AUTOMATIC GAS LEAKAGE DETECTION AND CONTROL
1R.Jeevitha, 2 G.Abinaya, 3 G.Judith, 4U.Mubassira,
1Assistant Professor,Department of EEE, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology,Coimbatore-641407
2, 3, 4UG student, Department of EEE, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore-641407
Abstract'Natural gases are mostly used as fuel nowadays for domestic purposes. It burns to produce clean energy, however there is a danger about their leakage. When inhaled gas leads to throttle and gases do not disperse easily. Due to explosion of gas cylinder the number of deaths has been increasing nowadays. In this proposed system Gas leakage has been detected and prevented by automatic LPG leakage monitoring and control system. This system detects the leakage of LPG with the help of gas sensor and alerts the consumer about the leak by sending SMS using GSM module. LPG level is continuously monitored by the load cell and sends this information to the microcontroller. Whenever the gas level goes below the set limit the microcontroller alerts the consumer and also the agency to refill the cylinder by sending the SMS through GSM.
Keywords'GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Gas Sensor MQ-6, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), LED (Light Emitting Diode).
LPG is a mixture of Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane having saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons was first produced by Dr.Walter Snelling in 1910.The demand for LPG is a raise day today. The LPG gas is widely used in homes, industries and in automobiles as fuel because of its properties which include high calorific value, produces less soot, produces very less smoke and does not cause much harm to the environment. Natural gases are another widely used fuel in homes. Both burns to produce clean energy, however there is a serious problem about their leakage. When inhaled gas leads to throttle and the air is less than gas which does not disperse easily. When ignited the leaked gases may lead to explosion. There is a rapid increase of death due to the explosion of gas cylinder in recent years. To prevent and detect gas leakage there is necessity for a system and LPG cylinder can be booked automatically by sending text message. For the customer the petroleum companies have launched IVRS(Interactive voice Response) technique. The proposed system reduces the customer burden. Now-a -days, big problem in our houses are to reload the cylinder. People hand over the old cylinder to delivery person even before the gas become extinct without knowing the quantity of gas left in it. Load cell in this system will help to overcome this problem. It will continuously monitor the gas level in cylinder and once the gas level goes below threshold limit of around 2.5 kg it sends SMS alert to the consumer as well as to gas refill agency.
It uses MQ6 gas sensor which detects various combustible gases with low cost, and it sends signal to the PIC microcontroller when gas level beyond safety limit and at the same time with the help of solenoid valve it will turn off the power supply, when the leakage is detect. The alert mechanism in the proposed system includes a solenoid valve, buzzer and with the help of GSM the consumer received the SMS. The devices designed for use in homes which use Liquefied Petroleum Gas or natural gas; however it can be used in industries and other applications involving the gas cylinders.
In this circuit, the MQ-6 sensor is used for gas leakage detection. It has a 6 pin, 2 pins are used for providing heating current, and 4 of them are used to fetch signals. When there is a gas leakage it will alert the user by sending message to the mobile number which is already stored in memory. With the help of the solenoid valve it will turns off the regulator when gas leakage is detected.
Fig.1Block Diagram of automatic gas leakage detection and control
Relay will indicate the gas leakage and the Solenoid valve will be switched on or off. It is a two-port valve and control the flow of electric current.LPG level is continuously monitored by the load cell and when the gas level goes below 2.5 kg the old cylinder will be replaced and new cylinder will be booked automatically using GSM. The device ensures safety and prevents the problem due to explosion of gas leakage.
III. PIC MICROCONTROLLER AND GSM MODULE
In this proposed system we using the PIC 16F877A is based on 32 bit which is the heart of the entire system controlling all processes. The main function of this controller is when the concentration of gas in the air exceeds the safety level then sends the message using GSM module to alert the consumer even when they are away from home. Any number of mobile numbers can be included to which SMS must be sent about the above mentioned details. This module used to activate the LED, Buzzer to alert the people at home to indicate the gas leakage and LCD display interfaced to the controller to display the message.
A GSM module which assemble the GSM modem, serial communication and power supply. A GSM modem is wireless modem looks like a mobile phone that works with a GSM network. AT commands are used to control the modem. Advantage of GSM modem is compact, low power consumption and high quality SMS function.
IV. LOAD CELL MEASUREMENT Strain-gauge balance is a method used for weighing with low resolution. A strain gauge is a (often zigzag shaped) conductor, etched out of thin metal film. It uses the effect of change in the electrical resistance when it is subjected to mechanical stress, caused by change in length, cross section and specific resistance. Usually, four strain gauges are glued to a "spring body" (flexural component), which is manufactured from a single part, as shown below with its electrical circuit:
Fig.2 Load cell Diagram
(1, spring body (side view and in perspective) 2, weighing pan 3, mounting plate (housing) 4, placing and wiring of the strain gauges (R3 and R4 can also be placed on the underside of the beam)
The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to compensate for temperature changes. When the system is not loaded all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier is zero. When an object is placed on the pan R1 and R4 are compressed and their resistance decreases, R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increased. This causes a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object.
The shape if this spring body is comparable with the basic construction of the electronic balance with two guides.
The strain-gauge method of measurement has its limitations for high resolution weighing machines, which are primarily due to creep in the spring material and the adhesive between the spring body and the strain gauges. The moisture sensitivity of the adhesive and the low output signal also cause difficulties. The major advantages of this method are the compact design cost and its easy adaptability to various maximum capacities.
V. SIMULATION DISCRIPTION
Fig.3 Simulation Block Diagram
It consists of PIC16F877A, LCD Display, LED, virtual terminal, buttons, load cell and gas sensor. One side of the microprocessor is connected to a LCD display, LED and virtual terminal while other side is connected to load cell and gas sensor.
GSM modem is connected to five terminals they are increment, decrement, move, reset and enter the number. By using the five terminals mobile number can be stored and will be displayed in the LCD.
Load cell continuously monitors the gas level and when the gas level goes below the threshold limit it will be displayed in the LCD and message will be send to the number which is already stored. Gas sensor is used to detect gas leakage and sends SMS to consumers through GSM.
VI. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The proteus design Suite is an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool including schematic capture, simulation and PCB layout modules. This GSM module consists of five terminals. The first terminal is used for reset, second key is for moving to next position, third and forth key is for increment and decrement, and the last key is used to enter the numbers. Load cell and gas sensor are connected with microcontroller. Diode is used to indicate the ON or OFF condition of a cylinder.
A mobile number is fed by the keys and is stored which is displayed in LCD. When there is a gas leakage and also when gas level falls below the threshold limit PIC microcontroller will send alert to the mobile number. When the gas leakage goes beyond safety limit it will be turned OFF and for gas level in the cylinder going below threshold limit it will be automatically booked.
Fig.4 Simulation Output
In recent households, the use of LPG is taking a big troll from the use of cylinder up to the use of petroleum pipelines. The biggest threat in using this technology is security and our project will prove to be boom for households and industries.
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