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te     A STUDY ON MECHANICAL AND SLIDING WEAR

   BEHAVIOUR OF E-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED

    EPOXY COMPOSITES

A

Major Project Report

submitted

in partial fulfillment

for the award of the Degree of

Master of Technology

in

Department of Mechanical Engineering

(With specialization in Manufacturing Technology & Automation)

    Supervised By:                                                         Submitted By:

Mr. Dharmender  Sharma                                                                              Punit Dhingra

    Associate Professor                                               MME-14011

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Advanced Institute Of Technology And Management, Palwal (2016)

Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak

 Advanced Institute of Technology and Management

                Aurangabad, Palwal, Haryana, India

                     Affiliated to MDU, Rohtak

                                                  Department of Mechanical Engineering

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled 'A STUDY ON MECHANICAL AND SLIDING

WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF E-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES',

submitted to the Advanced Institute  of  Technology and Management, Palwal by  Mr. Punit Dhingra, bearing Roll no. MME14011 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of  Technology  in the  Department of  Mechanical Engineering, Advanced Institute  of  Technology and Management, Palwal, is an authentic  work  carried out by  him  under my  supervision and guidance.  

To the best of  my  knowledge, the matter  embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other university/institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Date:25/06/2016  

 Dharmender Sharma

Assistant Professor  

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Advanced Institute  of  Technology and Management, Palwal

ii

Advanced Institute of Technology and Management

Aurangabad, Palwal, Haryana, India

Affiliated to MDU, Rohtak

Department of Mechanical Engineering

DECLERATION

  I  hereby  declare  that the work, which is being  presented in the  Major  Project, entitled as

 'A STUDY ON MECHANICAL AND SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF E-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES  ' in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of 'Master of Technology' in Department of Mechanical Engineering with Specialization in Manufacturing Technology & Automation submitted to the Department  of Mechanical Engineering, Advanced Institute Of Technology And Management, Palwal, affiliated to Maharshi Dayanand University, is a record of my own investigations carried under the Guidance of  Mr. Dharmender Sharma , Designation: Associate Professor.

      I have not submitted the matter presented in this Major Project Report anywhere for the award of any other Degree.

Student Name: Punit Dhingra

(Manufacturing Technology & Automation)  

Roll No: MME-14011

   AITM, Palwal        iii

Advanced Institute of Technology and Management

Aurangabad, Palwal, Haryana, India

Affiliated to MDU, Rohtak

Department of Mechanical Engineering

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With deep regards and profound respect, I avail this opportunity to express my deep sense of

gratitude  and  indebtedness  to  Prof. Dharmender Sharma,  Department of  Mechanical

Engineering, A.I.T.M, Palwal  for introducing the present research topic and for her inspiring guidance, constructive  criticism  and valuable  suggestion throughout this  research work. It would have not been possible for me to bring out this report without her help and constant encouragement.  

I  express  my  sincere  gratefulness  to  Prof.  Sunil  Singh,  Mr. Yogesh  kumar  sharma ,

Mr. Brijesh Chaudhary, Mechanical Engineering, A.I.T.M Palwal for giving me an opportunity to work on this project and allowing me the access to valuable facilities in the department. I also like to thank the entire institute faculty who helped me directly or indirectly to complete my work .

This acknowledgement will remain incomplete if fail to express my deep sense of obligation to my family and God for their consistent blessings and encouragement.

PUNIT DHINGRA

MME14011

iv

Advanced Institute of Technology and Management

Aurangabad, Palwal, Haryana, India

Affiliated to MDU, Rohtak

Department of Mechanical Engineering

ABSTRACT

Due  to increasing  demand and widespread application of  Fibre  reinforced polymer

(FRPs) composites, they  have  been  used  in a  variety  of  application  like  aerospace, automotive, sports, ships  and constructional work. Because  of their several advantages such

as relatively  low cost of  production light weight, easy  to fabricate  and superior strength to

weight ratio. In the present work  E-glass fibre is used as reinforcing agent with and without

alumina  filler. The  objective  of  the  present research work is to study  the mechanical  and

abrasive   wear   behaviour  of  coated  and  uncoated  E-glass fibre  reinforced epoxy  based

composites.  The  effect of  fibre  loading  and filler  content  on mechanical  properties  like

hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of composites are studied. A

robust  design  technique  called  Taguchi  method  is also  used  to  determine  the    optimal

condition  for  specific  wear  rate   of   the   composites by  considering different parameters.

ANOVA study  is also performed  to study  the effect of  various factors on the sliding wear

behaviour of  the composites.  Surface  morphology  of  composites was  studied by  optical

microscope.

Keywords: coating, e-glass fibre, epoxy, filler, surface morphology, taguchi method

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Background and Motivation ............................................................................................. 1

1.2 Thesis Outline ..................................................................................................................  5

LITERATURE SURVEY .......................................................................................................... 6

2.1 On mechanical properties of E-glass reinforced epoxy composites ................................. 6

2.2 On sliding wear behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composites ................................ 7

2.3 Effect of coating on wear behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composite ................. 11

2.4 Objective of the Present Research Work ........................................................................ 13

MATERIALS AND METHODS ............................................................................................. 14

3.1    Materials ...................................................................................................................... 14

3.1.1 Matrix ....................................................................................................................... 14

3.1.2 Fibre material ...........................................................................................................  15

3.1.3 Filler material ........................................................................................................... 16

3.1.4 Coating material ....................................................................................................... 16

3.2    Composite Fabrication ................................................................................................. 16

3.2.1 For Mechanical Testing ............................................................................................ 16

3.2.2 For Wear Test ........................................................................................................... 17

3.2.3 Coating of Composite ............................................................................................... 17

3.3 Physical property of composite ....................................................................................... 18

3.4 Mechanical testing of composites ................................................................................... 18

3.5 Sliding wear test of composite ........................................................................................ 21

3.6 Optical microscope .......................................................................................................... 23

3.7 Taguchi method .............................................................................................................. 24

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS .............................................................................................. 26

4.1 Physical property of composites ..................................................................................... 26

4.2Part-1Mechanical properties of composites without filler at different fibre loading ....... 27

4.2 part-2 Mechanical properties of composites with filler at different fibre loading .......... 28

4.3 Surface morphology of composites before and after tensile test .................................... 29

SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF E-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY

COMPOSITES .......................................................................................................................... 31

5.1 Sliding wear behaviour of E-glass-epoxy composites ..................................................... 31

vi

5.1.1 Effect of fibre loading on sliding wear behaviour of uncoated and unfilled

composites ........................................................................................................................ 31

5.1.2 Effect of fibre loading on sliding wear of uncoated and filled composites ............  32

5.1.3 Effect of fibre loading on sliding wear behaviour of coated and unfilled composites

 .......................................................................................................................................... 33

5.2 Taguchi experimental result ........................................................................................... 34

5.3 Surface Morphology of Composite before and after wear test ...................................... 37

CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................................................... 38

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 40

 vii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Classification of composite based on the type of reinforcement   

Figure 3.1 The epoxide group

Figure 3.2 Chemical structure of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A   

Figure 3.3 Short E-glass fibres

Figure 3.4 Schematic diagram of vacuum evaporation

Figure 3.5 Experimental set up for tensile test

Figure 3.6 Experimental set up for flexural test

Figure 3.7 Experimental set up for Hardness test

Figure 3.8 Block diagram of 'Pin-on-Disc' set up   

Figure 3.9 Pin on disc set up   

Figure 3.10 Optical microscope setup

Figure 4.6 (a) Optical images of glass fibre epoxy composite before tensile test

Figure 4.6 (b) Optical images of glass fibre epoxy composite after tensile test

1

14

15

15

17

19

20

21

22

23

24

30

30

Figure 5.1 Wear rate of  uncoated and unfilled composite at different fibre loading and test

conditions

32

Figure  5.2 Wear rate of  uncoated and filled composite  at different fibre  loading and test

conditions

33

Figure  5.3 Wear rate of  coated and unfilled composite at different fibre  loading and test

conditions

Figure 5.4 Effect of control factors on specific wear rate for glass-epoxy composites

Figure 5.5 (a) Optical microscope images of glass-epoxy composite before wear test

Figure 5.5 (b) Optical microscope images of glass-epoxy composite after wear test  

34

36

37

37

viii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Different types of glass fibres

Table 1.2 Composition and properties of glass fibres

Table 3.1 Designation of composite   

Table 3.2 Experimental details of control factors and their level

Table 4.1 Theoretical and measured densities with void fractions in composites   

Table 4.2 Mechanical properties of composites without filler at different loading   

Table 4.3 Mechanical properties of composites with filler at different fibre loading

Table 5.1 Test conditions with output results using mixed type L36 orthogonal array

Table 5.2 ANOVA table for wear rate

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