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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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        RESEARCH WORK

             TOPIC:

   3D PRINTED MICROFIBER STRIPS

 SUBMITTED TO:SIR AFZAAL

   SUBMITTED BY:MADIHA BASHIR

     ROLL NO:43/DPT/FUI/S-2016

ABSTRACT:

With the passing days health issues are increasing due to many reasons like over population,pollution,unhealthy diet etc.All these problems causing our natural tendency to cope with diseases decreased.Our body organs become useless at a very young age.Many of us looks older before the time will come.Latest 3D technologies has find out the way to resolve all such kind of issues.Second skin using electrospinning makes us look ten years younger.organ transplant through tissue culture using microfiber technique called melt electrospinning writing help us to restore natural tendency of body to perform different function.In the field of dentistry human jaws,denture and maxillofacial surgery equipment's are manufacture using this technique from last many years.Spinal implant to the paralyzed man is a recent breakthrough in this field in china that allows him walk again.Bionic ear is a hearing gift for the deaf and disable which is a 3D invention.

        

                                                                                                   

INTRODUCTION:

We are living in a global village in which everyone is facing same problems.our problems are same because their causes are same which includes environmental issues,population issues,illiteracy,unbalanced diet etc.as problems are same their effects in most individuals would also be same.our major health problems include skin issues,damage to body organs,genetic diseases and body organs become less functional.20 years a new technology is invented by scientist and engineers called as 3D printed using 3D printers in which 3 dimensional solid model of a liquid substance is made.this technology is very beneficial as in a last few years advancement in it helps mankind to make their life and lifestyle better.microfibers are the small strips even many times smaller than the diameter of the average human hair.in past microfiber are used only to manufacture towels,nylons fabrics,carpets and other such things.but by the advancement of 3D technique this microfibers are used for some more important issues,like to look younger this microfibers in 3D technique are used to make second skin.to artificially produce living tissue culture to transplant living body organs.bio-fabrication of muscluskeletal system in a near future increase the natural elastic ability and contractility of this system.many scientist in china, Australia and Boston etc are working on this projects.in the field of dentistry human jaws,denture,maxilofacial surgery equipment's are manufacture by using this technique.recently, in china  a paralyzed man is treated through 3D printed spinal implant that makes him walk again.

3D PRINTING:

what is 3D printing?

3D printing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.

Creation of 3D objects:

it is acheived using additive processes.

in an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of materials until the object is created.each layer is seen as horizontal cross-section of the eventual object.

EXAMPLES:

3D SCANNERS use different technologies to generate a 3D model,like structures of internal body organs.

History of 3D printing:

Charles Hull invented 3D printing, which he called 'stereolithography,' in the early 1980s.Hull,was an engineer.he was working on making plastic objects from photo polymers at the company Ultra Violet Products in California.Stereolithography uses an stl file format to interpret the data in a CAD file, allowing these instructions to be communicated electronically to the 3D printer.Along with shape, the instructions in the stl file may also include information such as the color, texture, and thickness of the object to be printed.Hull later founded the company 3D Systems, which developed the first 3D printer,which he named 'stereolithography apparatus.' In 1988, 3D Systems introduced the first commercially available 3D printer, the SLA-250. Many other companies have since developed 3D printers for commercial applications, such as DTM Corporation, Z Corporation, Solid scape, and Object Geometries. Hull's work, as well as advances made by other researchers, has revolutionized manufacturing, and is poised to do the same in many other fields'including medicine.

Microfibers:

What are microfibers?

it is a synthetic fiber finer than one denier.this is smaller than the diameter of a strand of a strand of silk(app one denier),which is itself about 1/5 the diameter of a human hair.the most common types of microfibers aare made from polyesters,polyamides and polypropylene.

Brief description of 3D printed microfiber technology:

Past:

In past this 3D printing technology is used to produce toys to spare parts.and microfibers are used only to produce household items.

Now:

Now with the passing days this technology is used in medical field and it find its amazing benefits there.

Second skin:

The latest and the most amazing use of this technology is second skin.no one from us wants to be old or look older at any age but this is a natural process and everyone is suspect able to it.the Chinese scientist team leads by professor Wu Jun,director of the burns institute at the southwest hospital in Chongqing,are hoping to work out for this problem.

Biologique rechereche,a beauty company has experiment a second skin on different individuals and they get a visible results.

Second skin uses a process called electrospinning,which is a 3D technique that creates solid fibers out of liquid solution.a technician feeds pure hyaluronic acid,a naturally occurring compound in the skin,into an electrospinner,which converts it to nanofibers that are than printed out in strips.those strips,custom ized to the second skin.

When typically applied,hyaluronic acid forms a continuous elastic film over the skin,explains the skin care expert Vicki Norav,this film is permeable to cutaneous exchanges,retaining moisture and thereby contributing to maintain good levels in the stratum corneum irrespective of ambient air humidity.this active ingredient also play a crucial role in the cellular migration,bonding stimulation and proliferation processes involved in wound regeneration,reconstruction or healing.hyaluronic acid significantly improves the skins healing process as it activates re-epithelization,regulates cell proliferation and migration and reduces the roughness of the newly formed epidermis.

this technology is actually inspired by the treatment used on severe burn victims.

According to Allure Anne Bauso,who tried out this technique at NEW YORK peninsula spa:I did an actual double take when I saw myself in the mirror,the outline of my jaw looked sharp and crisp,not at all like its usual soft and increasingly shapeless shelf.

Its not yet simple,but Wu Jun is working hard to make this scenario a reality.currently,he is experimenting with pig skin,but bio-printing so delicate is a challenge.He just work for the perfection of this method.

In printing skin the biggest challenge is the ink.we need to find out a right material that can be made into certain form while not damaging its activity,he said.

LoReal Paris, a renowed beauty brand planned to introduce this special feature in its cosmetics for the benefits of their costumers so that they look young even after many years.

3D printed spinal implant:

Recently,in china a paralyzed man received a 3D printed spinal implant that allows him walk again.this invention is a major breakthrough in the field of medical 3D printing.

3D printed mold based implants for promoting bone regeneration:

This time consuming process is become more efficient and will take less time using 3D technology.in this technique we develop osteoinductive,micro fibrous surface patterned demineralized bone matrix(DBM) fibers for engineering both defect matched and general three dimensional implants.implants mold are filled with demineralized human cortical bone fibers there are compressed and lympholized forming mechanically strong shaped DBM scaffolds.by providing preformed and custom implants this regenerative grafts may improve patient outcomes following surgical bone repair.while further advancing orthopedic and craniomaxilloficial medicine using three dimensional printed tissue cultures.

Replacement of body parts:

Professor Dietmer W.Hutmacher,from Queensland university of technology institute of health and bio medical innovation,said nature often used fiber reinforcement to turn weak structures into outstanding mechanically reboust ones.

He used tissue engineering,by the effective combination of matrix and reinforcement structure in order to achieve composite materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

He along his team had introduced an organized,high porosity microfiber networks that are printed using a new technique called melt electrospinning writing.

We have found that this method increased the stiffness of a microfiber up-to 54 times.

Impact Breast reconstruction & Heart tissue Engineering:

Breast reconstruction and heart valves implants are two common types of procedures that will benefit immensely from this amazing 3D printed scaffolding.lead researchers on this project is professor Dietmer W,Hutmacher with his research team focusing on breast and heart procedures.but giving the great demand for the transplanted tissue in a variety of reconstruction procedures,other applications are no doubt looming for this incredible new 3D printing technique.

3D printed thyroid gland:

In Russia a 3D printed thyroid gland has been implanted successfully in rats and they are planning for the perfection so that it can be transplanted in humans very soon.

Bionic ear:

Princeton scientists introduce 3D printed bionic ear that could hear beyond a regular humans natural ability.they printed human cells and nanoparticles,and bonded them with antenna and cartilage to create the body part.they created an ear that heard radio frequencies a million times higher than human ears can.they said that at this time it was intended for demonstration purposes rather than actual application.

Dentistry:

In the field of dentistry this technique helps the dentists from last few years.scientist manufacture ,jaws maxillofacial surgery equipment's,mandibles,hard materials crowns,caps,bridges and sutures etc to help the people facing dental problems.

Future:

In the near future man will find a way to get more and more bebfits from this technology.it will also lead to many new discoveries and inventions in the field of health and medical sciences.

Human liver:

Organovo holding inc,is using 3D printers to create living tissue that may one day look and act like a human liver,able to cleanse the the body toxins.

Drugs and Cosmetics:

These industries already plan to use this technology to test new products.

Solution of organ rejection:

Eventually,the technology may help reduce organ shortages and cut transplant rejections as patients receive new organs constructed from their own cells.

Beginning of industry:

The china food and drug administration has been approving more and more procedures related to 3D printing in the medical field,and a factory for the 3D printing of medical producta is currently under construction in chingqong.the factory is being constructed as a joined venture between Hkable biological 3D(china),and Jintai,a biotechnology company also located in chingqong,it will be the first medical 3D printing factory in china and if that not the sign that the country is very serious about developing advanced medical 3D printing technologies.according to Yang Chen,manager of Hkable biological 3D,a plan is in place for how the company will proceed as soon as the factory opens.

Comparison:

According to Bloomberg,the market of 3D printing reached $777 million in 2012,and it may grow to $8.4 billion in 2025 as medical applications come into play.

Limitations of 3D printed microfiber strips technique:

'A huge limitation to the advancement of 3D printing of organic tissue has been supplying them with blood throughout the process.

'The choice of ink used in the technique that need to be of right material that can be made into a certain form while not damaging its activity.

'Its very expensive technique.

'Human samples are not available for testing new inventions in this technique.

DISCUSSION:

This a matter of a fact that all the new inventions are beneficial for mankind at some stage and frankly speaking humans invent what they think good for their ownselves.this selfish nature of a mankind help him finding more and more from the nature and get as much benefits as they can from it.this lead to a new discoveries which makes oue lifes easier.invention of 3D technique helps us to cope changing environment and to face different health issues which emerge due to this.in past this technique is only related to household items like spare parts,toys,carpets etc.but now this technique breakthrough major inovations in medical field.no one wants to be old or look older and our scientist find the solution of aging using anti-aging technique of second skin.due to noise pollution and other such causes our ears hearing capacity decreases but scientist find a way to out this using 3d printed bionic ear.tissue engineering can produce and regenerate different body tissues.in near future this technique will not only produce single tissues but can regenerate organs like liver and kidneys.scientist are working hard to make this scenario come true as soon as possible.

CONCLUSION:

Concluding, all above mentioned 3D techniques and their effects on mankind we just say that man moves towards perfection.scientist helps mankind for this.only 20 years old technique is a step forward for this.therefore with the increasing demands the market of 3D printing also increases many folds.3D printing industry will be a new building block in future.as the health issues are increasing day by day scientist work for their solutions using 3d technology.this technology is based on different methods like for second skin electrospinning is used and in tissue engineering melt electrospinning writing is used.3D printing microfiber technology also provides us with the opportunity to introduce something new and innovative to make human life more easy and comfortable.its a new and interesting concept and we are only at the beginning to see its full potential.

SUGGESTIONS:

'Experiment on the animals which has more resemblance with humans to get perfection.

'Industrialist invest more in this field,so that it become less expensive.

'Humans trials are done only after getting perfection in a technique.

'Invent those procedures which can be used by more and more peoples.

'Ink materials should be of good nature.different experiments should try for this purpose.

References:

'Deminerlized bone matrix fibers formable as general and custom 3D printed mold based implants for promoting bone regeneration

    written by:Rudy u Rodriguez,Nathan Kemper,Erick Breathwaite and others

Published July 26,2016

'3D Printed microfiber strips create second skin to restore a youthful look

Written by:Clare Scott

Published on March 15,2016

'Breakthrough in 3D printing of replacement body parts

Written by Niki Widdowson

Published April 29,2015

'Method of 3D printing microfiber scaffolds to impact breast reconstruction & heart tissue engineering

Written by Michelle Matisons

Published May 17,2015

'Biofabrication team makes breakthrough in creating 3D printed replacement body parts

Written by Simon

Published April 29,2015

'3D technology may someday print up new livers:health

Written by Elizabeth Lopatto

Published February 24,2014

'Will 3D printing produce human organs nearly from scratch?

Written by Hilton Collins

Published May 23,2014

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