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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Nowadays, innovations in information communication technology have been increasing the convergence among the industries [1, 2]. These convergence and integration of IT with agricultural technology are expected to be an area that could increase the added value and productivity of agriculture by applying the ubiquitous technology to the agricultural sector which is a primary industry [3, 4]. To successfully construct such as agricultural environment, the development of essential ubiquitous technology need to be optimized for agriculture such as sensor hardware, middleware platforms, routing protocols and application services for agricultural environments. For the examples, the convergence of ubiquitous technology with agriculture, which is a primary industry, on a trial basis exist, such as the use of sensor nodes in vine culture sites and applications of ubiquitous technology in livestock farming sites, and the technology has gradually begun to appear in other small areas like the increase of production and the improvement of quality at various agricultural areas [5, 7].

The agricultural environment monitoring system provides environmental monitoring services, facility controlling services and the maintaining of the crop growing environment in an optimal status. This system also help to improve the convenience and productivity of users. On the other hand, the existing agricultural monitoring systems are mostly

applied and utilized in closed agricultural environments such as greenhouses, cattle sheds and others but it is difficult to apply agricultural monitoring systems in outdoors locations such as at the paddies' field, fields and orchards because of a lack of IT infrastructure and equipment. Moreover, when users want to verify the information in existing monitoring systems, the user must manually check the status through installed sensors or terminals installed in the agriculture facilities.

For solving these problems, we need to develop an agricultural environment monitoring system that can monitor environmental information such as temperature and humidity in a remote location and the system can be used in agricultural environments which lack infrastructure and had limited equipment. Weather Monitoring System can be differentiating into wired or wireless system. In case of wired communication, the connectivity will be more stable and faster. In case of wireless communication, the connectivity will be more convenient and user-friendly and weather monitoring would not require physical presence of the person at the location [6]. Wireless communication also is the transfer of information or data over a distance without the use of wires from the transmitter to the receiver. The distance of transferring data can be short or long.

The wireless weather monitoring system can be implement on the platforms of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is commonly referred to as a remotely piloted aircraft, which can either be controlled from a remote location, or it can fly completely autonomously according to a pre-planned flight path or real-time navigation system. Ever since its invention, the UAV is commonly used for military purposes. Until now, a wide variety of civilian applications have emerged, indicating bright market prospects for the commercial UAVs in the future. The UAVs are commonly preferred for missions which are too 'dull, dirty, or dangerous' whether in military or commercial such as in modern warfare, forest fire fighting and monitoring the crops at the farms [9]. However, apart from its obvious advantages in risky and hazardous  

missions, the UAVs also have a lot of advantages such as higher reliability, lower cost, smaller dimensions, and better flexibility. The UAVs can be tasked for various applications with the different payloads. For agriculture applications, the use of multispectral remote sensing data has gained increasing interest from researchers all over the world. The remote sensing approaches that have been developed for management of water, nutrients, and pests in agricultural crop.

On the other hand, this propose project more focused on the developments of prototype agriculture remote sensing system based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The developed system employed cost effective Raspberry Pi Micro-computer and the integration of monitoring sensors namely temperature and relative humidity sensors. An UAV technology is also applied to the assist the monitoring of the system as an effective way to provide real time communication and monitoring life cycles. The proposed system will install these sensors on the UAV and perform the control function by means of Raspberry Pi. The analogue outputs of the sensors will be converted to digital signals and further processed by a Raspberry Pi, acting as data logger. Using easily-available components and simple circuitry, the system should be beneficial in providing a portable and low-cost remote weather monitoring system. This proposed system is low-cost and highly scalable both in terms of the type of sensors and the number of sensor nodes, which makes it well suited for a wide variety of applications related to environmental monitoring.  A UAV drone will act as the mobile mechanism to monitoring environment temperature and relative humidity. Based on the real time monitoring system information, several automation mechanisms are embedded in the system to effectively resolve and minimize the impact of unusual environmental effect. The proposed prototype development can be extended to large scale agriculture farming as well as to the field of conservation ecology.

1.2 Problem Statement

This project can be the biggest utility of the wired-wireless weather monitoring in many areas ranging from agricultural and horticulture growth hence development to industrial development. The weather conditions of a field can be monitored from a distant place by farmers and won't require them to be physically present there in order to know the climatic behavior at the location by using wireless communication. It will be of great for farmers to monitor their farm remotely from home instead of visit their farm regularly. Furthermore, the need for a robust, economical and extendable system for measuring temperature and humidity, in small-scale commercial horticulture, where system cost is an issue. For this reason, this paper aims to build a low-cost, yet reliable, weather monitoring system capable of acquiring and recording data remotely using UAV and Raspberry Pi.

1.3 Project Objectives

1. To develop a prototype of temperature and humidity monitoring system using Raspberry Pi for the application of agriculture remote sensing.

  .

2. To consolidate Raspberry Pi monitoring system on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) drone to allow remote monitoring function.

3. To perform functional test and In-situ onsite Pilot testing based on the developed prototype model.

1.4 Project Scope

1. Project will only focus on the prototype development of remote monitoring system using Raspberry Pi.

2. The monitoring features should consist of temperature and relative humidity sensors that will attach on the platform of UAV.

3. The functional of the complete prototype system are solely depending on the speed and capacity of UAV drone with respect to the limitation of weight and altitude that can be supported.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Importance of Agricultural

A simple definition state that agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products that used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key for the development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, and farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been affected by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. In the civilized, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology.

Development agricultural economists in particular have long focused on how agriculture can best contribute to overall growth and modernisation. Most of the early analysis highlighted the agriculture because of its abundance of resources and the ability to transfer surpluses to the more important industrial sector [41, 42, 45, 48, 53, 54]. Agriculture's main role in the transformation of the economy development was seen as subordinate to the central strategy of increasing the pace of industrialization. This conventional approach to the roles of agriculture in development concentrated on agriculture's important market-mediated linkages, providing labour for the industrial workforce, producing food for  

expanding human populations with higher incomes, supplying savings for investment in industry, enlarging markets for industrial output, providing export earnings to pay for imported capital goods; and producing primary materials for agro-processing industries [40, 43, 52]. There are strong reasons for why these early approaches more focused on agriculture's economic roles as a one-way path involving the flow of resources towards the industrial sector and urban centres.  When the national incomes rise, the demand for food increases more slowly than other goods and services. New technologies for agriculture lead to expanding food supplies per hectare or per worker. The increasingly modernising economies use more intermediate inputs purchased from other sectors. This decline in agriculture's share is partly the result of post-farm gate activities, such as taking produce to market, that become commercialized and are taken over by specialists in the service sector, and partly. This is because due to the producers substitute chemicals and machines for labour. Farmers' increasing use of purchased intermediate inputs and off-farm services adds to the relative decline of the producing agriculture sector in terms of overall employment [50, 55].

 A number of development economists attempted to point out that, while agriculture's share fell relative to industry and services, it nevertheless grew in absolute terms, evolving increasingly complex linkages to non-agriculture sectors. Some of the researcher highlighted the interdependence between agricultural and industrial development and the potential for agriculture to stimulate industrialization [39, 44, 46, 47, 49, 51].

2.2 Plant Requirements and Environment Needs

There are two major criteria which are temperature and relative humidity significantly importance for the environment conditions at the farm. As an example, the weather monitoring may be based on an assessment of crop needs at the farm, temperature, the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water and solar light availability. Optimization has been a consistent goal of climate control for commercial plant production. Optimization may involve in determining the better way through a day or through an overall crop cycle to increase the agriculture production.

2.2.1 Temperature

Plants grow well only within a limited range of temperature. When the temperature are too high or too low, it will result in abnormal development and reduced production. The vegetables for warm-season and most flowers grow best between 60'' and 75'' or 80'' F. Cool-season vegetables such as lettuce and spinach should be grown between 50'' and 70'' F. High temperatures are unfavorable for growth of many landscape plants due to their rate of photosynthesis begins to decrease rapidly after a critical high temperature is reached [56]. It is too difficult to define one critical high temperature for plants because it varies with species, but the temperatures in the 90'' to 100'' F range undoubtedly slow for the important of food-making process. Unfortunately for trees and shrubs, respiration is not quite sensitive compare to the high temperatures, and continues day and night, further depleting food reserves. Finally, high temperatures may simply cause injurious water loss when transpiration which is the process by which leaves release water vapor to the atmosphere and exceeds moisture absorption by the roots. High temperatures also cause injury to the roots. Optimum temperatures for root growth range from 60'' to 80'' F, but when landscape plants are grown in above-ground containers or in urban environments, their roots may experience unusually high temperatures. Temperatures 95'' F and higher can be lethal to the roots of many plants [57]. Low temperatures also present their own problems for woody landscape plants. Most of the trees and shrubs tolerate a certain amount of freezing in stems, branches, trunks, and in some cases leaves, after undergoing a seasonal change in metabolism known as acclimation. Cold hardy plants that have entered this quiescent or dormant state are generally capable of tolerating severe cold. But low temperature injury may occur when the temperatures fall below a plant's maximum cold hardiness limit, even after normal acclimation has occurred, premature freezing occurs before a plant has acclimated in the fall, unusually late freezes occur in the spring after a plant has deacclimated and when there are dramatic swings in temperature during the winter that cause a plant to deacclimate before the threat of severe freezing is over. In any discussion of cold hardiness it is important to remember that plants are made up of many different organs and there can be significant differences in hardiness among them. Roots, for example, are much less cold hardy than stems and branches and temperatures below 24'' F can be lethal to roots. But there also can be differences in hardiness among above-ground parts of the plant [58]. For example, flower buds are usually much less cold hardy than vegetative buds. Therefore, a plant's ability to tolerate both high and low temperatures must be taken into account when considering it for a given landscape situation.

2.2.2 Relative Humidity

When receiving the correct amount of water and light, moisture in the air in the form of water vapor greatly affects plant health. Water vapor means the gaseous, invisible state of water in the air known as humidity. Humidity is dampness, especially of the air. For the relative humidity; Humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapour contained within the air which is usually expressed as percentage humidity [57]. Humidity is one of the important environmental element that must be controlled for healthy plants, and connoisseur grade meds. Humidity can controls the rate of transpiration and how the nutrients are received by the plant. Same as with humans, if the humidity gets too low, our skin will become dry and flaky. We transpire by sweating more fluids out at lower humidity levels. The humidity level is like a pressure cap on the plant, keeping the moisture in the plant, allowing it to have proper transpiration rates of the fluids. Ideal humidity levels in a grow room range between 50% to 70% in vegetative growth, and 50% to 60% for flowering plants. When humidity levels drop too low, the plants transpire at a rate much quicker than that of nutrient uptake. The nutrients or minerals do not transpire through the plant but only the water does. So this leaves behind a concentrated level of nutrients in the plant that will actually cause a nutrient burn. Most people do not realize in situations like these that the humidity could be responsible; usually thinking that it is too many nutrients in the reservoir. Just as a lack of CO2 can cause a plant to go dormant, low humidity can cause a plant to have nutrient problems, resulting from the transpiration rate being much too high in low humidity level environments. Conversely, when humidity levels get too high, moisture is building up on the plants and walls, forming whole colonies of molds, fungi, and mildews [56]. Even if you had none of these developing before the high levels, the moisture would create the perfect environment for all of these to start developing, in a very short amount of time. These pathogens will destroy your garden if not taken care of immediately. This is one more reason why a controlled, closed loop, sealed room is the best way to build and run a grow room, as you can control every element of the environment with the right equipment.

2.3 Remote Sensing

The first aerial imagery dates to 1858 when Gaspaed Felex Tournachon took photos from a balloon [17]. Most of the modern researchers refer to Remote Sensing as a new technology in agriculture, but literature shows it has been used in agricultural activities at least since 1927 when aerial photography was used to differentiate the healthy cotton plants from plants killed by cotton root rot disease [15]. The use of satellites dates back to the 1960s but the use of satellite crop imagery, obtained from Landsat, began in 1978. Between the middle 1960s and the early 2000s, only five percent of satellites launched were associated with the applications of agricultural. The use of satellite and aerial images by industry for forecasting crop production, estimating damage from natural disasters and other aggregate information on crop growth is well established until now.

2.3.1 Potential Benefits of Remote Sensing Adoption in Agriculture

Farmers face loss billions a year as a result of fertility, insect, disease, weed and water problems. Farmers have relied on crop scouting to diagnose these problems, and then remedies were prescribed as blanket applications across whole fields. However, scouting is slow, labor intensive and very expensive. Blanket applications of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and drainage cannot consider as the variability inherent in all natural environments. The benefits of RS were once thought to have been oversold [11]. When the concerns regarding agriculture's role in surface and groundwater quality increase, there is renewed interest in using RS to more efficiently on how to manage fertilizers, pesticides, and water in fields. While RS application has been in existence for decades, its use on farms is still very low. Generally, technological change starts slowly, and increases linearly to a rapid growth [16]. The adoption process involves five stages. The first stage is the knowledge about the technology [16]. Second, persuasion of the value of the technology. Third, decision to adopt, four for implementation and five for the confirmation of the technology. Individuals who start the process are said to be risk takers because little is known about the value of the technology in the early of the stages. Factors that will enhance the adoption of the technology include trialability that can it be tried out. Observability are about the results can be observe or not. Relative advantage is about the better than present technology, complexity is about easy to use and compatibility is about the suitable for the circumstance or not [16]. According to the complexity, RS provides large volume of data which frustrates many farmers, while its relative advantage over manual scouting would be increased their profit. Precision technology has been used in agriculture for many years but only a few of the applications such as yield monitoring are used by farmers. This application is one of the least used which could be attributed to the geography, the economics or the crop involved [18]. However, remote sensing is believed to be popular on some high value crop and very large farms. At the farm level, the profitability of a new technology is increased revenue less additional costs that come with it [12]. Revenue comes from increased yield and higher output price due to better marketing strategies and higher quality of the crops [13]. Based on the remote sensing study, increased protein content in wheat resulted in higher gross revenue [14]. The associated cost of remote sensing comes from imagery acquisition and analysis, and training to develop interpretation skills. Other risk should also be taken into account because the information provided by the technology could be not accurate or misinterpreted. Hence result in over or under application of inputs. Adoption of the remote sensing and other precision agricultural technologies are related because remote sensing provide some of the information needed for variable rate application, interpreting yield maps and others. The perception of remote sensing about the service providers is included because in as much as remote sensing should provide economic benefits to farmers, it should be profitable to the service providers as well to enable them stay in the business and provide the service. Their perception is key to the future of the technology. The key role of service providers is to transform remote sensing data into information that farmers can easily use.

2.3.2 Remote Sensing Application in Agriculture

Remote sensing can be divided into two categories, ground-based and airborne. During evaluating a remote sensing platform, spatial and spectral resolution must also be taken into account. The spatial resolution defines the pixel size of satellite or airborne images covering the earth surface and relates to the dimensions of the smallest object that can be recognized on the ground [18]. A sensor's spectral resolution indicates the width of spectral bands in which the sensor can collect reflected radiance.

2.3.2.1 Ground-Based Remote Sensing

Based on research, the handheld remote sensing instruments are very useful for small-scale operational field monitoring of biotic and abiotic stress agents [8]. This technology has better temporal, spectral, and spatial resolutions compare to airborne remote sensing. A limiting factor of handheld remote sensing is one of efficiency and often time reduced to evaluating small areas when compared with aircraft which can be used to be used to evaluate much larger areas at a time. Forecasting yield, nutritional requirements of plants, detection of pest damage, water demands and weed control are the most commonly undertaken problems in studies making use of opportunities of field spectrometers in agriculture.

2.3.2.2 Airborne Remote Sensing

Up to date, airborne remote sensing is mainly realized with the use of piloted aircrafts, but in recent years they are more often replaced by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), which are aircraft remotely piloted from a ground station. UAVs have a lot of advantages such as typically low cost, light weight and low airspeed aircrafts that are well suited for remotely sensed data gathering. Currently, there are two broad platforms for UAVs, namely the 'Fixed Wing' and 'Rotary Wing' types. Fixed wing UAVs have the advantage of being able to fly at high speeds for long durations with simpler aerodynamic features and some of them do not even require a runway or launcher for takeoff and landing. The rotary wing UAVs have the advantage of being able to take off and land vertically and hover over a target. However, it has some problems due to mechanical complexity and shortened battery power, they have a short flight range. In general, UAVs have several advantages; they can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, they are flexible in terms of flying height and timing of missions and they can obtain very high resolution imagery. This imagery allows for observation of individual plants, patches, gaps and patterns over the landscapes that have not previously been possible [9]. UAVs with a typical spatial resolution of 1'20 cm could fill the resolution gap between piloted aircraft and the resolution of 0.2 to 2 m and ground-based platforms (< 1 cm) [10]. Providing a swath width of 50'500 m and a spatial resolution of 1- 20 cm, UAV platforms may be able to provide high resolution inputs necessary for site-specific crop management. UAVs with a very high resolution might be used also in agronomical research, management of specialty crops and studies of the within-field variability. Various ultralight imaging systems, weighing about 100 g, have been developed to be used with UAVs in recent years. One of the lightest available multispectral camera is ADC Micro which weights 90 g and produces images in three channels: green (520-600 nm), red (630- 690 nm) and NIR (760-920 nm).

2.4 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft that carries no human pilot or passengers. UAV sometimes called 'drones' that can be fully or partially autonomous but are more often controlled remotely by a human pilot.

2.4.1 UAV Platform

The UAV platform consists of hardware and the scientific payload. The UAV is comprised of low-cost which is easily available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The main purpose of the UAV is to safely fly the scientific payload for a minimum of ten minutes fly time. The platform is controlled by the pilot remotely from the ground station and has safety features programmed into it, such as a return to home function.

2.4.2 UAV Hardware

The main chassis for the UAV is the frame set. This features a diagonal wheelbase which is used to mount the UAV and payload hardware. The system is comprised of battery powered vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAV with motors. The motors and electronic speed controllers (ESC) were chosen to be able to deliver a strong lift and ability for the UAV to carry the payload without fail during the flight. The arms are constructed from material which is known to be resistant to breakage in case of crashing, while the diagonal wheelbase is base is constructed from PCB material. The landing gear used to avoid high crash. This is a high crash resistant landing gear usually made fromG10 and aluminum construction. G10 laminate grades are produced by inserting continuous glass woven fabric impregnated with an epoxy resin binder while forming the sheet under high pressure. This material is used exhibits excellent mechanical and dimensional stability (Polymer Plastics). The landing gear offers the space to mount equipment and has large aluminum rails for landing. A first-person-view system in installed on the UAV so that the co-pilot can ensure the UAV is over the intended spectral target. This is extremely useful when flying over coastlines to ensure the target area has been observed. The UAV is controlled through its attitude sensors. The operator's desired controls are processed through the onboard computer and then confirmed through the accompanying sensors. When the UAV is placed into attitude hold, the science platform is held in nadir-viewing position. The UAV pointing control mechanism is modeled after Quine's work where a microprocessor controller derives real-time estimates of gondola attitude, employing an extended filter to combine gyro, magnetometer, tilt-sensor, and shaft-encoder information.

2.4.3 UAV Design

A variety of flying vehicles is able to transport cameras and other sensors. Most common forms are small, electrically powered model planes with wingspans from 2 ' 3 meters and multi- bzw helicopter. They are piloted by an operator via remote control, assisted by an autopilot on board as shown in Figure 2.1. Also often used are gas because lighter than air platforms or hot air carried platforms like balloons, aerial kites and paraglide with or without motor.

Figure 2.1: Autopilot on Board.

2.4.4 Layout of a UAV System

A UAV is the prominent part of a whole system that is necessary to fly the aircraft. Even though there is no pilot physically present in the aircraft, this does not mean that it flies automatically by itself. In many cases, responsibility of the crew for a UAV is larger than that of a conventional aircraft. The aircraft is controlled from the ground, Ground Control Station also known as GCS, so it needs reliable communication links to and from the aircraft, but also to the local Air Traffic Control (ATC) authorities if required, usually when flying higher than 150-200 m above the ground. The GCS provides a working space for a pilot, navigator, instrument operator and usually an important mission commander. The data received by the GCS from the instruments is either processed on-site or forwarded to a processing centre. This can be done using standard telecommunication means. Of course, when operating low-cost systems, most of the GCS functions can be combined in the handheld remote controls that are typical for these systems. In that case, there is no data transmission for the instrument; all data are stored on-board

2.4.5 UAV On Remote Sensing Instrument

Low altitude UAVs are used to carry light-weight instruments. Most of the cases, these consist of off-the-shelf component such as consumer digital cameras. At low altitude, it is possible to achieve very high resolution and it has been shown that consumer grade SLR cameras offer sufficient precision and stability to allow photogrammetric extraction of information [19]. Other instruments include the combinations of imaging systems covering visible to thermal spectrum, with multi- or hyperspectral sampling, miniature RADAR and passive microwave radiometers [20, 21, 22, 23, 38]. On the other hand, UAVs are also used as a test bed for new instruments or integration of instruments [35]. This is of significant importance, as it allows research groups that specialize in instrument design to test prototypes on a regular basis. At VITO, a high resolution wide swath digital camera is under development for flight on Mercator within the Pegasus project. This camera uses extremely light-weight subsystems to reduce the total mass to less than 2.5 kg and still generate 30 cm ground sampling distance from 18 km altitude [34]. In short, UAVs have carried instruments that cover the whole range of the spectrum that remote sensing has addressed. Usually, however, it is not possible to carry the instruments that have been conceived for larger manned platforms, so innovative solutions have been found.

2.4.6 UAV on Remote Sensing Application

Many remote sensing applications have benefited from the use of UAVs. In most cases, this was due to the cost of the mission, the need for rapid response or the fact that observations need to be carried out in an environment that may be harmful or dangerous to an aircrew. A striking example is the adoption of remote sensing using UAVs in archaeology [24, 31, 37]. The main purpose is to document archaeological sites, and to provide 'a bigger picture'. The accuracy requirements are not very high, although it has been shown that e.g.; elevation accuracy using a helicopter UAV and a consumer digital cameras yields elevation models that are comparable to ground laser scanner measurements. Vegetation monitoring has also been successfully done using UAVs. A HALE UAV, Pathfinder Plus was used to demonstrate this on a coffee plantation in Hawaii [29]. Others have studied rangelands, and in Japan these systems are considered to be an integral part of farm equipment [27]. Rapid response imaging using UAVs has received a lot of attention as well. This has been demonstrated for road accident simulations and in many cases of forest fire monitoring [25, 28, 30, 36]. UAVs have also been proposed as platforms to monitor volcanoes. A final example of the flexibility of UAVs is their use in traffic monitoring [26, 33].

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1       Work Flow

This chapter more focus on the methodology and approaches to be used for the proposed work. Figure 3.1 show the general work flow in developing the monitoring system using UAV. This work flow very important as the guideline to ensure this project run within the planning time. It has three phase that fulfill all the objective needs. Each phase has its own target to be achieved and as the step to achieve the project goals. Base on this work flow, we also can understand on the progress of the project and the activities of the project.

   

Figure 3.1: Work flow of the Development of Prototype Agriculture Remote Sensing System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

3.2 System Overview

This project was more focused on the weather monitoring system of environmental parameter by using two different types of sensors to detect and collect the data with the Wireless LAN transferred data from the environmental conditions within a farm to the users. The sensors that will be using in the project were included the temperature sensor and relative humidity sensor. The development of this project starting with to focus on the Raspberry Pi system installation and set-up. The sensors will be integrate to the Raspberry Pi for the control purpose. The consolidation of the sensors and the Raspberry Pi will be installed to the UAV drone. A UAV drone will act as the mobile mechanism to monitoring environment temperature and relative humidity. The Raspberry Pi is included with the Wireless Lan and Bluetooth. These two wireless connectivity making the system the ideal solution for powerful connected design. The user are easily can connected to the system via Wireless Lan or Bluetooth. There is no setting value for the sensors to collect the data such as the lowest or the highest value for the temperature or the humidity at the chosen farm. These data or values then will be transferred to the user by using these two wireless connectivity. This system aimed to create a system that is low-cost and highly scalable both in terms of the type of sensors and the number of sensor nodes, which makes it well suited for a wide variety of applications related to environmental monitoring. This system will be divided into three main parts, namely, the three types of sensor part, the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B and the UAV. The analogue outputs from these sensors are converted into digital signal by an ADC before being fed into the data-logging circuit which encompasses the Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Figure 3.2 show the block diagram of the proposed system while Figure 3.3 show the flow chart in of the system monitoring using UAV.

3.3 Block Diagram System

This system using two sensors which are temperature sensor and humidity sensor. These sensors will connect to the Raspberry PI 3 to collect the data at the selected farm. The Raspberry PI will communicate with the users by using two method which are Wireless LAN and Bluetooth. Bluetooth is the back up only if the Raspberry PI has problem to communicate through the Wireless LAN.

Figure 3.2: Block Diagram of the Prototype Agriculture Remote Sensing System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

3.4 Flowchart System

Figure 3.3 show the flow chart of the system. It start with sensors to detect the temperature and humidity at the selected farm. After that, the data will process by the Raspberry PI and send to the user by using Wireless LAN.

Figure 3.3: Flowchart of the Prototype Agriculture Remote Sensing System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

3.5 Sensor Part

The first part from the system consists of one sensor. Temperature sensor was used to detect the temperature at the selected farm. There is no setting values to be set at as the minimum or maximum temperature. Besides that, the humidity sensor that used to detect the relative humidity value from the farm. The value of humidity sensor not to be set as the minimum or maximum value. Thus, DHT11 Humidity and Temperature Sensor have been used in this weather monitoring system for detected the environmental conditions within the selected farm.  

 

3.5.1 DHT11 Humidity and Temperature Sensor

DHT11 Humidity and Temperature Sensor Module is designed by using DHT11 which is able to detect the humidity and temperature of the surrounding environment. This module is compatible with Arduino, PIC, Raspberry pi and others. It has an operating humidity range of 20% to 90% RH.

Specification:

' Operating Voltage: 3.3 - 5 VDC

' Output Signal: Digital two-way single bus

' Humidity: 20-90% RH '' 5% RH

Table 3.2: Pin of DHT11 Humidity Sensor

Pin Description Function

DAT One Wire Communication Able to transfer clock and data. The transferring of data is bidirectional.

Transfer the humidity and temperature data to microcontroller.

VCC Between +3.3V to +5V Connect to between +3.3V to +5V

GND Ground Connect to Ground

Figure 3.4: DHT11 Humidity Sensor

3.6 Microcontroller Part: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

The Raspberry Pi is a microcontroller board with a Broadcom 1.2GHz BCM2837 SoC based on quad-core Cortex-A53, 1GB RAM, Broadcom Video Core IV GPU supports resolutions up to 1920x1200, microSD slot, 10/100 Ethernet, 4 x USB 2.0, HDMI, audio/video jack socket, GPIO header, micro USB power, DSI and CSI, 802.11b/g/n WiFi and Bluetooth 4.1, 85.6mm x 56mm.

Table 3.3: Specification of Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

Figure 3.5: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

3.7 Software of the System

This project will be used three types of software to carry on the weather monitoring system. Raspbian software was the fundamental and the most important software in this project due to make sure the Raspberry Pi run. Apart from that, the Proteus 7 Professional software also used to allow users to interact with the design using on-screen indicators or LCD display and, if attached to the PC, the switches and buttons. At last, Google SketchUp software will be used to allowing it to have versatility seen by no other design program.

3.7.1 RASPBIAN

Raspbian is a free operating system based on Debian optimized for the Raspberry Pi hardware. An operating system is the set of basic programs and utilities that make the Raspberry Pi run. However, Raspbian provides more than a pure OS: it comes with over 35,000 packages, pre-compiled software bundled in a nice format for easy installation on your Raspberry Pi.

The initial build of over 35,000 Raspbian packages, optimized for best performance on the Raspberry Pi, was completed in June of 2012. However, Raspbian is still under active development with an emphasis on improving the stability and performance of as many Debian packages as possible. Raspbian is not affiliated with the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Raspbian was created by a small, dedicated team of developers that are fans of the Raspberry Pi hardware, the educational goals of the Raspberry Pi Foundation and, of course, the Debian Project.

Figure 3.6: Raspbian

There are two types of Raspbian. Raspbian Jessie is for destop image based on Dabian Jessie and the second is Raspbian Jessie Lite fir minimal image based on Dabian Jessie.

                                Figure 3.7: Raspbian Jessie and Raspbian Jessie Lite

3.7.1 ZENMAP

Zenmap is the official Nmap Security Scanner GUI. It is a multi-platform for Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, and BSD. It is free and open source application which aims to make Nmap easy for beginners to use while providing advanced features for experienced Nmap users. Frequently used scans can be saved as profiles to make them easy to run repeatedly. A command creator allows interactive creation of Nmap command lines. Scan results can be saved and viewed later. Saved scan results can be compared with one another to see how they differ. The results of recent scans are stored in a searchable database.

Nmap ("Network Mapper") is a free and open source (license) utility for network discovery and security auditing. Many systems and network administrators also find it useful for tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, but works fine against single hosts. Nmap runs on all major computer operating systems, and official binary packages are available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. In addition to the classic command-line Nmap executable, the Nmap suite includes an advanced GUI and results viewer (Zenmap), a flexible data transfer, redirection, and debugging tool (Ncat), a utility for comparing scan results (Ndiff), and a packet generation and response analysis tool (Nping).

Figure 3.8: Zenmap

3.7.1 PuTTY

PuTTY is a free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application. It supports several network protocols, including SCP, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, and raw socket connection. It can also connect to a serial port. The name "PuTTY" has no definitive meaning.PuTTY was originally written for Microsoft Windows, but it has been ported to various other operating systems. Official ports are available for some Unix-like platforms, with work-in-progress ports to Classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, and unofficial ports have been contributed to platforms such as Symbian,Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. PuTTY was written and is maintained primarily by Simon Tatham and is currently beta software.

Figure 3.9: putty

3.7.1 REMOTE DEKSTOP CONNECTION

With Remote Desktop Connection, user can connect to a computer running Windows from another computer running Windows that's connected to the same network or to the Internet. For example, the user can use all of their work computer's programs, files, and network resources from their home computer, and it is just like they are sitting in front of their computer at work. To connect to a remote computer, that computer must be turned on, it must have a network connection, Remote Desktop must be enabled, user must have network access to the remote computer, and user must have permission to connect. For permission to connect, they must be on the list of users. Before start a connection, it is a good idea to look up the name of the computer that connecting to and to make sure Remote Desktop connections are allowed through its firewall. If the user account does not require a password to sign in, users need to add a password before they are allowed to start a connection with a remote computer.

Figure 3.10: remote desktop connection

3.8 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

FPV Real-Time Video Streaming for this UAV equipped with HD camera, it allows users to see what the drone is seeing, monitor real-time video with smartphone directly. Headless Mode of this UAV is X5SW. It has the Headless Intelligent Orientation Control (IOC) function. Usually, the forward direction of a flying multi-rotor is the same as the nose direction. By using Headless IOC, the forward direction has nothing to do with nose direction. This lessens the steepness of the learning curve and allows the pilot to enjoy flight while slowly learning each specific orientation of the quadcopter. The UAV also has 6 Axis Gyro that equipped with the latest 6-axis flight control systems, 3D lock, More scheduled flight, operating more to the force.

             

Figure 3.11: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Model Cyber X600 X-Series 4CH 2.4G 6 Axis 3D Roll One Key Return RC Hexacopter Drone Black.

Figure 3.12: Remote Control of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Model Cyber X600 X-Series 4CH 2.4G 6 Axis 3D Roll One Key Return RC Hexacopter Drone Black.

Specification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Model Cyber X600 X-Series 4CH 2.4G 6 Axis 3D Roll One Key Return RC Hexacopter Drone Black.

' Material: Plastic

' Color: Black

' Suitable Age: Above 14 Years Old

' Item: RC Hexacopter

' Design: 6-Axis Gyro, Headless Mode

' Main Feature: 3D Roll and One Key Return

' Motor: Coreless Motor

' Channel Number: 4

' Frequency: 2.4G

' Fuselage Length: 386mm

' Overall Height: 60mm

' Main Rotor Diameter: 135mm

' Battery: Li-polymer 7.4V/ 700mAh

' Remote Control Battery: 3 x AA 1.5V Battery (Not Included)

' Charging Time: About 2 Hours

' Flying Time: 8.5 Minutes

' Control Distance: About 100 Meters

' Gross Weight: About 193g

' Functions: Rise, Fall, Forward, Backward, Left and Right Side Fly, Hovering, 3D Flips and Rolls

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

The result of project is the hardware of this prototype agriculture remote sensing system based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the complete program code to run the system smoothly and the data analysis of final product go through this system. In order to achieve the final result, preliminary result must done first and then plan for the expected results of this project. In this chapter, preliminary result is divided into the operating principle of the system and the coding for the temperature sensor to communicate with the PI. The expected result is the expected functionality of this system in order to solve problem statement and achieve the objectives of this project.

4.1    Preliminary Result

 

Preliminary means something that comes before something else. This mean that the early result and the result are still in experimental test. The purpose of having preliminary results is to ensure the operating procedure of the project and keep the methodology in the right track. The result will change due to the changes of the process. There are two main preliminary result of this project which are the hardware and the software. The hardware preliminary results of this project is the assembly of the each part of the system before proceed to functionality testing and troubleshooting while the software preliminary results is more focus on the communication of the Pi with the user.

4.1.1 Hardware

Hardware is the real solid thing that assembled by using several component or devices in order to form an optimum product based on the design in software simulation. The hardware result in this project divided into two parts which are the combination of the sensors, adapter and the Pi and the drone or UAV. The hardware is done first before proceed to use a suitable program to run and function it.

4.1.1.1 The Connection of Sensor, Adapter and Pi

The connection of the sensor at the Raspberry PI is very important because they are the main part of this project. It is very important to ensure that the sensor connected to the right pin. Table 4.2.1.1 show the important part which is the number and the position of the pin at the Raspberry PI. Figure 4.2.1.1 and Figure 4.2.1.2 show the connection of the humidity sensor to the Raspberry Pi and its illustration according the type of wire such as ground, life and neutral. The adapter is a back up for the Pi to communicate with the user. This is because of the signal not stable if the Pi communicate direct to the user but the data smoothly transfer to the user when using the adapter.                      

Figure. 4.4: Connection of the humidity sensor to the Raspberry PI

Table 4.1: Number of pin for Raspberry Pi 3

                                   

Figure. 4.5: Illustration for the connection of the humidity sensor to the Raspberry PI

Figure 4: The connection of the sensor, Pi and the Adapter.

4.1.1.2 X8C Drone

The X8C drone in this system is a carrier that carry the complete combination of the Pi and the sensor using DC supply. A simple modification had done to the some of its components by removing the camera and the 360 degree of mover. This is because the drone cannot the weight of the load and it cannot maintain its balancing. In addition, both of two component are not important for this project. The camera usually use by the user to snap the picture from overhead and the mover use for backflip movement of the drone. The camera need to remove because of replacing the combination of the Pi and the sensor. The position of the camera is very suitable for the sensor to detect the temperature and the humidity of the surrounding. The removing of the 360 degree mover due the more weight need to reduce. This is because of the combination of the component are too heavy for the drone to carry. As the solution, it need to remove to ensure that the drone can carry the load. Figure 4.1 show the drone after the modification. It is different compare to the drone before it is modified as show in chapter 3.

Figure 4.1 show the drone after the modification.

4.1.2 Software

In this project, software is a set of program instruction that directs the Raspberry Pi 3 type B microcontroller to perform specific operations. The software result of this project must be done by using a computer. In the preliminary software result, the sensor and Pi  are not implement to the UAV and test only in the room that connect to the computer by using Ethernet cable to ensure that they are function well before proceed to next step.

4.1.2.1 Raspbian

In order to run and test the hardware of this prototype, a program had been written in Raspbian which is Dabian. This program is about the pick and place action. This software then install into a micro SD card and insert to the Raspberry Pi. Figure 4 show the Raspbian installer. The Raspberry Pi need to turn on in order to install the code to communicate with the sensor and transfer to the users. Next, we need to upgrade and update the Raspbian to the latest version and install the coding to communicate with sensor.   When the update is success, the program is then uploaded into the PI in order to run the sensor. We can choose whether using phyton or C++ programming but for this project, C++ programming is used to communicate between the sensor and Raspberry PI microcontroller. Figure 4.2 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g) are shown the program of for the sensor to communicate with the PI.

Figure 4 a show the update comment for PI

Figure 4 b show the comment for change the tracking of the programme.

Figure 4 c show the comment to obtain the folder of programme

Figure 4 d show to fetch the update programme

Figure 4 e show the new build script to compile and install

Figure 4 f show the comment to run the Pi and sensor

Figure e show the coding for PI to communicate with sensor

Figure 4 show the Raspbian installer

4.1.2.2 Zenmap IP Address Scanner

This IP Address Scanner play the important role in order to get the IP address of the PI. And the IP address would use to log in the PI. This scanner also need some comment to get the IP address of the PI such as put the word 'sn in front of the IP address of the used network. We need the IP address of the network to detect the IP address of the PI. Figure 4.1 a b c show the Zenmap scan the IP address of the PI.

Figure 4 a show the IP address of the network.

Figure 4 b show the comment in order to scan the IP address of PI

Figure 4 c show the IP address of the PI.

4.1.2.3 Putty

Putty is the medium for install the coding and set the Raspberry PI to function in wireless mode. Using the IP address scanned by the Zenmap to log in the PI by using the Putty. Then, we can proceed the coding as shown in figure 4 a b c. Figure 4 x show the comment prompt after log in the PI using Putty.

Figure 4 x show the comment prompt after log in the PI using Putty.

4.1.2.4 Remote Desktop Connection

In order to connect the user and PI through wireless, remote desktop is the best medium due to the easy to log in. we can log in to the remote desktop by using the IP address of PI because it would show the desktop of Pi. Then, the user can easily get the data from the PI. Figure 4 show the desktop of PI by using remote desktop connection.

Figure 4 show the desktop of PI by using remote desktop connection

4.2    Expected Result

All project proposals should have the expected results that will be achieved by the project. Many proposal formats seek extensive information on results to ensure that the objectives are successfully achieved. The expected result of this project is all the component function according to the needed before the implementation phase. The final product of this project is expected to be produced similar to this expected result.

4.2.1 Expected Function of each device in this system

Function of each device is set before proceed to hardware assembly. The function of each device must be correct in order to fabricate an optimum function of this prototype. Troubleshoot is needed if the expected function of this system is not same as the actual function of the system built. The function of each device in this system is expected as shown in table 4.3 below.

Table 4.3: Function of each device in prototype of the remote sensing

No Devices Function

1 Raspberry PI 3 microcontroller Control the whole system by transmit and receive signal according to the program code.

2 UAV To carry the load to the selected place

3 Power supply To supply the enough voltage to the Pi and the UAV.

4 Sensor To detect the temperature and humidity at the selected place and send to the Raspberry PI 3.

5 TP-Link Adapter As the backup if the PI fail to connect with the user and the user can connect to the adapter to get the data from the Pi.

4.3 Development of hardware of the prototype

At the end of this project, the system is well assembled and fabricated by combined both separately built system which are the combination of the PI and sensor and the UAV. The function of each device is exactly same as the expected function. Figure 4.6 shows the hardware of the prototype before implement to the UAV.

Figure 4.6: shows the hardware of the prototype before implement to the UAV.

4.4    The Position of the Combination of the Parts at the UAV

The position of the combination part at the UAV was very important because we need to consider the value of the temperature and humidity. We need to choose wisely to ensure the value of data do not influence by the other factor such as wind. Figure 6 show the position of the combination part at the UAV. It was the best position for these prototype because we replace the combination of the Pi with the camera of the drone. When we put the Pi on the upper part of the drone, it lose the stability. And the temperature also influence by the sun because the sun light direct to the sensor.  Hence, we chose the lower part of the drone to place the combination of the Pi and sensor and the power supply of the Pi. During doing the field test, the UAV cannot carry the weight of the loads. Then, we needed to do some modification to the drone such as removing some part of the drone. For example, the camera provided by the supplier for the drone and the 360 degree of the mover's equipment. After reducing the weight of the equipment, the UAV be able to carry the load.

    

Figure 6: The position of the combination part at the UAV.

                  Figure 4.6: The position of the combination part at the UAV.

4.5    The Operating Principle of the System

These system starting with to start the Raspberry PI. The PI needed at least 5V power supply. Then, the user must connected to the PI by using the Wireless LAN. User can connecting through these wireless as long as the signal of the wireless was not disturbed. User also needed to test the functional of the sensors such as taking the reading of the temperature and humidity at that place as testing result. After that, they needed to fly the drone. The drone as the medium to drive the sensor at the selected farm. Along the journey, the sensors would detected the humidity and temperature but it not valid because not at the right place. And these reading showed that the sensor was working well. Usually, the drone only fly about five to ten minute due to the power supply of the drone or UAV. When arrived at the selected place, the sensors would do their part and collecting the data. These data would process by the Raspberry PI and transferred to the user through the Wireless LAN. User would knew the condition of their farm and can plan for the other activities such as create the time table for the watering their crops. After finish monitoring the farm, user needed to charge both power supply for the UAV and for the Raspberry PI for the next trip of the monitoring of the farm. We cannot use the same power supply for the UAV and Raspberry PI because the power supply has not enough energy to supply both. On the other hand, the input power supply that needed both were not same. The UAV needed about 7.4 V input power supply and the UAV only need about 5V.

4.6    The illustration of the Final Outcome

The final outcome showed the UAV be able to drive the combination of the sensor and PI to the farm. The sensor can detect the temperature and humidity at the farm and send to the PI. The PI would process the data and send to the user through the Wireless LAN. Figure 7 show the final outcome of the propose project. The UAV would move according to the user's command by using controller. But the user would get data as long as the UAV around the range of the distance that Pi can communicate with the users. The Pi still process the data and send to the user through the wireless LAN.

Figure. 4.7: Illustration for the final outcome of the project

4.7     The Results of the Field Test

The field test was very important to show the functionality of the system. The data showed that the sensor and Pi communicated very well and the data transferred to the user smoothly. The UAV can carry the total load and flied smoothly. Figure 8 show the result of the field test. The results show that the humidity and temperature sensor communicate well with the Raspberry Pi according to the command and coding install in the Pi. And the Raspberry Pi process the data smoothly and transfer the data to the user every two second.

Figure 8: The result of the field test.

4.8 Problems troubleshoot

After plenty of testing of the program functionality, the component need to combine in the casing. Before that, there are a lot of problem occur during the installation such as the PI cannot communicate with the sensor. The changes of the coding need to proceed because the coding was not suitable for the sensor. The completed program code is shows in appendix. After that, the connection of the sensor and the PI also need to consider because the sensor cannot transfer the data if the connection errors occurs. Next, the power supply cannot combine to    supply the voltage to the PI and the UAV. Hence, the difference power supply need to use due to the differences of the input power. The PI need 5V and the UAV need 7.4V. The last problem is the UAV cannot carry the load to the selected place. In order to solve the problem, some of the component of the drone need to remove such as the camera and the 360 degree mover to reduce the weight.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction

The conclusion of this project is to conclude the work done to develop and assemble prototype agriculture remote sensing system based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The recommendation for the future work is done based on the discussion and the results.

5.1 Discussion

The impact of this engineering technology project to sustainable development is significant. In social, this system can be developed to reduce the exposure of man power in working area. In economy, this system can provide a low cost system that will help in the agriculture sector for especially the farmers.

In industry, the automated system have the capacity to dramatically improve product quality. Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. This level of consistency can be hard to achieve by human being such as to take the temperature and humidity at the farm due to the some disturbance such the distance of the farm from the house. With this development, they can get the data very fast and less worker is needed, which directly impacts to the production. Because of this prototype has the ability to work at a constant speed at a specific time due to the ability of the power supply and the PI be able to generate the data at microseconds. The UAV also can carry the load as long as power supply have enough voltage to supply to the UAV. This prototype control by a remote sensing which is increase safety of the prototype. Users can fly the UAV to anywhere as long as in the range of the frequency of the remote sensing and the Pi still connect to the Wi-Fi and the user can get data that generate by the Pi

5.2 Conclusion

This weather monitoring of environmental parameter was extremely crucial for the optimization of agriculture production. These work present the developments of prototype agriculture remote sensing system based on the combination of the humidity and temperature sensors and successful connected to the Raspberry Pi Micro-computer. An UAV technology was also applied to the assist the monitoring of the system as an effective way to provide real time communication and monitoring life cycles. The system which was the Raspberry PI and sensors installed on the UAV and perform the control function by means of Raspberry Pi. It had been tested through extensive experiments and the results have proven the accuracy and reliability of the proposed system. The analogue outputs of the sensors converted to digital signals and further processed by a Raspberry Pi, acting as data logger. These system was low-cost and highly scalable both in terms of the type of sensors and the number of sensor nodes, which makes it well suited for a wide variety of applications related to environmental monitoring.  The UAV drone also act as the mobile mechanism to monitoring environment temperature and relative humidity. It can be concluded that the weather monitoring of environment parameter very easy way to understand the condition of the crop and plant within the farm.

5.3 Future Work

In the nearby future, the technologies and engineers can used the other drone for the specific task which is to carry the load only. This is because the drone is very important to ensure the Pi arrive to the destination safely. There are various types of drone that use to carry load but very expensive but it carry the load to a wide parameter of farm. The power supply of the UAV also need to change because the drone need to carry the load for a long time. Hence, it need more power supply. Besides implement the temperature sensor and relative humidity sensor can function without Pi and the technologist can used Athena to control the sensor by developing a circuit that combine the main component such as Athena and sensors. The Athena will transmit the data to the receiver directly. The receiver is implement to the Pi and connect to the computer. The drone only carry the small sensor only to the selected farm. By using wireless software, the technologist can develop a webpage for the user and the data can be save at the webpage. The  prototype agriculture remote sensing system based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for weather monitoring system will has a bright scope of future in agriculture field and it will create a revolution in it by setting these types of future scope.

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