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THE PROJECT-I

ENTITLED

'FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF

 ROLLING PROCESS'

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BY

1) MODI JAY RAJESHKUMAR       131110119027

2) PATEL HARSH DINESHBHAI            131110119029

3) PATEL MEET RAJESH                  131110119033

4) PATIL RAHUL SALIKRAO 131110119038

5) VARIYA DIPAK MANILAL 131110119052

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Prof. ARPAN C. PATEL

MECH. DEPT., M.S.C.E.T., SURAT

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

MAHAVIR SWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,

SURAT (INDIA) -395 017

2016-2017

MAHAVIR SWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

A

Mechanical Engineering

2016

    CERTIFICATE

Date:

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled 'FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON ROLLING PROCESS' has been carried out by

MODI JAY RAJESHKUMAR 131110119027

PATEL HARSH DINESHBHAI 131110119029

PATEL MEET RAJESH 131110119033

PATIL RAHUL SHALIKRAO 131110119038

VARIYA DIPAK MANILAL 131110119052

under my guidance in partially fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical 7th semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2016-2017.

Guide                Head of the Department

Mr. ARPAN C. PATEL        Mr. NILESH RANA

PROJECT-I APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that project work embodied in this report entitled 'FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON ROLLING PROCESS ' was carried out by

MODI JAY RAJESHKUMAR 131110119027

PATEL HARSH DINESHBHAI 131110119029

PATEL MEET RAJESH 131110119033

PATIL RAHUL SHALIKRAO 131110119038

VARIYA DIPAK MANILAL 131110119052

At MAHAVIR SWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY is approved for award of the Degree of B.E. Mechanical Engineering by Gujarat Technological University.

Examiners:

1.

2.

Date:

Place: Mahavir Swami College of Engg. & Tech. , Surat

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We thankful to our project guide Mr. ARPAN C. PATEL and external guide Mr. HARDIK GOHIL we express our deepest gratitude towards them for constantly imparting us with their valuable advice and suggestion during our course of preparation of this report. Without their support, monitoring & persistence, this report would not have taken the present day shape.

Also we remain deeply indebted to all faculties of mechanical engineering department for providing us the guidance which directly or indirectly helped us in preparation of this report. Their co -operation has been a source of inspiration for us every time.

We would like to thank Mr. NILESH RANA Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering in MSCET,Surat.

MODI JAY RAJESHKUMAR

PATEL HARSH DINESHBHAI

PATEL MEET RAJESH

PATIL RAHUL SHALIKRAO

VARIYA DIPAK MANILAL

ABSTRACT

Rolling is the plastic deformation of materials caused by compressive force applied through a set of rolls. The cross section of the work-piece is reduced by the process. The material get squeezed between a pair of rolls as a result of which the thickness gets reduced and the length gets increased.

Rolling process is done by two method hot rolling and cold rolling. Since, the hot rolling process of thick-plate is highly non-linear plastic-deformation process under high temperature-pressure. In cold rolling process residual-stresses plays a main role.

The finite element analysis of thick-rolled plate under Abaqus dynamic explicit module has done hear. Finite element simulation is an effective way to measure internal information during the rolling process.

LIST OF TABLE

Table No Table Description Page no

1.1 Summary of literature review 10

1.2 Properties of materiel 13

'

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure No Figure Description Page no

1.1 Common roll arrangement, shape rolled  product and grain structure 01

1.2 (a) Schematic Illustration of flat rolling process (b) Friction force acting on strip surface (c) Roll force F and torque acting on the rolls. 02

1.3 Leonardo da vinchi's note book fig of rolling process 02

1.4 Layout diagram of main equipment in hot rolling 03

4.1 Initial position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 5 13

4.2 Final position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 5 14

4.3 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 50 and rpm 5 14

4.4 Initial position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 10 15

4.5 Final position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 10 15

4.6 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 50 and rpm 10 16

4.7 Initial position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 15 16

4.8 Final position of rolling process for radius 50 and rpm 15 17

4.9 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 50 and rpm 15 17

4.10 Initial position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 5 18

4.11 Final position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 5 18

4.12 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 75 and rpm 5 19

4.13 Initial position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 10 19

4.14 Final position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 10 20

4.16 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 75 and rpm 10 21

4.17 Initial position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 15 21

4.18 Final position of rolling process for radius 75 and rpm 15 22

4.19 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 75 and rpm 15 22

4.20 Initial position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 5 23

4.21 Final position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 5 23

4.22 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 100 and rpm 5 24

4.23 Initial position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 10 24

4.24 Final position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 10 25

4.25 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 100 and rpm 10 25

4.26 Initial position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 15 26

4.27 Final position of rolling process for radius 100 and rpm 15 26

4.28 Initial position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 5 27

4.29 Final position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 5 27

4.30 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 125 and rpm 5 28

4.31 Initial position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 10 28

4.32 Final position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 10 29

4.33 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 125 and rpm 10 29

4.34 Initial position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 15 30

4.35 Final position of rolling process for radius 125 and rpm 15 30

4.36 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 125 and rpm 15 31

4.37 Initial position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 5 31

4.38 Final position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 5 32

4.39 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 125 and rpm 5 32

4.40 Initial position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 10 33

4.41 Final position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 10 33

4.42 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 150 and rpm 10 34

4.43 Initial position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 15 34

4.44 Final position of rolling process for radius 150 and rpm 15 35

4.45 Graph of reaction force vs time for radius 150 and rpm 10 35

TABLE OF CONTENT

Certificate Ii

External Examiner Approval Iii

Acknowledgement Iv

Abstract V

List of Table Vi

List of Figure Vii

Table of Contents Viii

Chapter No. Title Page No.

Chapter : 1 Introduction ''''''''''''''. 1-5

1.1 Basic Introduction 1

1.2 Hot  Rolling  process 3

1.3 Cold rolling process 4

1.4 Objective 4

1.5 Advantages 4

1.6 Disadvantages 5

1.7 Application 5

Chapter : 2 Literature Survey '''''''''''' 6-12

2.1 Literature Survey Summary

10

Chapter : 3 Material and Assembly ''''''''.' 13-14

Chapter : 4 Components of Experiment '''''''' 13-35

4.1 FEM Analysis 13

4.2 Simulation  Analysis 13

4.2.1 Roller radius 50 13

1    Roller speed 5 rpm

2    Roller speed 10 rpm

3    Roller speed 15 rpm

4.2.2 Roller radius 75 18

1    Roller speed 5 rpm

2    Roller speed 10 rpm

3    Roller speed 15 rpm

4.2.3 Roller radius 100 22

1    Roller speed 5 rpm

2    Roller speed 10 rpm

3    Roller speed 15 rpm

4.2.4 Roller radius 125 27

1    Roller speed 5 rpm

2    Roller speed 10 rpm

3    Roller speed 15 rpm

4.2.5 Roller radius 150 31

1    Roller speed 5 rpm

2    Roller speed 10 rpm

3    Roller speed 15 rpm

Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Work ''''''' 38

5.1 Conclusion '''''''''''''''''. 38

5.2 Future work ''''''''''''''''' 38

Reference '''''''''''''''. 39

Appendix '''''''''''''''..

Chapter 1  Introduction

1.1 Basic Introduction

Rolling is one of the most important industrial metal forming operations. Rolling is employed for breaking the ingots down into wrought products such as into blooms and billets, which are subsequently rolled to other products like plates, sheets etc.

Rolling is a process of reduction of the cross-sectional area or shaping a metal piece through the deformation caused by a pair of rotating in opposite directions metal rolls. The gap between the rotating rolls is less than the thickness of the entering bar therefore a friction force is necessary in order to bite the bar and to pull it through the rolls. A metal bar passing through the rotating rolls is squeezed, and it elongates while its cross section area decreases.

The initial breakdown of ingots into blooms, slab and billets is generally done by hot-rolling process

Bloom is has a square cross section, with area more than 230 cm2 . A slab, also from ingot, has rectangular cross-section, with area of at least 100 cm2 and width at least three times the thickness. A billet is rolled out of bloom, has at least 40 mm X 40 mm cross-section. Blooms are used for rolling structural products such as I-sections, channels, rails etc. Billets are rolled into bars, rods. Bars and rods are raw materials for extrusion, drawing, forging, machining etc. Slabs are meant for rolling sheets, strips, plates etc.

 

fig1.1

A schematic illustration of the flat rolling process is shown in Figure 1.2. A strip

thickness ho enters the roll gap and is reduced to hf by a pair of rotating rolls, each roll

being powered through its own shaft by electric motors. The surface speed of the roll is

Vr. The velocity of the strip increases from its initial value Vo as it moves through the roll

gap, just as fluid flows faster as it moves through a converging channel. The velocity of

the strip is highest at the exit of the roll gap and is denoted as Vf.

fig1.2

'Leonardo da Vinci describes in his notebooks that these two machines were intended for producing sheets of tin by making the metal pass between the principal rollers.' In the sketch on the top there is however, an important addition: two smaller rollers, which keep up the pressure on the principal ones so that the sheet produced is homogeneously smooth. This method is still employed today as seen in Figure1.3

fig1.3

1.2 Hot rolling process

The whole hot rolling process is shown in Fig.1.4. This casting slab is room temperature in common and when it is taken into the hot rolling process, it should be heated in the heating furnace. In this stage, the slab must be heated to the temperature between 1050 and 1280 Celsius.

The temperature must be monitored to make sure it remains up to the temperature required, and then it will be taken out of heating furnace by slab extractor and moved to the next stage called descaling by high pressure water. When the slab is moved to the descaling box by roll table, the high pressure water flushes the slab so as to remove the iron oxide skins and avoid scratching the rolls and strip. The following stage is rough rolling process. It often contains one or two roughing mills in which the slab is hot rolled reversibly. When the slab arrives, it will be rolled 5 or 7 times repeatedly to reach the thickness requirement. What is also worth mentioning is that the roughing mill contains edger rolls which are used to roll the edge of slab and centre it. After rolled by the roughing mill, the slab is called transfer bar in common and it goes to which can uniform the temperature and decrease temperature drop of the whole transfer bar. Then the transfer bar will be cut the front and end by flying shear. The later stage is finishing rolling process which is the most important and complex process in hot rolling. This part contains seven 4-high rolling mill stands from F1 to F7, which contains kinds of effective control methods such as shifting and bending of work rolls. Transfer slab is rolled by the seven mill stands so as to reach the strip control requirements and then goes to the laminar cooling section. In this section, the strip will be cooled to the required temperature according to mechanical properties needed. The last stage is coiler, and then the strip will be sent to the product room. Also, some strips should be rolled by temper mill if needed and after that the whole hot rolling process is finished.

Hot rolling is used mainly to produce hot rolling strip steel, which provides to the raw

material of cold rolling and to the process of equipment such as container.

fig1.4

1.3 Cold rolling process

Cold rolling occurs with the steel below its recrystallization temperature (usually at room

temperature), which increases the strength via strain. It also improves the surface finish and holds tighter tolerances. Commonly cold-rolled strips are usually thinner than the same products that are hot rolled. Because of their smaller size and greater strength, as compared to hot-rolled strips, 4-high, 6-high or reversing mills are used. But cold rolling cannot reduce the thickness of strips as much as hot rolling process. The whole cold rolling process reveals as follows.

Raw material of cold rolling is Hot-rolled strips. Strips are welded one after another by welder so that they are linked together. This is so called continuous rolling. These

continuous strips are then sent to the pickling section for removing the iron oxide skins by

sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid in common. After that, the strips will be cleaned, dried, cut edge and sub-volume. After acid washing machine, in order to roll the strips to final thickness and required strip profile and flatness, strips should be rolled by 4-high or 6-high tandem cold rolling mill of five stands named from S1 to S5 while generally without any intermediate annealing. In this stage, it takes into account of strip quality, rolling force, allocated reduction and other factors for this tandem rolling process. The following stage is annealing used to eliminate cold hardening and soften the recrystallization strip steel so as to acquire the good ability of plasticity. The next stage is rolling the strip by temper mill. The last stage is galvanizing, tinning or colour coating of the cold-rolled strips, according to the requirements. Then these strips will be cut and packaged and the whole tandem cold rolling process is finished. Cold rolling is used mainly to produce cold-rolled strip, which provides to the production of auto sheet, home appliances sheet, electrical steel pieces and so on.

1.4 Objective:

The purpose of this research is to recognize finite element simulations of

rolling operations as the realization of computational experiments, to apply sound experimental design techniques for the analysis and prediction of responses. This research addresses the design of shape rolling processes using optimal parameter settings for target performance.

1.5 Advantages:-

' The amount of wastage of metal during metal forming process is negligible.

' Grain orientation is possible.

' Because of grain orientation the material is converted from isotropic to anisotropic material.

' In most of engineering applications it requires anisotropic material.

' Sometimes the strength and hardness of work material is increasing.

' Some other metal forming process, the surface finish obtained on the component is very good and excellent.

1.6 Disadvantages:

' Higher amount of force and energy is required for metal forming process compared to other manufacturing methods.

' Except the forging operation, all other metal forming process are used for producing uniform cross sectioned components only.

' The components with cross holes cannot be produced easily using metal forming process.

1.7 Applications:

' Steel Plants

' Screw manufacture

' Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal or simple cross sections, such as rail tracks.

' Other typical uses for hot rolled metal includes truck frames, automotive wheels, pipe and tubular, water heaters, agriculture equipment, strapping, stampings, compressor shells, railcar components, wheel rims, metal buildings, railroad hopper cars, doors, shelving, discs, guard rails, automotive clutch plates.

' metal furniture, desks, filing cabinets, tables, chairs, motorcycle exhaust pipes, computer cabinets and hardware, home appliances and components, shelving, lighting fixtures, hinges, tubing, steel drums, lawn mowers, electronic cabinetry, water heaters, metal containers, and a variety of construction-related products.

' Blooms are often rolled directly into I beams, H beams, channel beams, and T sections for structural applications.

' Plates and sheets are rolled from slabs, and are extremely important in the production of a wide range of manufactured items.

' Plates are used in heavy applications like boilers, bridges, nuclear vessels, large machines, tanks, and ships.

' Sheet is used for the production of car bodies, buses, train cars, airplane fuselages, refrigerators, washers, dryers, other household appliances, office equipment, containers and etc.

Chapter 2 Literature Survey

1. Imre Kiss and Vasile (2007) Alexa used the paper proposes to evaluate the thermal stresses produced by the temperature fields in the hot rolling mill rolls using experimental date. The research of the thermal stress that action in the rolling rolls is impetuously necessary not only to diminish the fissures caused by thermal fatigue, to increase the exploitation duration, but also to avoid thermal shocks, which are very dangerous in the exploitation process and produced by large variations, temperature snapshot that lead to shearing of calibre beads in rolls.

2. Shaheni and Rezaie(2010)[10] research about the influence of various parameters such as geometry of the slab, temperature, friction between work-rolls and slab, percentage of thickness reduction, rotational speed of work-roll have been studied on process. Outputs like temperature distribution, stress, strain and strain rate fields, roll force have been obtained through different inputs. The outputs of finite element simulation are used to investigate the effects of parameters on product integrity and mechanical properties of part.  

3. YANG Shuangcheng and CHEN Jie (1983)[4] was investigated, a rolling force model of AA5052 aluminum alloys during hot rough rolling on the basis of classic rolling-theory. Factors which influenced rolling force in the process including radius of elastic flattened roll, stress state coefficient and deformation resistance were evaluated in detail to establish the model. The rolling force prediction program was developed by means of MATLAB and the comparison between calculations and measured values of the rolling force indicated that the rolling force model has good prediction precision with an error between 5%~7% and it can meet the basic requirements of the actual production site.

4. V. A. Kulkarni and A. K. Bewoor(2009)[12]  research about Effectiveness of Rolling Process .Hot rolling is the key process that convert cast or semi finished steel into finished products. Since the rolling operation is very costly, hence quality control of rolling process is essential. The raw material of leaf spring i.e. strip of SUP 11 is manufactured with hot rolling process. Any defect in the material may result rejection of final product that leads to major loss in terms of money and sometimes major accidents also. In this paper, the concept or voice of customer of India has been developed and shown the internal customer relationship among the various flow processes to achieve the full satisfaction of internal customer that leads to the satisfaction of external customer.  Internal customer's job is to look after proper functioning of the process and minimization of the defects in the final process which leads to minimization of defects in the final product.

5. X.M. Zhou and X.X. Yue (2007) research about how to indicate the rolling process parameters change during the whole rolling process. The rolling model is established by considering the elastic deformation of the roll and plastic deformation of the strip as a whole. The verified results represent that the flatness control integration simulation system can reflect the rolling process parameters and flatness effectively.

6. Shailendra Dwivedi and Dr. Geeta Agnihotri (2002) study on the influence of Modelling and Simulation of various parameters such as geometry of the slab, temperature, friction between work-rolls and slab, percentage of thickness reduction, rotational speed of work-roll. Outputs like temperature distribution, stress, strain and strain rate fields, roll force have been obtained through different inputs. The outputs of finite element simulation are used to investigate the effects of parameters on product integrity and mechanical properties.

 

7. R. FAB''K and J. KLIBER (2010)[13] study about mathematical modelling which uses finite element method software for solving operation problems in the hot rolling of flat and long products. The investigation was always combined with field or pilot measurements or laboratory experiments.

8. Kazuhito TANI and Shinya ISHIGAI (1999)research about a near-net-shape (NNS) ring-rolling process was developed to reduce the forging weight of a rolled, fan case front, ring made of Ti-6Al-4V and also developed for the manufacturing of preforms with a complex cross section in order to roll more advanced NSS rings.

9. CA Lavender and DM Paxton (2013) performed finite-element simulations to predict roll-separating forces and rolling defects.  Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Model predictions were validated and further development will allow accurate specification of rolling schedules for production roll mills based on the testing of laboratory scale mills.

10. T.Matsui and H.Takizawa(2000)[14] research that Concerning casing and seal, simulation of ring rolling process is one of the most attractive tools to reduce the cost and time and to improve the properties and the reliability at the same time. In order to obtain both practical prediction accuracy and acceptable computation time from industrial standpoint, the refined partial three-dimensional deformation model was proposed.

11. Jong Hun Kang and Hyoung Woo Lee(2015)[3] research on the forging of balls, a key component of ball valves used in petrochemical plants. Balls for ball valves come in a wide range of diameters, from a few millimeters to 1500 mm. The existing method of ball forging uses simple dies in a free forging press, but can be time-consuming, as it requires extensive post-processing. This study proposes a method of forging with minimal post-processing by combining free forging and ring rolling.

12. Gang ZhaoandJie''gang Mou(2014) Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossingand coating problems of rolling''head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rollingtemperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed toanalyze the different effects of hot''rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality ofrolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can alsoimprove the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates.

13. J. OSIKA and  K. ''WI''TKOWSKI (2008)[2] study about the methods of measuring of the deformation distribution along the working zone were presented. FEM and FDM methods were used for calculations of the deformation distribution along the working zone and also study direct measuring of markers displacement, using the stereophotogrammetric method.

14. Yoshihiro SERIZAWA (2007) research on period of development and commercial application of new rolling processes unique to Japan. Rolling facilities incorporating the latest technology are being commissioned one after another in developing and other countries, and thus, the technical advantage of Japan is dwindling, at least in terms of the equipage of rolling facilities.

15. Adarsh Dhingra and  K. K. Pathak (2009)[6] a three dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element model for cold rolling of a plate of Steel has been developed to study the behaviour of the material under different coefficients of friction, different roller diameters and different initial heights of the plate for obtaining a particular final height of the rolled plate. The individual effects of coefficient of friction, initial height of plate and roller radius on maximum stress, equivalent plastic strain and reaction force has been studied.

16. IMRE KISS and VASILE GEORGE CIOATA (2003)[11] study about quality assurance of the rolling mills rolls, from the viewpoint of the quality of materials, which feature can cause duration and safety in exploitation. The experimented durability research, as well as the optimization of the manufacturing technology, allows the conclusion of direct results for the rolls. The beneficiaries of these results are the unit in which the rolls are manufactured, as well as the unit that exploits them. The technological manufacturing process of the rolling mills rolls, as well as the quality of material used in manufacturing them, can have a different influence upon the qualit y and the safety in the exploitation.

17. Zbigniew Pater and Arkadiusz Tofil (2007) [7] research about numerical modelling of the piercing process of a thick'walled bush in a two-rolled skew rolling mill, equipped with guiding devices of Diescher's type. The results of calculations were presented in a form of fields of strain, damage criterion and temperature. Distributions of force parameters acting on particular tools during the process of bush rolling were also given.

18. Hisaki Watari and Hidemitsu Hamano (2010) [8] has investigated in cold roll forming of magnesium alloy, however detailed forming characteristics of the wrought magnesium alloy sheets has not been clarified. The aim of our study is to establish a guideline for roll design in the roll forming for wrought magnesium alloy sheet.  A three dimensional elasto-plastic analysis by finite element method (FEM) has been conducted to examine the shapes of cross section, springback characteristics, bending strains and longitudinal membrane strain of magnesium alloy sheet comparing to cold rolled steel sheet during cold roll forming.

 

19. J. TOMCZAKand Z. PATER  (2012) [15] theoretical and experimental research on skew rolling process of balls with diameter '30 mm in multiple helical tools. Numerical analysis of the process was conducted basing on 'nite element method (FEM), using the commercial software Simufact Forming in version 10.0. Simulations were made in the three-dimensional state of strain with consideration of complex thermal analysis, due to which progression of the products shape was determined.

20. Tilo Reichardt and Gerhard Kudermann (2012) research on the introduction of glycol based lubricants for cold rolling of steel. State of the art is the application of oil-in-water-emulsions (or pure oil) for lubrication, cleaning and cooling of the deformation process. Lifetime of these conventional lubricants is limited as well as continuous care technologies for solid separation led to oil losses complemented by further losses over the strip surface.

21. QIN Henian (1981) [9] research & application of cold rolling oil for stainless sheet steel. The results indicate that this oil has well properties of anti-wear, oxidation, emulsifying and fine rust-preventing characteristics, it can meet the employable demands of SENDZIMIR high speed rolling mill at all.

22. Lianggang Guo and He Yang (2005) [16] research on radial axial ring rolling.Ring rolling has been a kind of irreplaceable near-net-shape metal forming technology for the manufacture of various ring-shaped parts with high performance and high precision, Radial-axial ring classic form of ring rolling process and is usually adopted to manufacture various high-quality large rings widely served in many important industry areas such as aerospace and wind power.

2.1 Literature Survey Summary

Sr.no Pub.Year Title of Paper Author Conclusion

1 1999 The Evolution of Near-net-shape Ring-rolling Processes for Large Rings Made of Ti-6Al-4V Kazuhito TANI and Shinya ISHIGAI The weight of NSS rolled rings was reduced by 55%.

2 2001 Research of cold-rolling oil for stainless sheet steel QIN Henian It successfully replaces abroad oil and achieves to let the oil made in our country.

3 2004 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RING ROLLING PROCESS FOR Ni-BASE ARTICLES T.Matsui and H.Takizawa Simulation of ring rolling process is use to reduce the cost and time and to improve the properties and the reliability at the same time.

4 2008 Thermal Stress in the Rolling Mill Rolls Imre Kiss and Vasile Diminish the fissures caused by thermal fatigue and avoid thermal shocks.

5 2009 ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL DEFORMATION DURING THE NEW COLD TUBE ROLLING PROCESS REALIZED ON THE NEW GENERATION OF PILGER MILL J. OSIKA and  K. ''WI''TKOWSKI The FDM-PO is an appropriate tool for the strain 'eld determination.

6 2010 Investigation of Influence Parameters on the Hot Rolling Process Using Finite Element Shaheni and Rezaie Temperature of the strip, during rolling process, depends on several parameters such as interface heat transfer coefficient, rolling speed, and the amount of thickness reduction.

7 2010 Research on rolling force model in hot-rolling process of aluminum alloys YANG Shuangcheng and CHEN Jie Three sub-models of the elastic flatten roll radius model, the stress state factor model and material deformation resistance model, was regressed based on actual production data and get high precision mathematical model.

8 2010 INCREASING THE ROLLING-MILL ROLLS QUALITY -  IN SOME MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IMRE KISS and VASILE      GEORGE CIOATA To Increasing the rolling mill rolls quality.

9 2011 A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COLD ROLLING OF A STEEL PLATE AND PREDICTION OF INFLUENCE PARAMETERS Adarsh Dhingra and  K. K. Pathak Maximum stress & Equivalent Plastic Strain increase more with increase in Initial Height of the plate than with increase in Roller Radius.

10 2011 Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Radial-Axial Ring Rolling Process Lianggang Guo and He Yang Improve the quality of ring rolling process.

11 2012 Parametric Study of the Hot Rolling Process Using FEM Shailendra Dwivedi and Dr. Geeta Agnihotri Roll force depends on temperature, roll diameter and rolling speed and temperature depend on heat transfer coefficient, rolling speed.

12 2012 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF FLAT AND LONG HOT ROLLING BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT METHODS (FEM) R. FAB''K and J. KLIBER To provide additional information on the assessment of formability of steels in the rolling process.

13 2012 Progress and Prospect of Rolling Technology Yoshihiro SERIZAWA More advance technogy will be develop in steel rolling in the near future.

14 2012 OILFREE LUBRICATION IN STEEL COLD ROLLING Tilo Reichardt and  Gerhard Kudermann These conventional lubricants is limited as well as continuous care technologies for solid separation led to oil losses complemented by further losses over the strip surface.

15 2013 A Case Study of the Effectiveness of Rolling Process to Manufacture the Strip of Leaf Spring V. A. Kulkarni and A. K. Bewoor Serious efforts on the problem by using root causes analysis will eliminate the defects and the quality can be improved.

16 2013 Cold Roll Forming of Circular Tube Section for Wrought Magnesium Alloy Sheet Hisaki Watari and Hidemitsu Hamano To prevent shortage of bending in the beginning stage of forming for successfully manufacturing wrought magnesium alloy pipes

17 2013 SKREW ROLLING OF BALLS IN MULTIPLE HELICAL IMPRESSIONS J. TOMCZAKand Z. PATER Progression of the products shape, temperature distribution, load, strain are obtain.

18 2014 Rolling Process Modeling Report:  Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects CA Lavender and DM Paxton Accurate specification of rolling schedules for production roll mills based on the testing of laboratory scale mills.

19 2014 FEM SIMULATION OF THE TUBE ROLLING PROCESS IN DIESCHER'S MILL Zbigniew Pater and Arkadiusz Tofil Stable force acting on tool and low temperature produce in process.

20 2015 The Research on Flatness Control Simulation for Cold Tandem Rolling Mills X.M. Zhou and X.X. Yue The flatness control simulation system can reflect the rolling process parameters and flatness effectively.

21 2016 Research on ball forging by ring rolling process Jong Hun Kang and Hyoung Woo Lee When forging large-sized balls by ring rolling, the filling of forged balls is affected by the preform design.

22 2016 Experiment Research on Hot''Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface

Gang Zhao and  Jie''gang Mou To improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling depth has little effect on replication rates

Chapter 3     Material and Assembly

 Here, we are takes a steel plate of an original square cross section of 20 mm by 20 mm with a length of 92 mm is reduced as per diametric draft in thickness by rolling through the one roll stand.

The roller was modeled as rigid. Figure 3.1 Show that assembly of the two dimensional model rolling of thick plates. The thick strip was modeled as elastic one and assumed thick plate was Isotropic elasticity, with Young's modulus of 150 GPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.33 and Strain hardening is described in Table 1. The methodology is used for this study Plane strain problem, Element = C3D8R and Explicit Dynamic analysis.

Yield Stress (MPa) Plastic Strain

168.72 0

219.33 0.1

272.02 0.2

308.53 0.3

337.37 0.4

361.58 0.5

382.65 0.6

401.42 0.7

418.42 0.8

434.01 0.9

448.45 1

  Table1.2

fig3.1 assembly of rolling process

No rate dependence and temperature dependence are taken into account. Figure 2 shows schematically the meshed model.

fig 3.2

Chapter 4         FEA Rolling process

Finite Element Analysis Of Rolling Process:-

4.1   FEM analysis:-

For explicit finite element analysis of rolling process, we select abacus software. The size of roller and speed of roller have significant effect on rolling process as can be seen from the simulation results of various authors from different-different radius of roll ( 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 ) and also we are using power driven rollers which rotates at a speed of 5,10 and 15 rpm. From the simulation analysis result, it shows that which diameter roller is optimum for these speeds so directly we are reduced rolled time for rolling process. Here we are takes 0.3 as a friction between rollers and work piece. various results from the simulation like thickness reduction, draft, stress distribution in work piece is discussed for various speed as below.

 4.2   Simulation Analysis:-

1. Roller Radius:- 50 mm

' Roller Speed:- 5 rpm

fig4.1

fig4.2

fig4.3

' Roller Speed:- 10 rpm

fig4.4

fig4.5

fig4.6

' Roller Speed:- 15 rpm

fig4.7

fig4.8

fig4.9

2. Roller Radius:- 75 mm

' Roller Speed:- 5 rpm

fig4.10

fig4.11

fig4.12

' Roller Speed:- 10 rpm

fig4.13

fig4.14

fig4.15

' Roller Speed:- 15 rpm

fig4.16

fig4.17

fig4.18

3. Roller Radius:- 100 mm

' Roller Speed:- 5 rpm

fig4.19

fig4.20

fig4.21

' Roller Speed:- 10 rpm

fig4.22

fig4.23

fig4.24

' Roller Speed:- 15 rpm

fig4.25

fig4.26

fig4.27

4. Roller Radius:- 125 mm

' Roller Speed:- 5 rpm

fig4.28

fig4.29

fig4.30

' Roller Speed:- 10 rpm

fig4.31

fig4.32

fig4.33

' Roller Speed:- 15 rpm

fig4.34

fig4.35

fig4.36

5. Roller Radius:- 150 mm

' Roller Speed:- 5 rpm

fig4.37

fig4.38

fig4.39

' Roller Speed:- 10 rpm

fig4.40

fig4.41

fig4.42

' Roller Speed:- 15 rpm

fig4.43

fig4.44

fig4.45

Chapter 5     Conclusion and Future Scope

5.1 Conclusion:-

From the simulation analysis of the rolling process the conclusion is carried out as below:-

1. Roller speed increases, the rolling force keep on decreases, because the roller making contact on the strip with less time if the roller force is very high.

2. From the analysis it is shown that the contact pressure gradually rises from the entry, reaches maximum at the neutral point and then decreases as the strip exits from the roller

In the consideration of optimization, from the analysis and graph it is show that, If the roller speed is the roller radius is 50 and 75 so it is preferable to rotate at 15 and above rpm to reduce the rolled time. But if the roller radius is 100,125 and 150 so it is preferable to rotate at 5 to 10 or less rpm. Simple we also know the if we rotate heavy roller so it is preferable to at low rpm to avoid inertia.

 

5.2 Future Scope

' In future this analysis is done on hot rolling process.

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' A et al.. (2014). Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll-Separating Force and Rolling Defects. National Technical Information Service, 45(12),

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' Imre , K.I.S.S, Vasile , A.L.E.X.A & george , C.I.O.A.T.A. (2008). Experimental Research of the Thermal Stress in the Rolling Mill Rolls. SCIENTIFIC University of Rousse, 47(1),

' V. A. Kulkarni and A. K. Bewoor, Quality control, 1st ed. Wiley-India,

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