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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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1.1 Project Summary:

' Networking improvements include new features and enhancements that make flexible workload placement and mobility possible. To meet these needs, Windows Server 2016 delivers enhancements in the reliability, performance, and interoperability of virtual networking; improved support for centralized configuration and management across virtual and physical networks; new virtualized network functions for transforming the network cloud; and seamless datacentre extensions for flexible workload placement and mobility. It gives private and hybrid cloud environment. Windows Server Gateway now supports Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnels. IP address management (IPAM): support for /31, /32, and /128 subnets; discovery of file-based, domain-joined DNS servers; new DNS functions; better integration of DNS, DHCP, and IP Address (DDI) Management.

1.2 Purpose: Goals & Objectives:-

' Microsoft is aiming to assist customers in modernising on premise data centres and making it easier to shift workloads out to its private, public or hybrid cloud with Windows Server 2016. This means that trends such as containers and micro-service architectures, as well as more general improvements including rolling upgrades for Hyper-V(virtualisation) and improved identity management.

' For containing further enhancements to Nano Server, Windows Containers, Hyper-V and Storage Spaces Direct ;Beta version of the operating system was made available from 2014 with technical preview four released at the end of 2015.

' Architectural staff uses this document for gaining an understanding of how the system will work as a whole as they design and implement various components.

' Engineers and administrators can use this document as a catalogue of technical capabilities as well. While messaging staff can use this document to gain an understanding of how Exchange might fit into a virtual infrastructure. Management staff and process owners can use this document to help model business processes to take advantage of the savings and operational efficiencies achieved with virtualization.

1.3 Scope:-

' Microsoft Windows Server 2016 includes several new features, including Nano Server ; a lightweight installation option that is 93% smaller than traditional Windows Server deployments and native container support. Windows Server 2016 also includes new software-defined storage options and improvements to Hyper-V.

' DNS Policies: -You can configure DNS policies to specify how a DNS server responds to DNS queries; DNS responses can be based on client IP address (location), time of the day, and several other parameters. DNS policy enables location-aware DNS, traffic management, load balancing, split-brain DNS and many other scenarios.

' Response Rate limiting: - You can enable response rate limiting on your DNS servers. By doing this, you avoid the possibility of malicious systems using your DNS servers to initiate a denial of service attack on a DNS client.

1.4 Technologies/Literature review:

Windows Server: -

' Microsoft releases a server which works as an operating system for windows platform and that was known as windows server.

' Windows Server is been considered as the brand of the Microsoft.

' The first windows server launched was named as Windows Server 2003 which includes active directory , DNS , DHCP and many more feature in it.

' Windows have different versions for operating system. With the latest version windows boosted more flexibility and compatibility and brings the costumer towards them.

' Windows Server is bringing new era with its upcoming project of 2016 also by merging with azure.

File server:

' File Server are used for managing and setting up the data for one or more files also it is made available at the central location of the network so it can be easily shared and store to the users.

' There is a Remote Desktop Connection through which one can share and store its data int the windows server even if the computer system is in the operating state. This is the new and the latest feature going to involved in the Windows Server 2016.

' For managing computer for older version of windows like Windows 8.1 or before , one can use Share and Storage Management option from the RSAT.

' Use Hyper-V on a client computer to run a virtual machine running Windows 7, Windows 8, or Windows 8.1 that has the Share and Storage Management snap-in in RSAT.

Security Configuration Wizard:

' The Security Configuration Wizard is removed. Instead, features are secured by default. If you need to control specific security settings, you can use either Group Policy or Microsoft Security Compliance Manager.

Configuration tools:

' Scregedit.exe is deprecated. If you have scripts that depend on Scregedit.exe, adjust them to use Reg.exe or Windows PowerShell methods.

' Sconfig.exe is deprecated. Use Windows PowerShell instead.


' Server 2016 will continue the move toward cloud architectures that Microsoft began with Server 2012.

' Microsoft has been quiet about its plans for the successor to Windows Server 2012, but at a TechDays Online event last week the company took the wraps off Windows Server 2016, otherwise known as Windows Server V-Next.

' Feb. 9: Microsoft releases a preview of management tools for Nano Server of Windows 2016 Server.

' April 27: Microsoft releases technical preview 5 of Windows Server 2016.

' July 12: Windows Server 2016 will reach general availability at the Ignite conference in September, Microsoft says.


Spiral model:

' Spiral model is considered as the combination of an iterative nature of prototyping and systematic aspects of the waterfall model. It is also named as an evolutionary process model. The Spiral model, also known as the Spiral life cycle model, is a system development life cycle (SDLC) model used in information technology (IT).

' In the spiral model modification is been done at every stage of the process. Software development is a series of releases developed. At the initial stage the release would be the prototype or a paper model and later on versions are released in the further stages.

A spiral model is said to be a set different framework activities as shown in the figure below which is made by the software engineering team: -

' A spiral model is partitioned into multiple framework activities; also known as task regions. Each framework activities represent one section of the spiral path. As the development process begins the software team perform activities that are indirect by a path around the spiral model in a clockwise direction ; it begins from the center of spiral model.

 The steps in the Spiral model can be generalized as follows:

' Customer communication-tasks required to establish effective communication between developer and customer.

' Planning-tasks required to define resources,timelines and other project related information.

' Risk analysis tasks required to assess both technical and management risks.

' Engineering tasks required to build one or more representations of the application.

' Construction and release tasks required to construct ,test,install,and provide user support.

' Customer evaluation-tasks required to obtain customer feedback based on evaluation of the software representations created during the engineering stage and implemented during the installation stage.

Figure-2(a) Spiral Model


' During this phase, the Project Manager will plan the development of the project based on requirements and features detailed in the Vision/Scope document. The project plan will include a WBS (work breakdown structure), schedule, communication plan, test plan, and deployment plan. The planning phase helps facilitate an understanding of the overall approach for the project as well as helps identify any gaps or inconsistencies. Once planning is finished, the team is ready to move into development. Major Task:

Developing the solution design and infrastructure:                                                                                                                

' The team begins the design process with the solution design and architecture and culminates it with a design document that becomes part of the functional specification.

 Creating the functional specification:

' The team creates a functional specification that describes the solution requirements, the architecture, and the detailed design for all the features.

Detail of network architecture:

' Too much detail in a functional      specification can overburden a project team with extraneous facts.

Detailed Dockers Container:

' An engine that brings containers to native windows application and expand toolset for developers.

Setting up the development and test environments:

' The team creates development and testing environments that are independent of the production environment to develop and test the solution.

Closing the planning Phase:

' The team completes the approval process for the Project Plans Approved Milestone and documents the results of completing the tasks performed in this phase.  


ID Task Beginning End July August September October

1 Requirement Gathering 20-July 10-Aug

2 Analysis 11-Aug 5-Sep

3 Design 6-Sep 30-Sep

Table-2.1 Project Scheduling Chart


' Software risk management begins with the notion that software risk is an issue that needs to be managed. Software risk management takes a proactive approach Software risk by providing an approach and methodology to look for areas where a software defect impacts the usability of the software for end users and the business. Expectation of loss with a potential problem which may not occur any more in the future is a risk. Due to lack of information it is been caused also due to the lack of time and control.    Risk management is all about:

' Giving a precise description of risk event that can occur in the project.

' Defining risk probability that would explain what are the chances for that risk to occur.

' Defining How much loss a particular risk can cause.


' In order to identify the risks that one project may be subjected to, it is important to first study the problems faced by previous projects. Study the project plan properly and check for all the possible areas that are vulnerable to some or the other type of risks.

' There may be the components  not available during the project period.

' Possibility that software purchased was not compatible.

' It can be lack of  hardware resources  during the project period.

' Ethernet connection between domain controller and computer may not occur, due to which desired connection might not available.  

' The best ways of analyzing a project plan is by converting it to a flowchart and examine all essential areas. It is important to conduct few brainstorming sessions to identify the known unknowns that can affect the project. Any decision taken related to technical, operational, political, legal, social, internal or external factors should be evaluated properly.


' A project can get affected by a large variety of risks. In order to be able to systematically identify the important risk which might affect the project it is necessary to categorize risks into different classes. During Risk analysis process, each identified risk is considered in turn and judgment is made about the probability and the seriousness of the risk.

' During this process, one has to considered risk identified and make a judgement about the probability and the seriousness of the risk. It is not possible to make precise, numeric assessment of the probability and seriousness of each risk.

' The probability of the risk might be assessed as very low(0-10%) , low(10%-25%), moderate(25%-50%), high(50%-75%) or very high(+75%).                      Figure-2(b) Risk Analysis


' Risk planning process is considered when each of the key risk has been identified. Risk reduction Strategy is used as abatement procedure. This involves planning ways to contain the damage due to a risk.

For each of the risk one have to think of actions that might take to minimize the disruption to the project if the problem identified in the risk occurs. Some strategies are as follows:

' Information buying:- Perceived risk can be reduced by obtaining more information through investigation. For example, in a project in which the use of a new technology has created risk, the team can invest some money to learn about the technology. Throw-away prototypes can be developed using the new technology to educate some of the staff on the new technology and to assess the fit of the new technology for the product.

' Contingency plans :- A contingency plan is a plan that describes what to do if certain risks materialize. By planning ahead with such a plan, you are prepared and have a strategy in place do deal with the issue.



Figure-2(c) Risk Planning



Once the basic size of the project has been determined, the estimate can be produced based on the specific attributes of the project in question. Examples of the attributes that can affect the outcome of the estimate include the following:

' The rate at which project requirements may change.

' The Experience of the development team with this kind of project.

' The process or methods used to develop the project ranging from Agile to linear sequential model.

Figure-2(d) Software-Estimating Principle

Figure shows Software-estimating principles: -

' The specific activities that will be performed during development.

' The number of increments, iterations, or 'sprints that will be used.

' The programming language or languages utilized.

' The presence or absence of reusable artifacts.

' The development tool suites used to develop the project.

' The environment or ergonomics of the office work space.



1. User can operate through Remote Desktop connection.

2. Sharing of data amongst the user is been done.

3. User would be provided exchange server for mailing purpose.

4. Groups creation between the users is been possible.

5. User can do auditing in it.

6. Authorized user will be allowed for monitoring system.


1. Creates virtual environment.

2. Hyper-V operations.

3. Can do modification in server.

4. Can add user or remove user from server.

5. Can create Nano server to give limited access of server.

6. Can use Remotely access of server.

7. Show the usage of user.

8. Admin has almost all super access but still there would be Supervisor above this.



' Processor :  2.3 GHz 64-bit processor or Greater  than it.

' Ram          :  At least 8 Gb

' Storage space : 32 Gb minimum

' Network adapter  : An Ethernet adapter capable of at least gigabit throughput

' Other : Graphics device and monitor capable of Super VGA (1024 x       768) or    higher-resolution

' Internet access



' Windows Container

' Server 2016


' 32-bit(x86)

' 64-bit(x64)


' Internet Connection

' VPN (Intranet)

' Admin can access all data in the system

' User can only access those rights which are given by admin

' Internet access mandatory

' Minimum 8 Gb RAM

' 2.3 GHz Processor Minimum


' Windows Server 2012 R2 is the sixth version of Windows Server family of operating systems. It was released on October 18, 2013.

' Data deduplication finds and removes duplication within data on a volume by assuring about the data remains correct and complete. This is how it becomes possible for storing more file data in less space on the volume. For Windows Server 2012 R2, a number of parameters and error codes were activated, and the MSFT_DedupFileMetadata class was added.

' Software Inventory Logging collects licensing data about the installed software on a Windows Server and provides remote access to the data so it can be aggregated easily by a datacenter.

' Mobile Device Management Registration an industry trend has been developing in which employees connect their personal mobile computing devices to the corporate network and resource to perform workplace tasks. For managing the risk formed by uncontrolled devices that are connected to the cooperate world needs support of technology and professionals. The Mobile Device Management (MDM) registration enrolls a device into a management service.

' Windows PowerShell Windows PowerShell is a task-based command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. New in Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows PowerShell v4 supports Desired State Configuration, which is a new management platform in Windows PowerShell that enables deploying and managing configuration data for software services and managing the environment in which these services run.

' Windows Clustering allows you to manage both network load-balanced clusters as well as failover clusters. A number of new features were added in this release, including new Group management features, common properties, and integration with WMI.

' User Access Logging  is a common framework for Windows Server roles to report their respective consumption metrics. User access login framework is a foundational and critical component of the larger licensing management solution.

' Windows Remote Management is the Microsoft implementation of  windows server Management Protocol, a standard Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) based, firewall friendly protocol that allows hardware and operating systems from different vendors, to interoperate. 2012 windows server includes a number of Connection API's that focus on interacting with running instances and shells.


' There was no Nano Server in server 2012 which is considered to be the headless version of windows server.

' Nano Server is designed to run Hyper-V, Hyper-V cluster, and Scale-Out File Servers (SOFSs) and cloud service applications which was a lack in this server version.

' Again a role named windows container which brings the windows to new platform was not available in this current system.

' Docker system which is basically available for Linux platform can be made open for next version of server, so one more vulnerability for this system.

' The current system is not providing portability for data retrieving facility.

' Can be more flexible.

' Hyper-V could be better than current one.

' Special Exchange Server could be provided.

' Live Migration is not available.

' Addition and removal of the virtual memory while running the process can be made much easier.

' Nested virtualization is not available.


' For computing virtualization products and features to design, deploy and maintain Windows Server.

' Benefits of physical and virtual machines from greater time accuracy due to improvements in the Win32 Time and Hyper-V Time Synchronization Services. For hosting services that are compliant with upcoming regulations which require a accuracy.

' Windows Server 2016 container support adds performance improvements, simplified Nano Server which has an updated module for building Nano Server images, including more separation of physical host and guest virtual machine functionality as well as support for different Windows Server editions.

' For improvements to the Recovery Console, including separation of inbound and outbound firewall rules as well as the ability to repair configuration of WinRM.

' Using Azure SQL DB for Remote Desktop Connection Broker for high availability environment.

' Web Application Proxy that enable publishing and preauthentication for more applications and improving user experience.

' Windows PowerShell 5.0 , including support for developing with classes and new security features that extend its use, improve its usability, and allow you to control and manage Windows-based environments more easily and comprehensively.  


' It is study of another possible solution to a problem. From this we can get best solution to our problem.It is done in three step first one is to look at market problem and second one is to look at technical and organizational need and third and last one is costing of the solution of problem. Through feasibility study we can decide the whether problem is solved and it is benefit to use that solution or not. And we can also know if there is another solution of that problem is avail or not. For feasibility study we should know the detail of problem or project.

' An important outcome of the preliminary investigation is the determination that the system requested feasible. There are three aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation.

' Information source may includes the manager of department where the system will be used software engineers who are familiar with the type of system that is proposed, technology experts end users of the system etc. they should be  interviewed during the feasibility study to collect the required information.

' The requirements engineering process should start with a feasibility study. The input to the feasibility study is an outline description of the system and how it will be used within an organization. The result of the feasibility study should be a report which recommends whether or not it is worth carrying on with the requirement engineering and system development process.

' Does the system contribute to the overall objectives of the vocation?

' Can the system be implemented using the current technology and within the given   coast and schedule constraints?

' Can the system be integrated with other system which is already are in place.


' It  can  work  for  the  project  being  done  with  current  equipment  existing  software technology and available personnel? If new technology is required what is likelihood that it can be deployed.

' The software or tools necessary for building or running the application are easily available or not?

'   The compatibility amongst software exists or not?

'   Are developers aware of these technologies?

'   What about the alternative of these chosen technologies?


' Economy feasibility means are there sufficient benefits in the creating the system to make the cost acceptable? Or are the costs of not creating the system so great that the project must be undertaken?

'  Economical Feasibility addresses to the following issues:

' Is the organization having the suitable budget to develop the proposed system?

' How much profit can be earned from the system by an organization?

'Would it be cost-effective to develop the system or it is worthwhile to remain with current system?


' Operational feasibility measures how well the solution will work in the organization and how will end-user & management feels about system. Proposed system is helpful for the users and responsible person of the business. It will allow them to query them to get the appropriate and adequate information.

' On study the operational feasibility of the project, following conclusion could be derived:

'Developed  system  will  provide  the  adequate  throughput  and  all  necessary   information to end-users.

'Users are getting better information from the organization.

'It will provide advantageous and reliable services.


' Projects are initiated with specific deadline. We need to evaluate whether the deadlines are or desirable. Time is the one of the critical factor in the development of any system but this kind of feasibility is hardly perfect in any system.


' Under the study of Implementation feasibility, we've got to draw  the figure to the certain issues, like:

'Is it possible to run the portal within the given environment?

'Will organization management and users support for the web portal?

'Will proposed system cause any harm to the operations of the organization?


' Requirements validation is concerned with showing that requirements actually define the system that customer wants. If this validation is inadequate, errors in the requirements will be propagated to the system design and implementation.

' Requirements are checked discover if they are complete, consistent and in accordance with what visitors, citizens, govt. officials and other users want from the projected system.

   There are several aspects of the requirements, which must be checked:

' Validity: A user may think that a system is needed to perform certain functions. However, further thought and analysis may identify additional or different functions that are required.

' Consistence: Any one requirement should not conflict with any other.

' Completeness: The definition should include all functions and constraints intended by the system user.


4.6.1 Use-Case: -

Figure-4(a) Use-Case

4.7 Data Modeling: -

4.7.1 System Activity: -

Figure-4(b) Exchange-Server Activity

Figure-4(c) Client Activity

Figure-4(d) Server Activity


4.8.1 Context Diagram: -


Figure-4(e) Context Diagram

4.8.2 Data Flow Diagram: -

Figure-4(f) Data Flow Diagram

4.9 Main Modules of New System: -

' Nano Server: -

 Without any doubt the biggest change in Windows server is the new Nano Server, it is a zero footprint model with faster speed and less resource consumption. Nano Server will have a 93% smaller virtual hard disk size with 92% fewer critical bulletins and 80% fewer required reboots it means it is 350mb in size. Nano Server is a Windows Server installation option which require no graphical user interface and no command prompt. This is designed to run Hyper-V, virtualisation cluster and Scale Out File Servers and cloud service applications.

' Windows Server and Hyper-V Containers: -

Another big change in Windows Server 2016 is a support for containers as they are the latest buzz in IT technology. It enables to isolate one's applications from the underlying operating system improving the deployment and reliability of those applications. 2016 server will provide two kinds of native containers which are Windows Server Containers and Hyper-V Containers. This container provides grouping of VM's which  improves/enlarges isolation by running the containers from a Hyper-V virtual machine.

' Docker Support: -

Docker is an open-source engine that is used for shipping, running and creating containers. These containers were originally built for Linux but Microsoft azure brings the support of this engine in the version of Windows Server 2016. As it is an open source a dockerised applications is grown up which gives user-friendly experience for managing the life cycle of the container. Docker works as an abstraction of Windows Server and Hyper-V Containers.

' Hot add & remove of virtual memory network adapters: -

Hot add and remove of virtual memory network means adding and removing the network adaptors even while the virtual machine is running , hence this is also an important as well new feature for windows server. In previous releases it was necessary to use dynamic memory to change the minimum- maximum RAM settings of a virtual machine that is running; while Windows Server 2016 enables allocated RAM while the VM is active; even if the VM is using static memory.

' Nested virtualization: -

This can be added primarily for the new container support, Windows Server 2016 nested virtualization capabilities will also be a handy addition for training and lab scenarios. With this one is not limited for running the Hyper-V role on a physical server. Nested virtualization opens to run Hyper-V within a Hyper-V virtual machine.

' New Host Guardian Service: -

The Host Guardian Service is a new role in 2016 server which enables shielded virtual machines and protects the data from unauthorized access; even from Hyper-V administrators.

' Shielded VMs: -

Shielded VMs will be created using the azure management pack portal, Standard virtual machines can also be converted to Shielded VMs. With Shielded VMs Hyper-V VHD can be encrypted with BitLocker.

' PowerShell Direct: -

PowerShell is a good management automation tool but it can be complicated to get it to run remotely against VMs , as it needs to think about security policies, firewall configurations and networking configuration of host. This enables to run PowerShell commands in the guest operating system of a VM without going through the network layers. Like VMConnect i.e-the console support of the remote provided by the Hyper-V Manager, it requires zero configuration and gets connect directly to the guest virtual machine and all it needs are authentication credentials for the VMs guest OS.

4.10 Selection of Hardware and Software and Justification: -

' Processor

Processor performance depends not only on the clock frequency of the processor, but also on the number of processor cores and the size of the processor cache. The following are the processor requirements for this product:

' Minimum: 1.4 GHz 64-bit processor


The following are the estimated RAM requirements for this product:

' Minimum: 8 GB

' Disk space requirements

The following are the estimated minimum disk space requirements for the system partition.

' Minimum: 32 GB

5.1 Infrastructure: -

Figure-5(a) Infrastructure


Figure-5(b) User Sequence

Figure-5(c) Exchange Sequence

Figure-5(d) Server Sequence

5.3 Flowchart: -

Figure-5(e) Flowchart


5.4.1 State Transition Diagram: -

Figure-5(f) Server State

Figure-5(g) Client State










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