

The United States has the most advanced business services industry in the world. It has more than a quarter of $3.8 trillion IT market globally. This industry contributes 7.1 % of U.S. GDP and 11.6 % of U.S. employment under private-sector. In U.S. there are above 100,000 IT services and software companies, and above 99 % are SME firms (less than 500 employees). India is the biggest sourcing destination for business services industry in the world, contributing 67 % of the US$ 124-130 billion market approximately. This industry provides employment for about 10 million employees. Most significantly, this industry has led to the country's economic transformation and altered India's perception in the global economy. Cost competitiveness of India in giving IT services, that is approximately 3-4 times cheaper than the US, is continuing to be the most basic part of its Unique Selling Proposition (USP) in the sourcing market globally. But still, India is also achieving importance and fame in terms of intellectual capital with various IT companies globally for organizing their innovation centres in India.

1.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

' INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human resourses are the most useful, helpful and unique resources of any organization. An organization's HR is an interesting, everchanging work which requires great effort and determination if managed successfully, especially when the world has turned to a global village and economies are in a state of constant change. The growing expectations of the modern day employees have increased the difficulty of the function of human resource to a greater extent due to limited talented HR.

Even though the activities of specific human resources are the duty of the HR department, the actual human resource management is the duty of all the managers in an organization.  

Hence it is essential for all the managers to know and give value to the different policies and functions of HR in the organization. Human resoursce describes the significance of HRM and its various activities in an organization. It also evaluates the different processes of HR which deals with procuring, managing, retaining, motivating and enhancing workers for the growth of the organization.

' MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

The most crucial and challenging task of the organization which is concerned with managing the people resources of an organization is referred as human resource management.

' DEFINITION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

According to Edwin B. Flippo,'Human Resource Management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organisational, and social objectives are accomplished'.

' MEANING OF HUMAN ROLE STRESS

Today, Role stress is one of the growing concerns for organizations. Stress can be referred as a lively situation in which people face opportunities, difficulties or loss of something they desire and for which the outcome is both unpredictable and crucial. The reaction of people to the unreasonable or excessive pressure or demands placed on them is stress.

Always stress is not negative. At times, it can also bring out the best in individuals. It can influence a person to discover creative and innovative way of doing things. This positive aspect of stress is called as enstress. However usually, the term stress has a negative impact and this negative dimension of stress is called as distress. For instance - When a superior harasses or warns his subordinate, unhappiness due to unsuitable job, etc. We can say that 'Stress causes some people to break, and other to break records.'

' DEFINITION OF HUMAN ROLE STRESS

Role stress is defined as the stress experienced by the persons because of their role (job) in the organization. They assume a role based on the expectation of the self and others at work place.

' SYMPTOMS OF STRESS

Some of the symptoms of stress in organization are as follows-

' Coming late, leaving early, escaping from job responsibilities, absenteeism, etc.

' Work performance deterioration, more of error prone work, loss of memory, etc.

' Cribbing, over-reacting, arguing, getting irritated, anxiety, etc.

' Health Deterioration, more of accidents, etc.

' Improper eating habits (over-eating or under-eating), excessive smoking and drinking alcohol, lack of sleep, etc.

Hence it is very important to have effective and efficient strategies for managing stress in an organization so that the harmful effects of stress on the employees and their performance can be limited and controlled.

FIGURE: 1.2.1

' SOURCES OR CAUSES OF STRESS

The factors that lead to stress among individuals are termed as stressors. Some of the factors or stressors affecting employees are:

1. Organizational factors: Due to the growth in organizational stress and difficulty, there is also increase in factors that cause stress among employees in the organization. Some of the organizational factors are:

' Pay or salary structure discrimination

' Strict rules and regulations

' Ineffective communication

' Peer pressure

' Goals ambigyity or goals conflicts

' More of centralized and formal organization structure

' Less promotional opportunities

' Lack of employee's participation in decision-making

' Excessive control over the employees by the managers

2. Individual factors: There are different expectations which the family members, peers, superior and subordinates have from an employee. Failing to understand or meet such expectations lead to role ambiguity or role conflict which results in employee stress. Other individual factors causing stress among employees are the natural personality traits such as being aggressive, impatient, rigid, always feeling time pressure, etc. Similarly, the family issues, financial problems, sudden changes in career all lead to stress.

3. Job concerning factors: Some of the factors related to job which cause stress among employees are:

' Monotonous nature of job

' Unsafe and unhealthy working conditions

' Lack of confidentiality

' Crowding

4. Extra-organizational factors: There are also certain issues outside the organization which cause stress among employees. Stress has increased in today's modern and technology savvy world. Other extra-organizational factors causing stress are inflation, change in technology, social responsibilities and sudden social changes.

FIGURE: 1.2.2

' STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress management comprises of various strategies which are planned to provide an individual with effective coping techniques in order to deal with psychological stress.

Stress is defined by stress management accurately as an individual's physiological response towards an external stimulus which causes the "fight-or-flight" reaction.

' STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING STRESS

Role stress experienced by the employees causes negative impact on their health, work performance and their behaviour in the organization. Hence, it is essential to manage stress effectively inorder to avoid these harmful outcomes. Thus, Strategies for managing stress are:

FIGURE: 1.2.3

' ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

1. Encourage more of organizational communication with the employees inorder to avoid role ambiguity/role conflict. Employee views can be changed by effective communication. Managers can make use of better signs and symbols which the employees may not misinterpret.

2. Encourage employees' participation in decision-making so as to reduce role stress.

3. Provide the employees with greater independence, timely and meaningful feedback, and greater job responsibility.

4. The organizational goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. The employees should be given feedback on how well they are working towards these goals.

5. Encourage decentralized organization structure.

6. Have a just and fair distribution of salary and incentives structure.

7. Promote job rotation and job enrichment.

8. Provide a just and safe working environment.

9. Follow effective hiring and orientation procedure.

10. Appreciate the employees on achieving and over-exceeding their targets.

' INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES

1. The employees must make a 'to-do' list daily, the acts in the list should be prioritized and plan the acts accordingly. Take regular breaks between works to relax. The employees can accomplish their targets on time and can meet work pressures by effective time management, and, in turn avoid stress.

2. Work hard, strive to accomplish your goals but without causing any harm to family, health, or peer.

3. Regularly indulge in physical exercises. It helps in effective blood circulation, keeps you fit, and diverts mind from work pressures.

4. Encourage a healthy lifestyle by taking regular sleep, have plenty of water, and have healthy eating habits. Also promote certain techniques for relaxation such as yoga, meditation and listening music.

5. The employees must have positive approach towards their work. They should avoid connections with employees having negative approach.

6. The employees must have emotional intelligence in organization. They must also have self-awareness, self-confidence and self-control in organization.

7. The employees must build social network with others at workplace. They should have close connections with peers who are trustworthy and who listen to their problems and increase their confidence level. This social support will help the employees to reduce stress.

8. Employee counselling is a very good strategy to overcome employee stress. Through counselling, employees can become aware of their strengths and how to develop those strengths; their weaknesses and how to eliminate them; and they can develop strategies for changing their behaviour. Employees are also given career counselling which helps in reducing their ambiguities with regard to career.

9. Include fun ways to overcome stress, such as, cracking jokes, playing sports such as tennis, golf, etc.

10. Never remain pre-occupied with yourself. Focus outwards and also help others. This will help to overcome stress.

1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE TOPIC

Role stress and its management help the organization in the following ways:

' It helps to improve your ability to motivate employees which acts as a powerful technique to build teamwork and sustain employee morale at workplace. Due to lack of motivation employees may become unfocused, distant, upset and even short fused.

' It helps to lessen the chance of opportunity which decreases the productivity level of employees at workplace and in turn it helps to improve the chance of achieving sustainable productivity levels. Other factors such as ethics, lack of effective communication, poor performance and poor time manangement skills can also damage productivity.

' It improves your ability to lead. Good leaders can have the trust and respect of their employees by guiding and directing them during stressful situations. By properly handling stress and correctly identifing stressful issues you will be able to lead in the tough times.

' It allows meeting the deadlines. The result of role stress may lead to lack of productivity and the missing of deadlines. Hence, keeping a lookout for stressors before they become an issue can help run your business smoothly.

' It helps to decrease chances of unethical issues which in turn help to overcome stress. Managing stress in the workplace can act as a solution to ethical issues by providing ethics and stress seminars to reduce the chances of unethical practices.

' It helps to reduce possibilities of workplace conflicts. Many conflicts occur due to differences in opinions, personalities and some times due to stress. Usually conflicts that deal with stress emerge over time and then explode.

' It helps to strengthen the communication process. One of the key elements to business success is the communication process at the workplace. When this process fails, it creates a chain reaction. Managers who can strongly handle work-related stress usually can identify a problem and also resolve it. This in turn strengthens the communication process at workplace.

' It helps in the smooth running of projects. While managing a project you will never know when a supplier may be delayed or the lack of supllies may exist. These issues will make it difficult to reach a required deadline. Sometimes, employees who handle the project are told to deal with it and meet the deadline. This often creates even more stress to an already stressful circumstance.

' It helps to improve your ability to develop teamwork and team building. Managers make use of handling stress as a tool with the help of which role stress can be managed at workplace and which in turn allows building team unity.

' It helps in writting performance appraisals of employees. Managing stress in the workplace when used effectively will help you in the process of writing review. Stress is a measurable factor that can directly be related to work performance. It can also be used to evaluate how well employees work with others at workplace. It also judges wheather it affects an employee's ability to adapt to changes and adjust to problems.

1.4 NEED OF THE STUDY

Millions of people are affected by stress. Stress related to our careers and the organization is one of the most common types of stress. Job related stress is even more noticeable than ever before, in today's economic complexity. Worries such as whether or not people can keep their job, their health insurance, and even keep their homes, plays a major role in stress, and the possibility of losing a job can be scary.

Tension or anxiety is another word for stress. There are various symptoms and unpleasant things happen when someone experiences stress. Some of these symptoms may become serious and cause very large number of problems depending on the level and frequency of stress.

People get affected by stress both mentally and physically. As a consequence of this, the heart rate increases, headaches may develop, and people often become irritated very easily. People who work in highly stressed or difficult jobs and those who are working at a place where there is an environment of high pressure have great tendency to experience stress. Work environment, relation with co-workers, and customer pressures can all contribute to role stress.

Understanding how to manage, reduce, and deal with stress can help individuals feel more relaxed and react when stressful circumstances arise.

Thus the purposes of my study are:

1) For the better understanding of the concept of role stress among employees in the organization.

2) To study how management of role stress among employees will result in better productivity.

3) To provide feedback on the stress management technique of the company for further improvement.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND GAPS

According to Mohsin Aziz (2004), Role stress originates in demands of the organization which the employee experiences. Stress is developed in the concept of role which is considered as the position an employee occupies in the workplace. This article indentifies the impact of organisational role stress among women IT professionals in the Indian private sector. A sample size of 264 employees was taken to find out the role stress level. Inadequacy of resource has emerged as the most powerful role stressor, followed by overload of role and personal inadequacy. This study identifies differences in the stress level between married and unmarried employees on various role stressors. But, qualification does not emerge as an important differentiator of stressors.

According to M Kivimaki, P Leino-Arjas, R Luukkonen, H Riihimai (2002), the study was conducted to identify the relationship between work stress, according to the model of job strain and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. High job strain and effort-reward imbalance increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. The proof from organizational employees recommends that attention must be given to the prevention of job stress.

According to Maria Vakola, Ioannis Nikolaou (2005), Role stress and change in organization are widely accepted as two significant issues in organizational life. This study identifies the relation between employees' attitudes towards organizational change and two of the most important constructs in organizational behaviour; role stress and organizational commitment. The current study revealed that good and effective job relationships are very essential in organizational change. And also, organizations should identify the work overload which is created by organizational change. Workload increase is not only easily caused due to the change but it also makes change unattractive and causes problems that lead to attitudes which are not supportive.

According to Srivastava A. K, Sinha M. M. (1983), the study was conducted with 120 male Indian managers (aged 35'51 yrs) who completed measures of ego strength, job involvement, and occupational stress. Ss with high ego strength experienced mild stress emerging from work overload, role ambiguity, and role conflicts compared to those experienced by Ss with low or moderate ego strength. Similarly, Ss with high job involvement also experienced low stress than those Ss with low or moderate job involvement. A 2-way ANOVA revealed that ego strength and job involvement communicated to moderate the effects of stress. High ego strength enhanced coping responses and led Ss to be mentally attached to their jobs to satisfy their needs for self-esteem; high job involvement increased job satisfaction and basic motivation level.

According to Srivastava Kumkum, Srivastava A. K. (1985), the study compared 40 dual-career (modern) couples with 80 single-career (traditional) couples by considering their job stress, mental health, marital adjustment, and social relations to identify the impact of the role stress of dual-career couples on their off-the-job adjustments. Findings show that dual-career couples experienced high role stress and had poor marital adjustment, social relations, and mental health than traditional couples. Dual-career husbands experienced high role ambiguity and role conflicts than traditional husbands. The wife's profession had an unfavourable impact on the husband and on her own marital adjustment, social relations, and mental health.

According to Tudu Preshita Neha, Pathak Pramod (2013), Role stress has become a serious issue for the employers, employees and the organizations. Tough competition has made employers understand that employees are the main source of competitive advantage. However, this builds role stress among employees. Hence, it is essential that executive stress is to be prevented to ensure health, performance, morale and well being of the executives. This study attempts to examine the nature of stress in the current scenario and recommend simple but effective ways of dealing with it because often times the prescriptions we get for managing stress prove to create more problems than the problem itself.

According to Jha Soni, Mishra Prabhat Kumar, Bhardwaj Gopa Abhigyan (1994), the study was conducted to examine whether or not bureaucracy causes role stress in employees. The Ss were technocrats from a large government organization in New Delhi, India which included 40 upper-level (UL), 40 middle-level (ML), and 40 lower-level (LL) employees. The Ss answered 2 questionnaires, the Organizational Role Stress Scale and the Work Environments Preference Scale evaluating bureaucratic orientation (BO). Outputs indicated that LL Ss experienced high organizational role stress (ORS) than ML or UL Ss. UL Ss had high BO, preferring particular rules and impersonal job relations. ML Ss had the lowest BO. UL Ss revealed the highest correlation between BO and ORS factors, ML Ss revealed a lower correlation, and LL Ss revealed an unimportant correlation between BO and ORS factors.

According to Parul Rishi, BalKrishna Upadhyay, Arpita Solanki (2004), the article tries to examine the various coping strategies used by forest officers when they face multiple kinds of role stressors. 34 forest officers from Bhopal and nearby areas were chosen to participate in this study. Data collection was done by personally visiting the houses of different officers during their leisure time. This study used the subjective, objective and projective techniques as per their suitability for collecting different kinds of information. The outputs recommended that there was a positive and important relation between stress, avoidance strategies and typeA personality. Forest officers who had typeA personality experienced more role stress and utilized more avoidance-based strategies to cope with it. Around, 23.5% of the sample was identified to be experiencing more stress and ineffective coping. The officers who were under role stress were again asked to participate in a training session called EMG biofeedback-induced relaxation.

According to S Bhatt, P Verma (2008), IT/ITeS professionals are always facing pressure to deliver the services efficiently and also to maintain cost effectiveness. The customer expectation regarding the skills required for job processing are dynamic and it forces professionals to upgrade or adapt rapidly to these demands. Thus, organisations have started identifying high level of role stress in this sector. This study tries to examine the role stress faced by IT/ITeS professionals (age group 22'28 years). A questionnaire on General Role Stress created and standardized by Udai Pareek, was distributed to 120 IT/ITeS employees. The instrument evaluated level of four different stressors such as SRD, IRD, RB & Pin. Data analysis rejected the hypothesis that there is no significant variation between the four stressors; RB level was significantly higher.

According to Mohsin Aziz (2013), Call centres come under the umbrella of business process outsourcing (BPO). Different studies conducted on Indian call centre organisations have emphasized the common high role stress. Call centre employees work often during night for long shifts; hence, they become easy sufferes of different physical and mental illness. Convenience sampling was used for data collection from three different organisations in National Capital Region in India for current study. For examining the different factors causing role stress among employees of call centres personal interviews were conducted. The main factors examined are monitoring of employees, changing identity, angry customers, night shift and performance metrics.

GAPS:

This study on Role Stress among employees of emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, India is conducted with the aim of identifying the factors causing role stress among the employees. The other objectives of this study are to know the existing level of role stress among the employees, to find out the impact of role stress among the employees on their job performance and finally to suggest suitable measures to reduce the existing level of role stress among the employees. A sample size of 100 employees from the organization is taken to conduct the study. Simple random sampling technique is used for data collection and a structured questionnaire is also prepared for data analysis in order to come to the conclusion of this study.

2.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The prime issue for the study is the role stress among employees of EMTARANG TECHNOLOGY LABS PVT LTD. Any kind of a job has targets and an employee faces stress when he or she is unable to achieve the given targets and is unable to manage the given situation. Hence this study on role stress is needed to understand the level of role stress among the employees.

2.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The topic role stress among employees was chosen with the aim of providing betterment for the organization in terms of both quality and quantity. Hence the scope of the study is:

3 To define how organization must work in terms of managing stress and where it is lacking for doing the same.

4 To suggest what all techniques must be used to manage the stress effectively.

5 To improve the employee's productivity by managing role stress.

6 To get the information of the HR functional department of the organization.

7 This programme would help the organization in achieving its personal needs in future.

8 The scope is limited to practically working within the organization.

2.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

' Primary Objective

The broad objective is to study the role stress among the employees of emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd.

' Secondary Objective

1) To identify the factors causing role stress among the employees of emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd.

2) To know the existing level of role stress among the employees of emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd.

3) To find out the impact of role stress among the employees on their job performance and the strategies adopted to manage stress.

4) To suggest suitable measures to reduce the existing level of role stress among the employees.

2.5 HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis is considered as the principal instrument in research. It enables to make probability statement about population parameters. It can be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomenon either asserted merely or as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established tact's.

Hypothesis is considered as the most important instrument in research. A hypothesis is an assumption or some assumption to be proved or disapproved. Hypothesis can also be divided as:

a) Null hypothesis

b) Alternative hypothesis.

a) Null hypothesis: It is a statement that no difference exits between a population parameter and a sample statistic.

b) Alternative hypothesis: When the null hypothesis is rejected, then we accepting the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis.

2.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPTS

1. ROLE STRESS: The stress experienced by the employees because of their role (job) in the organization. They assume a role based on the expectation of the self and others at work place.

2. PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXHAUSTION: The state of being so tired which is caused by excessive and prolonged stress in the workplace. It occurs when an employee feels overwhelmed and unable to meet given targets.

3. VULNERABILITY: The reduced capacity of an employee or group of individuals to anticipate, cope up, resist and recover from the effect of a natural or artificial hazard.

4. BURNOUT: Burnout affects employees when they have exhausted their physical or mental strength. It usually arises as an outcome of excessive stress or frustration. Sometimes the cause may be the working environment.

5. ABSENTEEISM: The voluntary non attendance at work, without any valid reason. It could be either habitual deliberate avoidance of work, or willful absence as in a strike action.

6. TURNOVER: Turnover refers to the number or percentage of employees who leave an organization and are replaced by new workers.

2.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Research is commonly referred to as search for knowledge. Research is an academic activity and such term should be used in a technical sense.

2.7.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:

A Research Design is the arrangement of conditions for data collection and analysis in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the purpose of research with economy in procedure. The research is a descriptive research, as it comprises of surveying and fact-finding. The research was not conducted for the organization before. The research was supposed to explore the details for further studies.

 Descriptive research design: It is used in my study. Descriptive Research describes, interprets, and clarifies what is the present. Descriptive research comprises of surveys and fact-finding enquiries of various kinds. The main feature of this design is that the researcher does not have control over the variables. It could be often done with surveys and it may also be done by observation.

2.7.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The questionnaire was designed and circulated to the respondents to evaluate their understanding and ease of response to the structure and content of instruments.

A face to face interview was also conducted for interacting with the manager and the respondents for collecting data and information.

2.7.3 SAMPLING

A process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations will be taken from a larger population is called sampling.

' Sample Unit

The sample unit consists of the employees of emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd.

' Sample Size

Out of the total population of more than 150 employees, the sample taken among workers will be 100 respondents.   

' Sampling Technique

The sampling technique used is simple random sampling.  This is the simplest and most popular technique of sampling. In this technique each unit of the population has equal chance of being included in the sample.

2.7.4 SOURCES OF DATA

Data is regarded as the foundation of research process. Data collection is done with the purpose of gathering information about the topic being studied and it helps in proper analysis. The data is collected using both primary and secondary sources.

' Primary Data

The primary data is collected from the respondents by administering a structured questionnaire and also by conducting interview. Primary data are the freshly and directly collected data by the researcher that provide information about a particular problem.

' Secondary Data

Apart from primary data, the secondary data is collected through the various sources such as text books, office reports and records, company website, and internet is also used for the study.

2.7.5 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION

The data is collected using the following tools:

' Questionnaire

A structured questionaire is used, and the questions are of likert scale type, multiple choices and close-ended type. The questionnaire contains 20 questions. Questionnaire is used to explore the unidentified facts and figures about a particular objective or issue. The standardised and structured form of questionnaire is filled by the respondents. With the help of questionnaires, genuine responses could be gathered from the respondents, which will enhance the effectiveness of data analysis.

' Interview

Face to face interview is used for the interaction between the interviewer and respondent with the purpose of getting information. The reponses of the respondent will be recorded and compiled to get a better insight into the research problem. Biasness, restriction and distortion of flow of information will be avoided while interviewing.

2.7.6 STATISTICAL TOOLS USED FOR STUDY

The statistical tools used for data analysis are:

1) Chi-square test

2) Simple percentage method

' Chi-Square Test:

The chi-square test is one of the simplest and most commonly used non-parametric tests in statistical work. The quantity describes the magnitude of discrepancy between the observed and expected frequencies. The value of chi-square is calculated as,

X2 = ' ((O-E)2) / E

Where,

O = Observed Frequency

E = Expected Frequency

' Simple Percentage Method:

Percentage analysis method is used in making comparison between two or more series of data.

Percentage = (No of respondents for each response / Total no of respondents)*100

2.7.7 PLAN OF ANALYSIS

Chi-square, suitable tables, charts and graphs are used for the easy and quick understanding of the study.

2.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

' The study is limited to emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd only.

' The study is conducted under the assumptions that the information given by the respondents are all correct.

' Interactions with employees were very limited because of their busy work schedule.

' Some of the information given by the respondents may be bias.

' Due to limitation of the time the research could not be made more detailed.

CHAPTER 3: PROFILE OF THE SELECTED ORGANIZATION AND RESPONDENTS

COMPANY PROFILE

' THE COMPANY

emTarang TechLabs Private Limited is a company which is focused in technology. It was started in mid 2010 by a team having indepth experience in embedded systems. emTarang was started to give specialized consulting and to develop products for the end users and industry. The company has overall 100+ man years of experience.

emTarang uses dynamic engagement models designed to suit your unique project or development needs. They give you the leader your team requires or the expertise guiding hand that helps you enhance your deliverables & software development. They are also happy to work for you ground up to take your simple non-technical worded idea.This enhances the overall productivity and security for corporate managers, security officers, and surveillance system operators. They are proud to have patents and publications.

' SCOPE OF EMTARANG

Mobile devices have bocome important to different interactions in our lives. Their professional usage, personalization and possibilities already have an indepth impact on us and how things are done by us. With 150+ years of expertise ranging from graphics/multimedia frameworks to mobile applications, device drivers, multimedia/DSP codecs, emTarang helps its customers develop their solutions which combine technology domains like multimedia, video analytics and mobile technologies. They help companies from various parts to develop and get their applications on smart phones, tabs and other mobile devices to serve vital organizational wants.

Due to the explosion in the number of embedded devices, there would be a continuous need for specialized consulting. emTarang is committed to develop a world class team to give specialized consulting to the industry.

Their next wave in embedded systems would be in enabling 'device convergence' and developing 'personalized devices'. emTarang is perfectly positioned to provide this wave with indepth  engineering experience in embedded domain across various segments like mobile devices, automotives and consumer electronics.

Their team has contributed largely in graphics, multimedia, peripheral drivers, connectivity,  frameworks or middleware for some of the important mobile devices like Wistron GW4,  NEC Foma phones,  MotoRizr series of smartphones, Omnia HD, Amstrad, etc.

Their patents and publications in fields of Artificial Intelligence and Multimedia serve as a strong proof of indepth knowledge and R&D capabilities. They have played vital roles in 'Symbian Foundation' council.

Apart from this, their great international exposure helps them manage their projects efficiently and on time while maintaining clear communications and transparency with their customers.

' MISSION

Mobilizing Lives

emTarang with 150+ years of expertise ranging from graphics/multimedia frameworks to mobile applications, device drivers, multimedia/DSP codecs, emTarang helps its customers develop their solutions which combine technology domains like multimedia, video analytics and mobile technologies.

' CUSTOMER SAYS

emTarang has 150+ years of expertise and experience in design, development, organization and positioning of mobile application on different smartphone platforms like iOS, Android, Qt and Symbian.

' FOCUS AREAS

The technology focus of emTarang is based on its indepth knowledge and hands on expertise in the area of mobile applications, video analytics and multimedia. With their focused work for last 150+ years in these fields, they can take your idea or project from ideation, design phase upto launching your mission critical applications rapidly in these fields with confidence.

1. MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

emTarang has 150+ years of experience in design, development, organization and positioning of mobile application on different smartphone platforms like iOS, Android, Qt and Symbian. They have worked on the development of native as well as cross-platform app. In cross-platform HTML5 frameworks they have strong exposure to Sencha Titanium, Touch, jQuery Mobile. They have helped customer teams in analysis and improvements of application performance.They are:

' Mobile Apps Development: With a great expertise in mobile technologies, emTarang certainly wants to run in the same race knowing they can certainly differentiate themselves from the also-rans.

' Understanding of the technology internals: They have greatly worked and contributed to Linux kernels and systems which are central of Android and iOS.

' Memory Optimization: Over the years, they have built ways of using and reusing memories to the best. It improves applications' strength and stability of many different kinds.

' Security: emTarang utilizes platforms' encryption algorithms, data protection and hardware security features to store and share confidential data.

' Tools Know-hows: emTarang knows various tools such as instrumentation tools, debugging tools and build tools, and utilizes them as a practice in its life cycle of application development.

' Native applications as well as cross-platform applications development is supported by emTarang using various technologies.

' emTarang has worked on variety of mobile applications such as banking, inspection and audit, e-governance, lifestyle and informative for both individuals and companies.

' To protect customer secrecy they have restricted and limited information.

' PROJECTS:

' Banking app: They have worked with their clients to develop applications for major banking clients to permit their customers to perform mobile banking like paying bills using credit cards, transferring money from one account to another and checking balance online etc.

' Loyalty app: They have built a loyalty based app for Android devices where one can earn loyalty rewards and know about their favorite trader's latest deals.

' Live Drilling Information app: They have worked with their customers to build an app for an Oil Drilling company to operate their information regarding live drilling from back-end services to mobile devices.

2. VIDEO ANALYTICS

The Video Content Analysis (VCA) also called as video analytics is currently used or executed in various sectors and organizations. Such applications enhance the effeciency of different video centric technologies minimising the dependence on people which is an expensive resource with few alertness and attention. This enhances the overall productivity and security for surveillance security officers, corporate managers and system operators.

Video Analytics and related systems has become an emerging area for many years now. With applications in variety of situations, it promises to solve many problems of modern days'. Safety and security, target oriented marketing, traffic management, automation, healthcare, theft control and agriculture are the fields of great interest. Simply put, VCA based system, includes (a) producing human understandable output i.e., report or alerts, (b) analyzing by computer the video stream and (c) recording a video footage of an area or an object.

With the help of different video processing algorithms and image, emTarang has helped its customers to develop solutions that can identify different type of events in real time. These are:

' PROJECTS:

' Perimeter breach

' Loitering

' Crowding

' Counting

' Face detection

' Gender, age and race detection

' Gesture detection

' Left baggage

' Illegal traffic behaviors (wrong parking, speeding, driving in wrong direction)

' Camera tempering detection

 VCA solution practice of emTarang focuses on 4 main domains of VCA based product development.

1. Algorithm Development: emTarang with over 10 years of expertise working in image, video, audio and speech based algorithms; engineers have appropriate and in-depth knowledge of signal processing techniques.

2. Porting: With the experience in embedded systems, emTarang consultants have greatly worked on variety of system-on-chips and processors

3. System Integration: emTarang's expertise in multimedia comes very useful when they continuously deal with woks related to overall VCA solution as they integrate variety of modules such as audio compression, networking, video and video streaming.

4. E2E Solution design and development: emTarang builds and executes end-to-end systems where result of VCA is transmitted, reported and viewed through an internet on a state-of-the art portal.

3. MULTIMEDIA

emTarang multimedia experience covers the entire stack of multimedia spectrum like middleware (StageFright, Gstreamer, OpenMAX, MMF), multimedia applications (video telephony, media player, imaging, media capture etc), protocols (3G-324M, RTP, RTSP, SIP, OMA DRM, WMDRM) etc. They have contributed largely to some of the most succesful mobile devices like Samsung Omnia HD, NEC, Wistron GW4, MotoRizr ' Z8, Amstrad and Foma Phones.

With over 150 + man-years of comprehensive development expertise, emTarang has been in the forefront of creations in the Multimedia segment covering Mobile phones, tabs and Personal Devices.

Some of the key areas they have worked are:

' PROJECTS

' Development of streaming solution for a customer platform: Involved in design and building of rich voice call solution and streaming mediaplayer solution on the platform of customer.

' Video editor solution's design, development and integration for a tier-1 OEM.

' Design, development and integration of complete multimedia subsystem on customer platform: Core apps involve:

o Mediaplayer/Media Capture

o Video Phone (3G-324M)

o Video over voice call. Using Symbian platform this solution was launched on series of phones.

' Various OpenMAX/Codecs to Android releases integration on customer platform.

' Signage Mediaplayer engine design, development and integration to play variety of media like video, ticker. This included porting of DSP codecs on FFMPEG framework, DirectFB optimization to support multizone rendering.

' Included in integration of complete phone Software for Japanese Tier-1 handset manufacturer that contained, Base port, Graphics and Multimedia. Also helped the customer in solving issues related to critical integration.

' Complete rear seat entertainment subsystem design on OMAP4 involving Cairo graphic library integration with graphics accelerator on the platform.

' Integration of DSP Codec.

' SERVICES

emTarang uses dynamic engagement models designed to suit your different project or development requirements. They give you the leader your team wants or the expertise guiding hand that helps you enhance your software development & deliverables. They are also happy to work for you ground up to take your idea from simple non-technical words describing it upto launching it in the form of a product or service. If you are not able to identify or evaulate the appropriate technical talent to be selected for your software development requirements, they are just a call or email away. Then why waiting when you can reach them at [email protected]

The services have following vital focus areas.

1. DESIGN AS SERVICE

SME's find it difficult to employ senior developers on their team for various reasons. This affects their software development quality and the work carried out. emTarang caters such companies with a creative concept called Design as Service.

emTarang gives specialized service to our niche customers to take their ideas to execution by tailoring and building solutions from end-to-end. They have 150+ years of expertise in tailoring solutions for mobile backend servers, from applications, mobile devices to application frameworks such as multimedia engines.

2. PREMIUM CONSULTING

Premium consulting involves emTarang employees giving a project lead or senior architect to its partner organizations or enterprise clients to force their internal software development. This includes hands-on software development in addition to taking care of other vital aspects of software design or development.

In this rapidly growing technology world, it is hard for organizations to get experience in different adjacent verticals at the appropriate time. emTarang proposes to bridge the gap by producing niche consulting services to its clients. Just in Time resource acquisition is an important driver for organizations to enhance their expense without compromising on their quality.

Some of the important consulting fields which emTarang currently focuses are,

' Enterprise Mobility

' Big Data Analytics

' iOS Application Development

' Automotive Infotainment

3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP) DEVELOPMENT

Small companies and startups have interesting ideas with strong market potential. But identifying the needed technical talent to launch their products and services is a complicated work. In a startup environment when it comes to employing senior developers there are many hard barriers to pass and demands to be met.

All the devices are going toward mobile and all these devices are getting connected. All this needs smarter solution, framework and logic to bring all of them together. emTarang team is continuously checking the market requirements around these fields to define investments and roadmap. emTarang has strong focus towards designing Algorithms and Solution around Graphics, Multimedia and Connectivity areas as given below:

' Codec development and optimization

' Media formats

' Media streaming protocols

' Framework for multi-core systems

' Video analytic solution

4. SPECIALIZED RESOURCE RECRUITMENT CONSULTING

Identifying, evaluating and recruiting quality software developers in the area of mobile applications, video analytics and multimedia are difficult for various reasons. With these areas being popular and fashionable, there is an ever incrementing demand in the industry for them.Experience to understand the technical skill needs from various clients and transform them to detailed Job Description.

' emTarang has collaboration with great network to identify the skilled resources in different fields helping client to obtain the needed skill at one stop.

' emTarang systematically shortlist the candidates with developed framework, interview them to assess the skills and capabilities and give detailed report.

' COMPETITORS OF EMTARANG

Some of the leading software companies like Comprinno Technologies Private Limited, Aintree Tech Solutions Private Limited, Sapta Innovation Design And Consulting Private Limited, Patterbuzz Software Labs Private Limited, Talenthound Solutions Private Limited, Aenwis E-systems Private Limited, Builddirect Technologies India Private Limited, Allium Technologies Private Limited, Grace System Technology Labs (india) Private Limited, Peaktime Infosystems Private Limited etc. are the competitors of emTarang Technology Labs Private Limited.

' FUTURE EXPANSION OF THE COMPANY

Out of 100 the 3Ci Score for emTarang Techlabs Private Limited is 55 which is considered as average in Industry. Using the 3CiScore 1.0 model the score is calculated, this score ranges between 0 to 100 and it measures the corporation's overall strength. Using the index of customer satisfaction, popularity and various data that are publicly available the scores are calculated.

emTarang Techlabs Private Limited is 7000th best company in India and it is involved in National Industrial Classification Code 72900, while there are 18966 companies which are rated as inferior than emTarang. emTarang Techlabs Private Limited is 795th best company in Karnataka, while there are 1483 companies which are rated as inferior than emTarang.

Out of 26103 this company is ranked 7030 in India because of its parent line of business (Other activities related to computer such as website maintenance for other firms or multimedia presentation's creation for other firms etc.). Out of 26121 this company is ranked 7030 in India because of its top business line.

RESPONDENTS PROFILE

Out of the total population of the organization, a sample size of 100 respondents was taken for data collection and analysis.

The sample included 57% male respondents and 43% female respondents. 44% respondents belong to the age group of 20-30 yrs, 12% respondents belong to the age group of 31-40 yrs, 32% respondents belong to the age group of 41-50 yrs and 12% respondents belong to the age group of above 50 yrs. 50% respondents were married and 50% respondents were single.

15% respondents were diploma holders, 39% respondents were under graduates and 46% respondents were post graduates. 46% respondents were from the managerial level and 54% respondents were from the junior level. 5% employees had 1 year of total work experience, 10% respondents had 2 years of total work experience, 12% respondents had 3 years of total work experience, 22% respondents had 4 years of total work experience, 21% respondents had 5 years of total work experience and 30% respondents had 6 years of total work experience. 9% respondents earn below 10,000, 15% respondents earn in between 11,000-25,000, 32% respondents earn in  between 26,000-50,000 and 44% respondents earn above 50,000 monthly.

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Q 1. How do you feel about the physical and psychological working condition of the organization?

TABLE 4.1

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Highly Satisfied 21 21%

2 Satisfied 59 59%

3 Neutral 12 12%

4 Dissatisfied 8 8%

5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.1

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 21% of respondents are highly satisfied, 59% are satisfied, 12% are neutral and 8% of respondents are dissatisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Total

RESPONDENTS 80 12 8 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that they are not satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 80 40 40 1600 40

II 12 20 -8 64 3.2

III 8 40 -32 1024 25.6

Total = 68.8

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 68.8

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 68.8 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization.

Q 2. How do you feel about the pay package provided by the organization?

TABLE 4.2

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Highly Satisfied 9 9%

2 Satisfied 60 60%

3 Neutral 16 16%

4 Dissatisfied 15 15%

5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.2

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 9% of respondents are highly satisfied, 60% are satisfied, 16% are neutral and 15% of respondents are dissatisfied about the pay package provided by the organization.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Total

RESPONDENTS 69 16 15 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that they are not satisfied about the pay package provided by the organization.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied about the pay package provided by the organization.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 69 40 29 841 21.025

II 16 20 -4 16 0.8

III 15 40 -25 625 15.625

Total = 37.45

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 37.45

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 37.45 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they are satisfied about the pay package provided by the organization.

Q 3. Are you satisfied with your current job?

TABLE 4.3

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Highly Satisfied 26 26%

2 Satisfied 48 48%

3 Neutral 16 16%

4 Dissatisfied 10 10%

5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.3

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 26% of respondents are highly satisfied, 48% are satisfied, 16% are neutral and 10% of respondents are dissatisfied with their current job.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Total

RESPONDENTS 74 16 10 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that they are not satisfied with their current job.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied with their current job.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 74 40 34 1156 28.9

II 16 20 -4 16 0.8

III 10 40 -30 900 22.5

Total = 52.2

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 52.2

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 52.2 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they are satisfied with their current job.

Q 4. Do you think that you are undergoing any stress in your job?

TABLE 4.4

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 37 37%

2 Agree 53 53%

3 Neutral 10 10%

4 Disagree 0 0%

5 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.4

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 37% of respondents strongly agree, 53% agree, 10% are neutral, 0% disagree and 0% of respondents strongly disagree that they are undergoing any stress in their job.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 90 10 0 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that they are not undergoing stress in their job.

Alternate Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that they are undergoing stress in their job.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 90 40 50 2500 62.5

II 10 20 -10 100 5

III 0 40 -40 1600 40

Total = 107.5

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 107.5

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 107.5 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they are undergoing stress in their job.

Q 5. What is the level of stress that you feel in your job?

TABLE 4.5

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Very High 7 7%

2 High 31 31%

3 Moderate 40 22%

4 Low 22 40%

5 Very Low 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.5

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 7% of respondents feel very high level of stress, 31% feel high level of stress, 40% feel moderate level of stress and 22% of respondents feel low level of stress in their job.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION High Moderate Low Total

RESPONDENTS 38 40 22 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that they feel very high level of stress in their job.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that they do not feel very high level of stress in their job.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 38 40 -2 4 0.1

II 40 20 20 400 20

III 22 40 -18 324 8.1

Total = 28.2

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 28.2

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 28.2 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

 It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they do not feel very high level of stress in their job.

Q 6. Does Stress in the work place have an impact over your basic performance?

TABLE 4.6

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 33 33%

2 NO 67 67%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.6

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 33% of respondents say that stress in the work place have an impact over their basic performance.

' 67% of respondents say that stress in the work place do not have an impact over their basic performance.

Q 7. What kind of physical and mental exhaustion do you suffer due to stress in your job?

TABLE 4.7

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Headache 48 48%

2 High blood pressure 20 20%

3 Digestive problem 15 15%

4 Hypertension 10 10%

5 Nervousness 7 7%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.7

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 48% of respondents suffer from headache, 20% suffer from high blood pressure, 15% suffer from digestive problem, 10% suffer from hypertension and 7% of respondents suffer from nervousness due to stress in their job.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION I II III IV V Total

RESPONDENTS 48 20 15 10 7 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that there is no significant difference between the various kinds of physical and mental exhaustion suffererd due to stress in their job.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of physical and mental exhaustion suffererd due to stress in their job.

Observed frequency

(Oi) Expected frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 48 20 28 784 39.2

II 20 20 0 0 0

III 15 20 -5 25 1.25

IV 10 20 -10 100 5

V 7 20 -3 9 0.45

Total = 45.9

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 45.9

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (5-1) = 4

At 5% levelof significance for 4 degree of freedom, table value = 9.49

Calculated Value = 45.9 > Table Value = 9.49

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of physical and mental exhaustion suffererd due to stress in their job.

Q 8. Have you taken any coping strategies personally to manage stress?

TABLE 4.8

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 37 37%

2 NO 63 63%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.8

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 37% of respondents say that they have taken coping strategies personally to manage stress.

' 63% of respondents say that they have not taken coping strategies personally to manage stress.

Q 9. Which kind of strategy do you adopt to manage stress in your job?

TABLE 4.9

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Exercise 12 12%

2 Meditation 10 10%

3 Listening music 40 40%

4 Walking 33 33%

5 Spending time with family 5 5%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.9

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 12% of respondents adopt exercise, 10% adopt meditation, 40% adopt listening music, 33% adopt walking and 5% of respondents adopt spending time with family as a strategy to manage stress in their job.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION I II III IV V Total

RESPONDENTS 12 10 40 33 5 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that there is no significant difference between the various kinds of strategy they adopt to manage stress in their job.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of strategy they adopt to manage stress in their job.

Observed frequency

(Oi) Expected frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 12 20 -8 64 3.2

II 10 20 -10 100 5

III 40 20 20 400 20

IV 33 20 13 169 8.45

V 5 20 -15 225 11.25

Total = 47.9

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 47.9

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (5-1) = 4

At 5% levelof significance for 4 degree of freedom, table value = 9.49

Calculated Value = 47.9 > Table Value = 9.49

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of strategy they adopt to manage stress in their job.

Q 10. Do you agree that you can complete your work within the specified time?

TABLE 4.10

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 23 23%

2 Agree 32 32%

3 Neutral 25 25%

4 Disagree 13 13%

5 Strongly Disagree 7 7%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.10

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 23% of respondents strongly agree, 32% agree, 25% are neutral, 13% disagree and 7% of respondents strongly disagree that they can complete their work within the specified time.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 55 25 20 100

Null Hypothesis: Majority of respondents said that they cannot complete their work within the specified time.

Alternative Hypothesis: Majority of respondents said that they can complete their work within the specified time.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 55 40 15 225 5.625

II 25 20 5 25 1.25

III 20 40 -20 400 10

Total=16.875

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 16.875

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 16.875 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that they can complete their work within the specified time.

Q 11. Do you get frustrated due to excessive stress in your job?

TABLE 4.11

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 20 20%

2 NO 80 80%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.11

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 20% of respondents say that they get frustrated due to excessive stress in their job.

' 80% of respondents say that they do not get frustrated due to excessive stress in their job.

Q 12. Do you agree that workload is the main factor causing stress?

TABLE 4.12

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 33 33%

2 Agree 21 21%

3 Neutral 0 0%

4 Disagree 34 34%

5 Strongly Disagree 12 12%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.12

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 33% of respondents strongly agree, 21% agree, 0% are neutral, 34% disagree and 12% of respondents strongly disagree that workload is the main factor causing stress.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 54 0 46 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that workload is not the main factor causing stress.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that workload is the main factor causing stress.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 54 40 14 196 4.9

II 0 20 -20 400 20

III 46 40 6 36 0.9

Total = 25.8

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 25.8

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 25.8 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that workload is the main factor causing stress.

Q 13. Do you feel that your organization takes suitable steps to manage stress?

TABLE 4.13

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 30 30%

2 Agree 46 46%

3 Neutral 11 11%

4 Disagree 13 13%

5 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.13

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 30% of respondents strongly agree, 46% agree, 11% are neutral and 13% of respondents disagree that the organization takes suitable steps to manage stress.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 76 11 13 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that organization does not take suitable steps to manage stress.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that organization takes suitable steps to manage stress.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 76 40 36 1296 32.4

II 11 20 -9 81 4.05

III 13 40 -27 729 18.225

Total=54.675

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 54.675

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 54.675 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that the organization takes suitable steps to manage stress.

Q 14. Do you think role stress management improves the morale of the employees and employee good will?

TABLE 4.14

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 88 88%

2 NO 12 12%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.14

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 88% of respondents say that role stress management improves the morale of the employees and employee good will.

' 12% of respondents say that role stress management does not improve the morale of the employees and employee good will.

Q 15. Do you feel using role stress management strategies will improve the working environment?

TABLE 4.15

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 69 69%

2 NO 31 31%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.15

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 69% of respondents say that using role stress management strategies will improve the working environment.

' 31% of respondents say that using role stress management strategies will not improve the working environment.

Q 16. Do you feel usage of role stress management strategies will boost up confidence of the employees?

TABLE 4.16

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 86 86%

2 NO 14 14%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.16

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 86% of respondents say that usage of role stress management strategies will boost up confidence of the employees.

' 14% of respondents say that usage of role stress management strategies will not boost up confidence of the employees.

Q 17. Do you think the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management?

TABLE 4.17

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 62 62%

2 Agree 25 25%

3 Neutral 10 10%

4 Disagree 3 3%

5 Strongly Disagree 0 0%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.17

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 62% of respondents strongly agree, 25% agree, 10% are neutral and 3% of respondents disagree that the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 87 10 3 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that the performance of the employees have not enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei2))/Ei

I 87 40 47 2209 55.225

II 10 20 -10 100 5

III 3 40 -37 1369 34.225

Total = 94.45

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 94.45

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 94.45 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management.

Q 18. Do you feel that vulnerability and burnout are reported by the employees due to stress?

TABLE 4.18

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 44 44%

2 NO 56 56%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.18

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 44% of respondents say that vulnerability and burnout are reported by the employees due to stress.

' 56% of respondents say that vulnerability and burnout are not reported by the employees due to stress.

Q 19. Do you agree that poor organizational commitment is reported by the employees due to stress?

TABLE 4.19

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 Strongly Agree 6 8%

2 Agree 38 36%

3 Neutral 8 8%

4 Disagree 44 44%

5 Strongly Disagree 4 4%

Total 100 100%

GRAPH 4.19

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that 6% of respondents strongly agree, 38% agree, 8% are neutral, 44% disagree and 4% of respondents strongly disagree that poor organizational commitment is reported by the employees due to stress.

CHI-SQUARE

DIMENSION Agree Neutral Disagree Total

RESPONDENTS 44 8 48 100

Null Hypothesis: (H0): Majority of respondents said that poor organizational commitment is reported by the employees due to stress.

Alternative Hypothesis: (H1): Majority of respondents said that poor organizational commitment is not reported by the employees due to stress.

Observed Frequency

(Oi) Expected Frequency

(Ei) Oi-Ei (Oi-Ei)2 ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei

I 44 40 4 16 0.4

II 8 20 -12 144 7.2

III 48 40 8 64 1.6

Total = 9.2

Expected Frequency: Ei = 100/5 = 20

Calculated Value: X2 = ((Oi-Ei)2)/Ei = 9.2

Tabulated Value: Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (3-1) = 2

At 5% levelof significance for 2 degree of freedom, table value = 5.99

Calculated Value = 9.2 > Table Value = 5.99

CONCLUSION:

It is significant. Hence we reject the reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis. Thus majority of respondents said that poor organizational commitment is not reported by the employees due to stress.

Q 20. Do you feel that absenteeism and turnover are reported by the employees due to stress?

TABLE 4.20

SL. NO. PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 YES 24 24%

2 NO 76 76%

TOTAL 100 100%

GRAPH 4.20

INTERPRETATION

The above table and graph shows that

' 24% of respondents say that absenteeism and turnover are reported by the employees due to stress.

' 76% of respondents say that absenteeism and turnover are not reported by the employees due to stress

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 FINDINGS

1. Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied about the physical and psychological working condition of the organization.

2. Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied about the pay package provided by the organization.

3. Majority of respondents said that they are satisfied with their current job.

4. Majority of respondents said that they are undergoing stress in their job.

5. Majority of respondents said that they do not feel very high level of stress in their job.

6. 67% of respondents say that stress in the work place do not have an impact over their basic performance but still 33% of respondents say that stress in the work place have an impact over their basic performance.

7. Majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of physical and mental exhaustion suffered due to stress in their job.

8. 63% of respondents say that they have not taken coping strategies personally to manage stress but still 37% of respondents say that they have taken coping strategies personally to manage stress.

9. Majority of respondents said that there is significant difference between the various kinds of strategy they adopt to manage stress in their job.

10. Majority of respondents said that they can complete their work within the specified time.

11. 80% of respondents say that they do not get frustrated due to excessive stress in their job but still 20% of respondents say that they get frustrated due to excessive stress in their job.

12. Majority of respondents said that workload is the main factor causing stress.

13. Majority of respondents said that the organization takes suitable steps to manage stress.

14. 88% of respondents say that role stress management improves the morale of the employees and employee good will but still 12% of respondents say that role stress management does not improve the morale of the employees and employee good will.

15. 69% of respondents say that using role stress management strategies will improve the working environment but still 31% of respondents say that using role stress management strategies will not improve the working environment.

16. 86% of respondents say that usage of role stress management strategies will boost up confidence of the employees but still 14% of respondents say that usage of role stress management strategies will not boost up confidence of the employees.

17. Majority of respondents said that the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various strategies adopted by the management.

18. 56% of respondents say that vulnerability and burnout are not reported by the employees due to stress but still 44% of respondents say that vulnerability and burnout are reported by the employees due to stress.

19. Majority of respondents said that poor organizational commitment is not reported by the employees due to stress.

20. 76% of respondents say that absenteeism and turnover are not reported by the employees due to stress but still 24% of respondents say that absenteeism and turnover are reported by the employees due to stress.

5.2 CONCLUSION

Analysis of the facts and figures, the observations and the experience during the training period gives a positive conclusion and impression regarding the strategies adopted by emTarang Technology Labs Pvt Ltd for managing role stress among the employees. The organization is performing its role up to the mark and the employees are also satisfied with the strategies adopted by the organization.

The role stress management strategies imparted meets the following objectives like:

Most of the employees are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization. Most of the employees feel that the pay package and other organizational policies are favourable to them.

Most of the employees are satisfied with their current job. But due to workload, the employees are facing moderate level of stress in the organization. Few employees are also facing frustration due to role stress.

The management maintains both formal and informal relationship with the employees. But the involvement of the employees in the management decision-making process is low. If the employees are not able to complete their job within the specified time, then they are provided with constant back-ups.

The management adopts various strategies for managing the role stress among employees and also executes it in order to reduce stress and increase the efficiency of employees. The organization considers the cost incurred on implementing the role stress management strategies as cost effective. The organization considers role stress management as a part of organizational strategy. Role stress management is considered to be profitable to the organization.

The different role stress management strategies are adopted to improve the morale of the employees, to boost up the confidence level of employees and also to improve the working condition of the organazation.

The performance of the employees have also enhanced due to the various role stress management strategies adopted by the organization. The role stress management strategies are usually pre-planned but it is also done instantly in unavoidable situations. The strategies of role stress management have also proved to be effective for conducting performance appraisal of employees.

Most of the employees agree that absenteeism and employee turnover is reduced. Most of the employees agree that vulnerability, burnout and poor organizational commitment are also reduced due to role stress management strategies.

Few employees are taking up coping strategies like exercise, meditation etc. personally for managing stress as they feel that stress in the work place have an impact over their basic performance. The HR department of the organization is responsible for planning and implementing the different strategies for managing role stress among the employees.

It becomes quite clear that there is no other alternative or short cut to the development of human resources. Role stress management strategies when used in a planned and purposeful manner can be an extremely effective management tool as they reduce the job stress among the employees and thereby increasing the productivity and wealth of the organization.

5.3 SUGGESTIONS

In today's competitive world attitude is the factor which is the dividing line between failure and success. Thus recruitment of the employees must be made not only on skills and knowledge but also on the attitude of employees.

If an employee has a positive attitude then adopting stress management strategies in order to manage any kind of role stress for him/her can be more effective and hence he/she has a positive effect on the working climate.

Some of the suggestions are as follows:

1. Time management must be considered as an important strategy by the employees in order to complete their work within a specified time.

2. Work to home transition strategy should be adopted by the employees. This strategy recommends that, instead of carrying the work pressure to home, follow the unwinding process after a stressful work and enters the home with a relaxed and peaceful mind.

3. Management should provide counselling to those employees who suffer from role stress which would help them to cope up with the problems they might face.

4. Employees who are suffering from role stress should be engaged in other activities such as aerobic exercise, recreational tours which would help in stimulating their brain and body.

5. Employees can also follow some stress coping strategies personally such as doing yoga and meditation in their daily life.

6. Stress control workshops should be introduced by the organization based on the level of employees as there is a strong relationship between the employee level and stress level.

7. Organization should also introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) for the employees. EAP provides counseling to those employees who require assistance regarding various issues such as controlling alcohol and drug abuse, personal finance management, role conflict handling at workplace, dealing with family problems and mainly coping with their health problems.

8. The mangement should focus more on providing stress management strategies to those employees between the age group of 20-30 due to their limited work experience.  More workload should be given to the experienced employees when compared to the inexperienced employees as workload burden could cause stress initially but gradually their workload can be increased over time as they gain more experience.

9. The management should recognize any good work done by any employee and also should instantly reward them with continuous motivation and support. This would enhance the employee's morale and future performance.

10. Job rotation can be used as an effective tool for reducing stress. Employees may feel bored by doing the same work again and again, thus job rotation could make their job interesting, and as a result their performance will increase.

11. The interpersonal relationship among the employees of different employees should be improved in order to bridge the gap between superiors and subordinates. This can also reduce the level of stress to some extent.

12. The management should conduct health check-ups frequently for the employees. If the employees are healthy and fit, their level of stress decreases and performance automatically increases.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Books:

1. K. Aswathappa (2013), Human Resource Management, Mc Graw Hill Education 7th edition.

2. Prof. Deepak Singh, Dr.Satya Sidhartha Panda (2015), Human Capital Management, Thakur Publishers.

3. Research Methodology by C.R.Kothari, 2nd edition, New Age International Publisher.

4. Dr. Lakshmi.T, Dr. Saroj Kumar, Managerial Research Methods (2015), Thakur Publishers.

5. Arnold, J. et al. (1998). Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace.Pearson Higher Education: London.

6. Pareek, U. (1993).Making Organisational Roles Effective. Tata McGrawHill: New Delhi.

Journals:

1. Mohsin Aziz, (2004) "Role stress among women in the Indian information technology sector", Women in Management Review, Vol. 19 Iss: 7, pp.356 ' 363.

2. M Kivim''ki, P Leino-Arjas, R Luukkonen, H Riihim''i' - Bmj, 2002 - bmj.com.

3. Maria Vakola, Ioannis Nikolaou, (2005) "Attitudes towards organizational change: What is the role of employees' stress and commitment?", Employee Relations, Vol. 27 Iss: 2, pp.160 ' 174.

4. Perceived role stress as a function of ego-strength and job involvement of the managerial personnel. Srivastava, A. K.; Sinha, M. M. Psychological Studies, Vol 28(1), Jan 1983, 8-12.

5. Job stress, marital adjustment, social relation & mental health of dual career & traditional couples: A comparative study. Srivastava, Kumkum; Srivastava, A. K. Perspectives in Psychological Researches, Vol 8(1), Apr 1985, 28-33.

6. Managing executive stress in organizations- a critical appraisal.Tudu, Preshita Neha; Pathak, Pramod. Social Science International 29.1  (Jan-Jun 2013): 1-10.

7. Bureaucracy and role stress across three levels of technocrats. Jha, Soni; Mishra, Prabhat Kumar; Bhardwaj, Gopa Abhigyan, 1994, 17-22.

8. Stress and Coping Profiles of IFS Officers: An Empirical Analysis. Parul Rishi, Bal Krishna Upadhyay, Arpita Solanki. Indian Institute of Forest Management, P.O. Box 357, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal 462 003.

9. A Study of General Role Stress among IT/ITeS Professional in India. Seema Bhatt, Prashant Verma. NIILM-Centre for Management Studies, B-II/66, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Estate, New Delhi, India.

10. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies ISSN 2281 3993(Print) ISSN 2281-4612(Online).

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