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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Executive Summary

MDD Approach

Model Driven Development is a pattern to text and to implement computer programs rapidly, powerfully

and in a very cheap way. The procedure is also named as Model Driven Software Development(MDSD)

and Model Driven Architecture(MDA). The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) intends to offer an open,

vendor-neutral approach to interoperability. Model Driven Software Development (MDSD) is a technique

of software development that considers itself as a substitute to the traditional style of programming.

Concept of SISP in Public Sector

Strategic Information System Planning is the process of determining an organization's case of computerbased

applications that will assist it to attain its business goals. Before SISP, the information technology

resource planning process was named to minimally as information system planning (ISP). IS planning is a

set of actions directed towards achieving three objectives: (a) recognizing organizational opportunities

and troubles where IS might be applied effectively (b) identifying the resources required to permit IS to

be applied productively to these opportunities and troubles; and (c) mounting strategies and measures to

permit IS to be applied successfully to these opportunities and problems.

Summary of Paper 1

Business process integration and monitoring provides an invaluable mean for a firm to adapt to changing

circumstances. However, mounting such applications by means of traditional methods is tricky because of

the central difficulty of integrating large-scale business processes and existing applications. Model Driven

Development (MDD) is an approach to develop applications'from domain specific models to platformsensitive

models'that bridges the gap between business processes and information technology. In this

paper, the MDD framework and style used to manipulate the IBM Business Performance Management

(BPM) solution is being focused. It also focuses on how we apply model-driven techniques to BPM and

present a scenario from a pilot project in which these techniques were applied. Technical details on

models and transformation are presented. Our structure uses and extends the IBM business study

metamodel and introduces a data warehouse metamodel and other platform-specific and transformational

models.

Main Section of Paper 1

The BPM modeling framework is an enhancement and expansion of the inspection metamodel. At a high

stage, it fetches the following idea of a BPM resolution: information assembling from real-time business

procedures and other data sources, information aggregation to estimate business metrics, appreciation of

circumstances warranting business events, and the invocation of actions that deal with the situations

detected. To facilitate the demonstration of a solution using models, we molder various aspects of BPM

into smaller controllable works, called BPM elements. These elements, together with their operational

semantics, embrace the BPM metamodel. The elements are planned with ease of use in mind and are at

the same time rich enough to represent a whole BPM solution. To represent BPM elements, we chose

Unified Modeling Language (UML). We preferred IBM Rational Software Architect (RSA), which

supports UML model extensions. It represents the various BPM elements and their associations with one

another. Collectively, they comprise the BPM metamodel.

The UML representation of the metamodel helps if one is designing a solution from the start, but if

someone has an existing solution in some representation and does not want to start with BPM UML

models, we also offer a representation of the BPM metamodel as an Extensible Markup Language (XML)

definition. This enables users to alter their solution into an XML representation. A BPM solution as a

UML model can be formed with the elements by the RSA modeling tool. One can then utilize the

software component plug-in to perform an automated transformation of the model into a deployment

component (e.g., a monitor runtime, data warehouse, or dashboard module). The programmed

transformation hides the complex inner mechanism of the transformations that form intermediate

metamodels. The code is produced based on these intermediate models and at last packaged for

deployment. One can make modifications to the intermediate models to further enhance the model if

desired, but normally it is not needed. One also has the option to go back to the UML model and make

changes as needed. This can be an iterative process until a satisfactory version of the model is generated.

With MDD, business analysts can visually design BPM solutions without development team

participation. Once the model is shaped, the transformation generates intermediate models, such as the

OM and the data warehouse model. The intermediate models then generate code. The code generated then

generates what we name a deployment module, and each module consists of multiple services. The next

step is to organize these service works to their respective runtime environments.

BPM services is an aggregate of runtime services and their deployment scripts generated from the BPM

models. The BPM services collectively route incoming data, link and figure out metrics, estimate business

or IT situations, launch alert notifications through ideal channels, and pile up processed data in an

Operational Data Store (ODS). The Extraction, Renovation and Loading (ETL) service processes data by

pulling it from the ODS on a episodic basis, transforming the data, and storing transformed data in the

data warehouse. The management dashboard captures data from the data warehouse and generates

reports.

Conclusion of paper 1

As a general rule, MDD provides elasticity in adapting to changes as business processes evolve, and its

use outcome in considerable time and cost savings. BPM solutions are generally complex in nature and

take considerable time and money to widen. With the auto-generation of runtime components, one can

experiment with creating models and view the outcomes very quickly by deploying the generated

components. In general, monitoring requirements in the real world are never steady. The advantage of the

BPM MDD approach was realized with the implementation of this technology on the projects we have

conducted. As adoption of this technology spreads within and outside IBM, the modeling requirements

become more composite and the BPM models and runtime components evolve. Currently, if a model is

changed, then the runtime components require to be entirely redeployed. This mechanism on the model to

develop components that can take incremental modifications during runtime and manage the existing

runtime environment. This helps to spot new models, such as report models, that could work together

with our BPM models so that custom-made reports can be generated mechanically. We remain

enthusiastic that MDD techniques provide enough gain that they will be largely adopted in the BPM area.

Summary of paper 2

The fast change in information technology (IT) and business atmosphere have challenged the

governmental capabilities in scheduling the right information systems/information technology (IS/IT)

strategies for organizations. With SISP without fail leftovers as one of the top managerial concerns, there

is require to find conduct to develop SISP. Based on circumstances, the function of knowledge and

knowledge based processes should be the innermost center of attention in SISP. Therefore, some studies

have recommended that SISP process should be viewed as a culture method sooner than a problem

solving course of action. As a learning process, SISP success can be indomitable by how much bang the

SISP practice has prejudiced on information system (IS) planners' idea and actions. In this case,

knowledge capacity immersed from SISP experience reflects a certain rank of organizational learning

(OL) or potential is achieved later influences the SISP success. However, SISP study from this viewpoint

is deficient. Synthesizing from the literature, this paper introduces an abstract agenda based on absorptive

competence model for an SISP success model in the public zone.

Main Section of Paper 2

The absorptive competence model serves as achievable explanations for the SISP in public organizations

rooted in the absorptive capacity approach. Absorptive capacity theory when applied to the sphere of

influence of SISP success, suggests the organization's skill to successfully perform SISP is needy on the

growth of a assortment of SISP related knowledge and processes that join together IT and business

managers. The implications of SISP from absorptive capacity approach will bang the actors specially the

IT and business manager in conditions of shared IT/business knowledge and will also blow the SISP

process itself in terms of SISP process efficiency Thus, the conjectural insights of absorptive capacity

premise provide a sturdy basis to inspect life and importance of IT/business information exchanges,

associations and partnerships within the public organizations through SISP.

Hypothesis:

H1: Higher level of SISP ambiance will positively control the shared IT/business knowledge

H2: Higher level of shared IT/business knowledge will positively control the SISP process of

Effectiveness

H3: Higher level of SISP process effectiveness will positively control the SISP success

H4: The consultant expertise moderates the control of SISP climate level towards shared IT/business

Knowledge

H5: CIO role effectiveness moderates the control of shared IT/business knowledge level toward

SISP process effectiveness

H6: Higher level of SISP climate will positively control the SISP success

H7: Higher level of shared IT/business knowledge will positively control the SISP success

Strategic alignment:

Strategic arrangement is the connection between an organization's essentially goals and the goals of each

of the units that give to getting of those general goals. It is based on four key domains of strategic choice:

business strategy, organizational infrastructure and processes, I/T strategy and I/T infrastructure and

processes.

Conclusion of paper 2

This projected theoretical outline helps for assessing SISP success in public sector based on the absorptive

power approach. Applying the absorptive capacity model enables the hypothesis on the quality of SISP

practice affects the level of SISP absorptive capacity which later inclined SISP success. The planned model

should be concern to both SISP practitioner and academic community. For the practitioners, the model should

augment the understandings on i) how to assess SISP success in public sector, ii) how to look up

organizational knowledge by looking at the contributing factors and iii) how to sustain strategic advantage. For

the academic society, the proposed model provide research opportunity to further i) understand the influences

of existing SISP practice, ii) discover SISP from other views as well problem solving based and iii) understand

the characteristics between private and public SISP. This is an in augmentation research where the model will

be tested empirically in future work.

Comparison b/w MDD and SISP

MDD

1. Our MDD approach to BPM has advantages more than general IT systems development because

the significant control of our BPM metamodel is intentionally confidential to generic and

relatively simple constructs, such as metrics, maps, dimensions, business events, situations and

actions.

2. By restricting the expressive power, we guarantee that a well-defined, non-ambiguous solution is

generated. additionally, our model takes a holistic view of monitoring necessities and can embody

them with formal models.

3. Our solution also performs basic model confirmation to assure that the BPM elements used are

semantically correct and can be automatically transformed into deployable code.

4. Due to its advanced notion and recycling feature, the MDD tactic has been extensively applied in

allied areas such as software reuse, reverse engineering, and user crossing point design.

5. The profit of adopting MDD include determined software progress time, better code excellence,

and enhanced code safeguarding.

6. As a result, model driven development is extensively faster than traditional programming

languages like C# and Java.

' Orbit functionality changes quicker by removing the obligation of explicit revival, rebuild,

retest and redeploy steps.

' Capture an API layer within the platform to easily control model extensions with convention code

' Set up easily by starting the runtime server and adding the model (the rest is automated with a

single click)

' Access more bendable and active application monitoring features and enable less technical

developers to evaluate and quickly correct during visual application models.

SISP

1. It helps in identifying imperative application to empower.

2. It helps organization to use its IS to carry out existing Business Strategy.

3. It also helps organization to describe Business strategy.

Recommendations:

By considering all these factors, I would like to conclude that MDD approach is the best since it allows

people to work together on a project and to capitalize on effective job on a project while minimizing the

overhead needed to generate working software that can be valued by end users in shortest possible time.

Strategic Information System Planning features on (i) Characterising I/T strategy from I/T infrastructure

and processes; and (ii) differentiating the idea of strategic alignment from bivariate fit and cross-domain

alignment. But in MDD, the methodology is nimble, constantly evolving to meet up the neccessities of

the business.

References:

1. HONG-MEI, C. (2008) Towards Service Engineering: Service Orientation and Business-IT

Alignment. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences

(HICSS 2008), Waikoloa, Hawaii, pages 114-123. IEEE.

2. Chowdhary, P., Bhaskaran, K., Caswell, N. S., et. al. "Model Driven Development for Business

Performance Management," IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p587-605, 2006.

3. Lankhorst, M. et.al. Enterprise Architecture at Work: modeling, communication, and analysis.

Springer, 1998.

4. LUFTMAN, J., PAPP, R. & BRIER, T. (1999) Enablers and inhibitors of business-IT alignment.

Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 1, Article 11.

5. Henderson, J., and N. Venkatraman (1990). Strategic Alignment: A model For Organizational

Transformation Via Information Technology, Working Paper 3223- 90, Cambridge, MA: Sloan

School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

6. Earl, M. J (1993). "Experience in Strategic Information Systems Planning," MIS Quarterly, (17),

1, pp. 1-24.

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