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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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User Defined Problem Project

Team ID: 60246

A project report submitted by

SHAH HARSH B. (130010102051)

VAGHANI HITEN N. (130010102059)

PATEL SHEEL J. (130010102041)

PATEL ANAND K. (130010102025)

SUTHAR BHARGAV P. (120010102052)

In fulfilment for the award of the degree


Bachelor of Engineering


Automobile Engineering


A.D. Patel Institute of Technology, New Vidyanagar

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad

Academic year 2016-2017

Automobile Department



This is to certify that the dissertation entitled 'DRIFTER:ELECTRIC SCOOTER' has been carried out by SHAH HARSH,VAGHANI HITEN,PATEL SHEEL,PATEL ANAND,SUTHAR BHARGAV under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Automobile Engineering in 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Guide Prof.: Patel Nimit

Head of the Department: Dr. Sudhir Gupte


No. Topic Page no.

1 Acknowledgement 5

2 Abstract 6

3 Introduction 7

1.1 Problem Summary 8

1.2 Objective of project 9

1.3 Literature review 9

1.4 Plan of their work 10

1.5 Material/tools required 10

4 Design 11

2.1Discover user 11

2.2 Ideation: User activities 11

2.3 Problem identification 12

2.4 Solution Identification 13

2.5 product development 13

5 Implementation 17

3.1 Prototype designing 17

3.1.2Working Principle 19

3.2 flow chart 19

6 Results 20

4.1 Advantages of system 20

4.2 Unique selling point 20

4.3 Scope of future work 21

4.4 Benchmarking 21

7 References 22


Fig:2.2.1 Ideation canvas''''''''..12

Fig:2.5.1 Product development canvas'''''''.13

Fig:2.5.2 AEIOU canvas''''''''...15

Fig 2.5.3 Empathy canvas''''''''.16

Fig:3.1.1 Front View''''''''.17

Fig:3.1.2 Side View''''''''..17

Fig:3.1.3 Steering rack with ball joint'''''''..18

Fig:3.1.4 Back View''''''''.18

Fig:3.1.5 Floor joint''''''''..18

Fig: 3.2.1 Flow chart of vehicle''''''''19



We deeply express our sincere regards to Prof. Patel Nimit (project guide) for his expert guidance in the completion of project work on 'UDP project-drifter electric scooter'. It is a matter of immense pleasure for us to submit project report at A.D.PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. We would like to thank Dr. R.K.Jain, principal of A.D.PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Dr Sudhir Gupte (Head of the automobile engineering department) faculty members and lab assistants for giving us the support and opportunity to carry out our project successfully. We would not have been successful if this expert guidance and support were not provided. We have come forth many problems pertaining to design and mechanism of our SCOOTER, if it not had been for faculty member's support then we would be this far down this road.


We had been using fossil derivatives since 1970 (European industrial revolution). Aftermath of the same was exponential rise in carbon concentration in atmosphere of Earth. So, as to overcome these problems, alternative source of energy (electrical energy) had been heavily debated. Since, inception of electric bulb, innovations in same field are constantly made. Since then, Electric instruments were centre of attraction for research and development. In automobile engineering Emission norms such as BS VI will probably introduced in remote future. Electric powered vehicles are emerging nowadays to meet the BS VI norms. Our vehicle reflects the prime objective of the norms. The main eccentricity of our vehicle lies in the mechanism of steering control system, used for acceleration and deceleration with the minor backstroke of the steering handle. Our main intend, to develop this vehicle while keeping in mind people of all the Age group, ranging from minors to adults. Our vehicle runs on a battery, and a hub motor used to drive wheels, provide a greener and smoother ride.

1. Introduction

Our UDP project is electric powered scooter, which consists of Hub Motor, Battery pack, rheostat, other cables and connections. All these components are assembled in scooter in such a way which is innovative in control mechanism. Our scooter can be used to travel short distances within campus. We have to try to achieve new mechanism for steer control of our vehicle which will be exciting to use. This electric scooter will use the conventional power train and will generate no emission which is needed nowadays most.

This project design is based on electrical components, which is in some manner better than mechanical components. It will provide smooth and noiseless ride to the customer. Components can be easily replaceable and the scooter is foldable so it is easy to carry everywhere.

1.1. Problem Summery

The main problem in the today's automobile industry is the pollution which is created by automobile vehicle. Because of that there are a lot happening on earth's atmosphere. As per report we have to find alternate energy sources for automobile vehicle because fossil fuel is going to finish some other time in near future. Till today the best sources are solar energy and electrical energy. By using this sources there will be big cut on the emission properties of vehicle. There are lot problems of repairing and maintain a lot heavy parts in our automobile vehicle, this electrical vehicle will eliminate that. It will require less maintenance comparing to today's vehicle.

This project consists designing and developing of a electric scooter which will make transportation(short distance) efficient, easy and fun. This is noise free, foldable, eco-friendly scooter for everyday use. This vehicle can be used in companies, in schools & colleges, short distance travel and many other purposes. It will eliminate the main problems occurring due to internal combustion engine powered vehicles.

1.2. Objectives of the project:

' To reduce emission

' Better transportation for short distance

' To make vehicle which will be driver-friendly

' Economically viable to customers

' No use of fossil fuel

1.3. Literature review:

There are lot advancement happening in electrical automobile vehicle. Many companies have built electric scooter to make transportation easy & handy. We have created new steering mechanism related to it's which makes our vehicle different from others. We have referred to various patents related electric vehicles, electric components like hub motor, sensors etc.

The patents which we have referred as are below:

1) Hub Wheel Motor- US 2011/0168466A1

2) Battery control system for electric vehicle- US5931245A

3) Hub motor mechanism- US 6974399 B2

4) Electric Motor drives for recapturing electrical energy- US 20140084875A1

5) Inductive charging of a moving electric vehicle's battery- US5311973A

1.4. Plan of our work

First of we have referred the new advancement in electrical automobile vehicle. Then we have try to overcome the problem of emission. We have selected the best components for our vehicle to utilise it at fullest. Then we designed the vehicle with the help of solidworks software. We tried to develop a new kind of steering mechanism for handling of vehicle by pulling the steering and then release it for acceleration. According to this we have selected the hub motor, batteries, sensors. We have referred patents and literature for our product.

After selecting the components & referring the patents and literature we have designed the prototype and finalise the budget for what we are going to make as our final year of project of automobile engineering.

1.5. Materials/tools required

We have done the market survey for deciding our components and material which we are going to use which are mentioned as below:

' Mild steel

' Aluminium sheet

' Hub motor

' Sensor

' Batteries

' Wires and cables

' Pulley

' Wheels and brake

' Spring

' Rheostat

2. Design

2.1 Discover user

We came up with this idea, by brainstorming about the life on campus of the students and faculties. By doing this we came up with the idea of electric scooter, which can help the students and faculties to move around and enhance their living and studying life. We then thought about implementation in the real world, and found out that each and every person can move around in the nearby region on this vehicle easily. The main thought process of this project was, How could we reduce the emissions?. To keep in consideration about the emission, we came up with an unique idea of acceleration and deceleration by replacing the conventional steering system with our own steering mechanism .So we came up with this idea of the project.

2.2 Ideation: User Activities

According to our research about the user, we came up with the following users' which can be associated with the product.

' Designer

' Seller

' Component supplier

' Urban people

' Manufacturer

' Retailer

' Industrial people

' Marketing people

' Analyst

' Students

 (Fig:2.2.1 Ideation canvas)

2.3Problem Identification

Our way towards this problem came with an approach towards improving the environment condition by considering the major cause ''Emissions'.

Taking an Example:

In day to day life, on an average a student tends to travel a distance of 20 Km/day, although this distance is overshadowed by the major vehicle commuters around the city, but still if we think of an total population of a student in a particular area where lot of universities are located then , summing up increases the number. In India , there are lot of mega campus universities located, seeing this if 7000 out of 10000 people travel around the campus on 2/3/4 wheelers propelled by I.C engines or CNG, then the pollution increases by the Emission characteristics of those I.C engines. Nowadays, Electric vehicle are emerging due to their lowest emission characteristics. Imagine, if 7000 out of 10000 students travelling on I.C engine propelled Vehicle be Replaced by Electric vehicle, Emission (pollution) can be reduced to significant amount. Thus we consider this problem and came up with our Idea.

2.4 Solution identification

The team came up with a simple and more enhanced solution about the problem, which might help the student to travel around easily and without damaging the atmosphere. We furthermore, made the problem more compatible with the student campus life , and made a 2-wheeled electric Scooter, which is the most prominent substitute of the 2/3/4  wheeled vehicle. Arising question is Why to choose our product apart from 2/3/4 Electric Vehicle?. The basic answer is the, we decided to make foldable, compact and ride more enjoyable. A student can carry this with him anywhere he goes. Thus we identified this as our solution to the problem.

2.5 Product Development

The purpose of developing this project was to achieve efficiency, economical, Eco-friendly, use of Renewable Energy, and comfort. The people who are the user of this project are Student, Kids, Energy, and pedestrian, Teachers, mechanics and Travellers. The components that are involved in the development of our product is Battery, Rheostat , Hub motor ,Metal Sheets , Brakes , Pulley, Handlebar ,and Wheels. The product features the Innovative Steer control and Hub motor.

(Fig:2.5.1 Product development canvas)

AEIOU Framework for Observation activity

The users defined by us, for our project is as follows:-

' Kids

' Teenagers

' Students

' Travellers

' Faculties

' Adults

For developing our project, we justify the needs / interactions of the following for the development of our product:-

' Designer

' Manufacturer

' Mechanics

' Supplier

' Customer

' Driver

' Electrician

' Manager

We feel that our product can achieve a significal progress in enhancing the environment , as our product  offers

' Efficiency

' Zero Emission

' Eco Friendly

' Noise Reduction

' Smooth Ride

' Flexible

Our Product can be used in the following activities:-

' Mobility

' Driving

' Transportation

' Interaction

' Commuting to nearby places.

The objects that we involve in the production of the products are:-

' Hub Motor

' Sensors

' Rheostat

' Battery

' Wheels

' Other Mechanical /Electrical Components


(Fig: 2.5.2 AEIOU canvas)

Empathy summary:

(Fig 2.5.3 Empathy canvas)

3. Implementation

3.1 Prototype Designing:


             (Fig: 3.1.1 Front View)


             (Fig: 3.1.2 Side View)

(Fig:3.1.3 Steering rack with ball joint & Fig:3.1.4 Back View)


            (Fig:3.1.5 Floor joint)

3.1.2 Working Principle:

First of all steering mechanism consists of ball joint which will be connected to rheostat which will vary the voltage which will come from battery. It is powered by batteries which are provided below the platform. Rheostat will send signal to motor control which will send output to hub motor to wheel. We will provide two kind of break one which is controlled by steering and the other one will be on rear wheel.

3.2 Flow Chart of the Vehicle

(Fig: 3.2.1 Flow chart of vehicle)

4. Results

4.1 Advantage of System:

' Efficient

' Eco friendly (we are using electrical components, that's why there will be no pollution )

' Smooth ride experience

' No use of fossil fuel

4.2 Unique selling point

' Innovative steering mechanism

' Easy to operate

' Smooth ride

' Better handling

' Easy to maintain

4.3 Scope of Future Work:

' We are using lead-acid battery so we can use li-ion/li-po batteries for better charging speed and stable output. With that we can increase the battery life.

' Bluetooth or Wi-Fi option can be provided for better interactions with driver and provide more facilities for more comfort.

' We will use lighter material for increasing speed of vehicle.

' We can use suspension system in our design for better ride experience.

' We can provide running hours on the display. We can design the whole new on board display for showing some new features like GPS, battery running hour, speed, load acting on vehicle.

' We can provide regenerative breaks for charging of batteries.

4.4 Benchmarking:

This kind of electric scooter is made by a lot automobile companies. The basic concept or we can say a basic powertrain of this scooter is supply electricity from battery to motor to wheels via some kind of chain mechanism or belt mechanism. There is no such innovation in these vehicles. They are just common kind of vehicle which will consume current and will give a ride. We have tried to create a new fun steer control to ride the scooter. We have designed the steering control mechanism with the help of rheostat-spring back and forth mechanism. In which the acceleration will be applied by pulling the steering rod at some angle. This is the whole new mechanism for this kind of scooter which will be different from other company's scooter. Other scooters are way more costly for people; we have tried to keep the cost as low as it is possible. We have used simple and innovative design which is both comfortable and easy to use and will make more fun. We have designed mechanism unlike other vehicle in the market which is never thought of before.

5. References


1) Digit magazine-august 2016

2) Battery power magazine


1) Different kind of batteries and their specification

2) Information about sensors and rheostat

3) Electric scooter


1) Hub Wheel Motor- US 2011/0168466A1

2) Battery control system for electric vehicle- US5931245A

3) Hub motor mechanism- US 6974399 B2

4) Electric Motor drives for recapturing electrical energy- US 20140084875A1

5) Inductive charging of a moving electric vehicle's battery- US5311973A


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