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IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY IN FAST TRACK PROJECTS AND ITS EFFECT ON TIME, COST AND QUALITY

A Research Paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Projects Management

Arch. / Mohamed Saeed Thabet

Fall 2016

Supervised by:

Phd.Dr. Akram Farouk

Contents

Introduction 1

Problem Statement 3

Research Methodology 3

Objectives 3

Chapter 1 (Lean vs. PM) 4

1.0 Project Management & Lean Construction Techniques 5

1.1.1 Literature Review 5

1.1.2 Traditional Projects Management 5

1.1.3 Projects Management Processes 6

1.1.4 Anomalies & Deviations Happens in Traditional Project Management 7

1.1.5 What is Lean Construction? 9

1.1.6 Lean Building Principles application 9

1.1.7 Lean Construction VS. Traditional Construction Project management approach 11

1.1.8 Lean Project Delivery System 14

1.1.9 What is Six Sigma ? 14

1.1.10 Key Concepts of Six Sigma 14

1.1.11 Lean VS. Six Sigma 15

1.1.12 Implementing Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Construction 16

1.1.13 What are YOUR costs of waste, defects, rework and warranty? 17

1.1.14 5S 17

1.1.15 Last Planner System (LPS) and Linear Scheduling Method (LSM) 18

1.1.16 AREAS OF LEAN TO FOCUS ON 20

1.1.17 Benefits realized by Lean Construction implementation in different Countries 21

Chapter 2 Fast Track Projects 23

2.0 Fast Track Projects 24

2.1.1 Fast Tracking Projects 24

2.1.2 Fast Tracking Overcomes Obstacles and Avoids Pitfalls 26

2.1.3 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) 26

2.1.4 Crashing 31

2.1.5 Difference between Fast Tracking and Crashing 32

2.1.6 When Should You Use Fast Tracking or Crashing? 33

2.1.7 Summary 33

Chapter 3 Case Study 34

3.0 Preamble: 35

3.1.1 Project Criteria: 37

3.1.2 Project Management Methodology: 38

3.1.3 Project Status: 39

3.1.4 Lean Construction Methodology as a Corrective Action Plan 41

3.1.5 Lean Methodology effects 42

3.1.6 Conclusion 42

Chapter 4 Case Study 43

4.0 The Construction Industry in Egypt 44

4.1.1 Preamble: 44

4.1.2 Asfour Charity Hospital for Cardiac and Burns 46

4.1.3 Scope of Work Activities by Contractor 46

4.1.4 Prior Execution: 46

4.1.5 Materials delivery and fabrication 46

4.1.6 Concrete works 47

4.1.7 Finishing Works 47

4.1.8 The reasons behind the time and cost overrun 48

4.1.9 Lean Methodology principles and applications 49

4.1.10 Lean Construction at the Operation Level 56

5.0 Conclusions 59

6.0 Recommendations 62

7.0 Future research 63

Bibliography 65

APPENDIX 68

QUESTIONNAIRE 68

Figure 1 Project Management Scope 1

Figure 2  PM.  Scope and relations 2

Figure 3- Traditional Project Control process (GUIDE, 2008) 6

Figure 4 - Six Sigma keys 15

Figure 5 - Sample of a Linear scheduling Method (al, 2008) 19

Figure 6- Countries Using Lean Approach in Construction & the realized performance Improvement (Sweifi, 2013) 22

Figure 7 How to determine the Critical Path of a project 28

Figure 8 Activity Identity Box (Magallon, 2009) 30

Figure 9 Example of project duration as a Fast Track 31

Figure 10 Example of Crashing project Time Schedule 32

Figure 11- Nesaj Apartment Buildings 36

Figure 12- Nesaj Town Houses 36

Figure 13- Nesaj Street view 37

Figure 14- Nesaj Club House 38

Figure 15 - Phase 1 (External Clinics) 51

Figure 16 - Phase 2 (Cardiac Emergency) 51

Figure 17 - Phase 3 (X-ray and Laboratories) 52

Figure 18 - Phase 4 (Intensive Care) 52

Figure 19 - Phase 5 (Patients' rooms and Pharmacy) 53

Figure 20- Phase6 (Operation theatres, Kitchen and Laundry) 53

Figure 21 - Phase 7- (Intensive Care 2) 54

Figure 22 - Phase 8 (Patients' Room) 54

Figure 23- Phase 9 (Cardiac Catheter Operation) 55

Figure 24 - Phase 10 (VIP entrances , Receptions and Lobbies) 55

Figure 25 -Phase 11 (Patient's rooms 4th flr. up to 7th flr.) 56

Table 1Traditional P.M vs. Lean Construction (Sweifi, 2013) 12

Table 2-Countries Using Lean Approach in Construction & the realized benefits (performance Improvement) (Sweifi, 2013) 22

Table 3 Project Status and the role of each Party 39

Introduction

The Construction industry in Egypt is always facing a number of several challenges which are mainly concerned with Time or Budget overrun. This overrun of time and budget might cause the complete stoppage of projects which often happens.

The Stakeholders of a project or industry are always looking for receiving a product or a project that is 100% functioning while squeezing the time and cost of all the combined activities that ends up with handing over the final product desired. Here comes the Projects Management role to study, analyze and put a plan to achieve these desires. The traditional construction management approach has been effective in solving some of these problems. The Construction Management has been defined as the overall planning of a project by allocating the appropriate resources to finish the project on time, at budget and at targeted quality.

Figure 1 Project Management Scope

Analyzing these targets, putting them together and studying the relation between them it was obvious that achieving all three aims is almost impossible where comes the challenge of project management and the adopting of LEAN principles as done by the Japanese Manufacturers.  See figure 2

Figure 2  PM.  Scope and relations

' High Quality  + Fast Track Project               Very Expensive

' High Quality  + Low Cost                              Time Overrun

' Fast Track      + Low cost                               Poor Quality

'

Problem Statement

Time and Budget overrun are the main headaches of the construction industry especially in Fast track projects which has tight time schedule and fixed budgets. Traditional ways of Project Management was not as much effective as planned so there was a new trend that needs to be in light that was driven out of the Toyota Principles of production that was called LEAN CONSTRUCTION.

Research Methodology

' Illustrating the scope of Project Management.

' Illustrating the mean of Lean Construction principles.

' Lean construction tools and way of application.

' Comparing between Traditional Project Management Approach and Lean construction Approach.

' Illustrating the Meaning of Fast tracking and crashing of projects time frames.

' Case study of implementing Lean thinking on fast track project and the effect on the project's time and cost.

Objectives

Implementing Lean Construction Principles on fast track projects will improve the performance and the controlling upon time and cost.

Chapter 1 (Lean vs. PM)

IMPLEMENTATION OF

LEAN CONSTRUCTION  PRINCIPLES

ON PROJECTS AND ITS EFFICIENCY

1.0 Project Management & Lean Construction Techniques

1.1.1 Literature Review

Construction is a very complicated industry that requires rigorous systems to deliver the project on timely, efficient and effective manner. The schedule and cost overrun are common in most of the construction projects. Therefore, the main gauge for success of any construction project, regardless its size or complexity is to deliver the project without time or cost overrun. Several causes of the cost and time overrun were identified in the literature. Rahman et al. present in their research the causes related to construction resources which considerably causing cost overrun. The resource related factors as identified in the literature includes: material, manpower, equipment and finance

1.1.2 Traditional Projects Management

Management in the present doctrine of project management

The PMBOK Guide states that projects are composed of two kinds of process: project management processes & product-oriented processes (which specify and create the project product). Project management processes are further divided into initiating, planning, execution, controlling and closing processes. Let us concentrate on the core processes of planning, execution and controlling.  (Howell L. K., 2000)

Let's get first to define what is a project and what is the project management.

A- A project is a series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale.

B- Project management enables managers to focus on priorities, track performance, overcome difficulties, and adapt to change. It gives managers more control and provides proven tools and techniques to help them lead teams to meet objectives on time and within budget.

Project management is not necessarily about doing the tasks included in the scope of the project, but instead it is the management or organization of the activities included in the scope of the project. Projects are not processes, and they are not routine 'business as usual.' We often forget that projects are about managing people and performance just as much as they are about planning and plans. (Derry, 2012)

1.1.3 Projects Management Processes

1.1.3.1 PLANNING

The planning of projects is thoroughly described from the point of view of different knowledge areas in the PMBOK Guide. The planning processes are structured into core processes and facilitating processes. There are ten core processes:

a) scope planning

b) scope definition

c) activity definition

d) resource planning

e) activity sequencing

f) activity duration estimating

g) cost estimating

h) schedule development

i) cost budgeting

j) Project plan development

The output from these processes, the project plans, make up an input to the executing processes. A distinction is made between the project plans proper and the project performance baselines.  (GUIDE, 2008)

1.1.3.2 EXECUTION

 How is the project plan executed? On this aspect, the PMBOK Guide is puzzlingly brief worded. The core process of executing is not divided into sub-processes. The only direct reference to the actual interface between plan and work is with regard to the work authorization system, which is discussed by the following four sentences:

A work authorization system is a formal procedure to confirm project work to ensure that work is done at the right time and in the proper sequence. The primary mechanism is typically a written authorization to begin work on a specific activity or work package. The design of the work authorization system should balance the value of the control provided with the cost of that control. For example, on many smaller projects, verbal authorizations will be adequate.

1.1.3.3 CONTROL

The core process of controlling is divided into two sub-processes: performance reporting and overall change control. Based on the former, corrections are prescribed for the executing processes, and based on the latter, changes are prescribed for the planning processes.

1.1.4 Anomalies & Deviations Happens in Traditional Project Management

There are three possible troubling phenomena from Planning in construction projects.

' First, the motivation for planning may come from outside sources: legal consideration and owner's requirement.

' Secondly, the primary internal motivation for planning is often control, rather than execution.

' Thirdly, the significance of control is corrupted by the separation of execution from planning, and in practice planning becomes a way of explaining, after the fact, what has happened.

Like planning deviations, also Execution would cause deviance from the time schedule or budget that affects the performance of project managing.

Contractors may cause these execution problems when they work on Day By Day plan or miss coordinate the delivery of materials or long lead items that must be present on a certain time to be normally executed as planned. Or another cause might be the way the Contractor manage his resources by miss allocating these resources in order to save time or recover a budget overrun on an item or activity.

Controlling is the last cause of project managing failure or un-expected results of time, budget or quality managing and can be briefly described in the following:

' Supervision: Consultants or supervision team always distract the whole flow of the projects in their act to Show Off by focusing on achieving their own record of problem solving or sticking to standards or codes that takes too much work and time to achieve a certain level of quality on activities which are followed by others that might cover or maintain that level of recommended quality by the end of activity. (Howell L. K., 2000)

' Project Management: In order to make cost variance positive, managers try to decrease the actual cost of work performed as much as possible. on their own way to Show Off as well  Managers may manipulate sequences to make the performance seem good. They may reduce the capacity; however, this leads to overload which makes the work flow less reliable. Work is selected to assure the cost or schedule report looks good even if this means doing work first that earns highest value but is of no use downstream. (Howell L. K., 2000).

' Over Controlling and Monitoring:

Increased monitoring at the activity level, lead to greater pressure to assure its performance against budgets. This makes it more difficult to move resources between activities to improve project performance. Schedules show simple sequential relationships between activities and contracts give owners and general contractors the right to change the sequence and timing of each activity. Activity managers are held accountable for local results even though they lack the authority to assure them. As a result, each manager works to maximize his interests with little regard for others. (Howell L. K., 2000)

1.1.5 What is Lean Construction?

TOYOTA had adopted the LEAN thinking strategy by focusing on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value, but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved.

Essentially, lean is centered on making obvious what adds value by reducing everything else, it was initially put forward by a Finland professor Lauri Koskela (1993), based on National Construction and management Conference. He deemed that construction industry should learn from and take advantage of the basic principles, technology and means of lean manufacturing, adopt a new production theory, improve production efficiency of the construction process by eliminating waste and non-value-added activities and thus enhance the overall competitiveness of enterprises. And he believed that this introduction can make substantial progress in the construction industry.   (L.Koskela, 1992)

 Lean Construction is a production management strategy for achieving significant, continuous improvement in the performance of the total business process of a contractor through elimination of all wastes of time and other resources that do not add value to the product or service delivered to the customer  (Womack & Jones, 2003).

1.1.6 Lean Building Principles application

   In order to reduce or eliminate the above wastes, Lean practitioners utilize many tools or Lean Building Blocks. Successful practitioners recognize that, although most of these may be implemented as stand-alone programs.

1. Pull System ' The technique for producing parts at customer demand. Service organizations operate this way by their very nature. Manufacturers, on the other hand, have historically operated by a Push System, building products to stock (per sales forecast), without firm customer orders.

2. Kanban ' A method for maintaining an orderly flow of material. Kanban cards are used to indicate material order points, how much material is needed, from where the material is ordered, and to where it should be delivered.

3. Work Cells ' The technique of arranging operations and/or people in a cell (U-shaped, etc.) rather than in a traditional straight assembly line. Among other things, the cellular concept allows for better utilization of people and improves communication.

4. Total Productive Maintenance ' TPM capitalizes on proactive and progressive maintenance methodologies and calls upon the knowledge and cooperation of operators, equipment vendors, engineering, and support personnel to optimize machine performance. Results of this optimized performance include; elimination of breakdowns, reduction of unscheduled and scheduled downtime, improved utilization, higher throughput, and better product quality. Bottom-line results include; lower operating costs, longer equipment life, and lower overall maintenance costs.

5. Total Quality Management ' Total Quality Management is a management system used to continuously improve all areas of a company's operation. TQM is applicable to every operation in the company and recognizes the strength of employee involvement.

6. Point-Of-Use-Storage ' See above for more information on POUS.

7. Quick Changeover (a.k.a., Set up Reduction and Single Minute Exchange of Dies) ' The technique of reducing the amount of time to change a process from running one specific type of product to another. The purpose for reducing changeover time is not for increasing production capacity, but to allow for more frequent changeovers in order to increase production flexibility. Quicker changeovers allow for smaller batch sizes. See Batch Size Reduction below for more details.

8. Batch Size Reduction ' Historically, manufacturing companies have operated with large batch sizes in order to maximize machine utilization, assuming that changeover times were 'fixed' and could not be reduced. Because Lean calls for the production of parts to customer demand, the ideal batch size is ONE. However, a batch size of one is not always practical, so the goal is to practice continuous improvement to reduce the batch size as low as possible. Reducing batch sizes reduces the amount of work-in-process inventory (WIP). Not only does this reduce inventory-carrying costs, but also production lead-time or cycle time is approximately directly proportional to the amount of WIP. Therefore, smaller batch sizes shorten the overall production cycle, enabling companies to deliver more quickly and to invoice sooner (for improved cash flow). Shorter production cycles increases inventory turns and allows the company to operate profitably at lower margins, which enables price reductions, which increases sales and market share.

9. 5S or Workplace Organization ' This tool is a systematic method for organizing and standardizing the workplace. It's one of the simplest Lean tools to implement, provides immediate return on investment, crosses all industry boundaries, and is applicable to every function with an organization. Because of these attributes, it's usually our first recommendation for a company implementing Lean.

10. Visual Controls ' These are simple signals that provide an immediate and readily apparent understanding of a condition or situation. Visual controls enable someone to walk into the workplace and know within a short period of time (usually thirty seconds) what's happening with regards to production schedule, backlog, workflow, inventory levels, resource utilization, and quality. These controls should be efficient, self-regulating, and worker managed, and include Kanban cards, lights, color-coded tools, lines delineating work areas and product flow, etc.

11. Concurrent Engineering ' This is a technique of using cross-functional teams (rather than sequential departmental assignments) to develop and bring new products to market. In many instances, implementing concurrent engineering has reduced time-to-market by 50%; the automotive and computer industries are good examples. Time-to-market is one of the most important tools for capturing and maintaining market share. (Kilpatrick, 2003)

1.1.7 Lean Construction VS. Traditional Construction Project management approach

There are many differences between the traditional way of Project Management and the Lean construction principles concerning the targets, aims and how they develop and manage the flow of the project, following are some of these differences that can be easily concluded by a simple comparison: (Sweifi, 2013)

' In lean it is mainly monitoring the workflow to eliminate any defects that might appear, in contrary to traditional method which takes corrective actions after detecting variances.

' Lean Principles are concerned about optimizing the value of the whole project and minimizing the defects, while the traditional way is concerned about optimizing each activity separately to be within the time schedule and budget.

' Lean approach targets a consistent workflow of the project to stabilize the activities timing and costs to avoid variances, while the traditional project management approach works on squeezing the time needed for activities to achieve the assumed time limit of the project within the allowable budget which leads to compromise on the quality of some activities that are not affecting the final product (ex: Masonry works can be within allowable tolerances  but to be done as fast as possible since it will be covered by plaster works and paint with high quality ).

Table 1Traditional P.M vs. Lean Construction (Sweifi, 2013)

Activity Traditional PM Approach Lean Construction Approach

Control Project control represented in monitoring the performance (schedule and cost) and take corrective actions after detecting negative variances The role of project control is to assure reliable workflow by measuring and improving the system Performance

Performance In the traditional approach, all the efforts of the management are concentrated on optimizing each activity separately, thus, reducing overall performance The main target is maximizing value with minimum waste at the project level to assure reliable workflow

Value Considering less cost as value. Also, the customer has to define all his requirements at the outset of the project regardless the change in markets and the new technologies Project is managed as a value generating process where the customer satisfaction is created and developed over the course of the project

Work techniques Push-driven schedules are used to release information and material (e.g. material is ordered to a pre-determined schedule to arrive on site before the work is carried out. If the stock is not used, the supplier continues to deliver to schedule.) Pull-driven schedules control the information and material flow etc. The team works backwards (pulls) from the end date to the start of the phase to identify the activities necessary to reach the 'end' target. (building only what is needed, when it is needed, with no waste in the process)

Centralization Decision making is centralized through one manger in sometimes. Decision making through transparency by getting project participants involved in the production control system and empowering them to take action

Under loading PMI does not consider adjustments Production unit capacity is adjusted as well as inventory to be able to absorb variation

Variations Variation's mitigation and management is not considered Attempts to mitigate variation in respect of end product quality and work rate

Collaboration Such policy is not applied in the traditional methods LC gives continuing support to suppliers by developing new commercial contracts which gave the suppliers incentives for reliable work flow and for participating in the overall product improvement

Transparency Transparency methods are not considered in traditional management methods. Increasing transparency between all the project's stakeholders to allow people make decisions reducing the need of central management

Continuous Improvement Traditional method does not consider continuous improvement so much. LC considers continuous improvement in the process and workflow

Interactions and dependencies Managing the combined effect of dependence and variation on activities is important as it affects the time and cost of any project

Briefly:

 So' it is clear now  to introduce Lean Construction Principles as transforming the whole traditional activities of construction as a perfectly  Designed and Organized Templates that are carefully selected to achieve the desired targets of constructing a project within the targeted time , cost and quality.

1.1.8 Lean Project Delivery System

The Lean Project Delivery System emerged in 2000 from theoretical and practical investigations, and is in process of on-going development through experimentation in many parts of the world. In recent years, experiments have focused on the definition and design phase of projects, applying concepts and methods most especially target costing and set based design. These have been adapted for use in the construction industry and integrated with computer modeling and relational forms of contract. Although by no means a finished work, the Lean Project Delivery System has developed sufficiently to warrant an updated description and presentation to industry and academia, incorporating processes and practices that have emerged since earlier publications. (Ballard G. , 2000)

Another tool of Project Management is Six Sigma Approach that had been very effective tool recently and that was adopted by many Project Management organizations worldwide.

1.1.9 What is Six Sigma ?

First, what it is not. It is not a secret society, a slogan or a clich''. Six Sigma is a highly disciplined process that helps us focus on developing and delivering near-perfect products and services. Why 'Sigma'? The word is a statistical term that measures how far a given process deviates from perfection. The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.

1.1.10 Key Concepts of Six Sigma

At its core, Six Sigma revolves around a few key concepts.   (Leonard, 2016)

' Critical to Quality:

' Attributes most important to the customer Defect

' Failing to deliver what the customer wants Process Capability

' What your process can deliver Variation

' What the customer sees and feels Stable Operations

' Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels Design for Six Sigma

' Designing to meet customer needs and process capability

Figure 4 - Six Sigma keys

1.1.11 Lean VS. Six Sigma

Lately there's been a great deal of talk around Lean execution. But, some people speak of Lean, some speak of Six Sigma and some use a combination of the two. But, what's the difference? How do you know what's right for your organization?

Lean Six Sigma is a methodology that combines process speed with quality. To become a truly more efficient and effective organization in terms of operations and business processes, you must have both Lean and Six Sigma methodologies; having one without the other ultimately results in process destruction.

Lean, itself, focuses on speed. It emphasizes reducing the amount of time between activities, events, and cycles.  The shorter the cycle time, the more cycles you can complete in a given amount of time.

Lean also identifies areas where process waste and bottlenecks can be eliminated. There are 8 types of waste that can be removed from business processes to reduce costs and time:

1. Waiting- whether it is for the next activity, process step, or information, process wait time can be 90% or more of the processing cycle.

2. Overproduction- over producing products or services ahead of the need can result in product expiration or excess inventory

3. Rework- correcting defects, mistakes and errors

4. Motion- excessive movement/transfer of people, supplies, materials, and documents

5. Over Processing- of information, data, and testing

6. Inventory- maintaining excessive amount of supplies that could potentially expire

7. Intellect- failing to use the talents and knowledge of the organization

8. Unnecessary Transporting- equipment, people, etc.

While lean promotes rapid business processes the problem that arises from it is a lack of quality. It doesn't matter how many forms are completed or calls are taken if the data and information captured is not up to par. Simply completing activities rapidly, without check marks fosters an environment prone to errors and often requires rework. This is where Six Sigma becomes essential to business process management.

The Six Sigma methodology is a quality tool that emphasizes reducing the number of errors in a process. It focuses on identifying variation in the types of data inputs, and looks at Root Cause Analysis to determine the source of errors. After all, what good is it to complete a process quickly if the information is incorrectly entered?

To ensure process and organizational success a combination of both lean and six sigma are needed. Together lean and six sigma work through process mapping to model and automate the most efficient, quality workflows possible, allowing your company to maximize productivity, while eliminating waste and reducing costs. Having a Lean Six Sigma approach to your business processes is essential for any company to achieve operational excellence.

You'll also hear from certain people that software is not necessary for Lean Six Sigma execution. Sure, it's not necessary if you only want to receive a fraction of the possible results; but, why only go through process of making your manual tasks lean? If you automate your tasks with a Lean Six Sigma approach you are likely to receive an infinitely higher return on your efforts. (McKenzie, 2009)

1.1.12 Implementing Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Construction

The key benefits of lean and six sigma include

1. Providing structured methods of improvement to reduce waste.

2. Shorten production time.

3. Reducing cost, reducing lead times.

4. Promoting concurrent work.

5. Accelerating activities.

6. Improving planning, control and ultimately high levels of customer satisfaction.

An essential element to making lean and six-sigma work is in ensuring that its practices are used beyond production. From land development, marketing, sales, estimating, design, purchasing, construction, warranty and service to finance and administration all need to be introduced to the concepts. (Leonard, 2016)

1.1.13 What are YOUR costs of waste, defects, rework and warranty?

These categories of waste are to some degree in and off themselves a shift in thinking, in many ways we build in delays and transportation issues to our construction schedules. But by addressing each of these in tandem with flow charts, value stream mapping for example we can begin to identify and drive out waste, reduce time lines and institute Just In Time delivery of materials and products. For example while motion studies are more common in manufacturing settings they are applicable for construction. This can relate to studies of the construction site layout for storage of materials and equipment to ensure the least transport on site for example. This can also relate to each floor or section of a building under construction.

1.1.14    5S

Another lean tool is 5S. This includes combining the concepts of

' Sorting

' Systematic arrangement

' Spick and Span

' Standardization

' Self-discipline

Again this can easily be related to the construction site to ensure that materials are stored appropriately for example on pallets so they are off the ground and covered for protection from rain or ground water. Even tools and equipment in trucks and in toolboxes or especially wheeled tools cabinets can be organized to reduce damage and ease of location during work. It most certainly applies to warehousing of equipment and materials.

While all of the above are elements of lean they can all be coordinated especially on a problem solution or improvement project level by using the six sigma concept of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control (DMAIC). This can be used as a five-step improvement process much in the same way as Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA). This can be used to address individual problems that have occurred or for preventive actions. Or it can be used as a wider improvement project or initiative framework to help lead and coordinate. This is a simple but effective way to introduce a concept of six sigma.

1.1.15 Last Planner System (LPS) and Linear Scheduling Method (LSM)

The last planner concept is aimed at improving productivity by eliminating bottlenecks and implementing look-ahead planning by the people at the work-face (Ballard G. , 2000)  Last planners are individuals who decide what work is to be done the following day, and they are typically superintendents, foremen, or site supervisors. The work that is scheduled for the next day is called assignment, and the last planner relies on a so-called 'should-can-will analysis. In other words, he or she is expected to make commitments ('will) to doing what should be done ('should), but only to the extent that it can be done ('can). The last planner focuses on assignment-level planning and determines the amount of work that should be done based on the master project plan. The constraints of performance, such as work sequence and resource availability, determine what can be done. Based on the latest available information, the last planner then evaluates and commits to the work that will be done.  

LSM is a graphical scheduling tool designed for scheduling repetitive linear construction projects, such as roadways, pipelines, and high-rise construction projects, that contain identical or similar production units. An example of LSM for a high-rise concrete construction operation can be found in Figure 5. An activity, such as formwork installation, is represented as a sloped line, called a production line, in a two-dimensional time and space coordinate system, and activities are differentiated by line color or style. The horizontal axis represents time, and the vertical axis is the location of an activity. The slope of a production line graphically represents its productivity rate and the direction of construction progress. For example, varying slopes indicate variability in productivity rate due to many factors, such as quantity and complexity of work, crew composition, and labor skill level. The horizontal distance between two activities is a graphic representation of the float between the activities, or the time buffer, and, similarly, the vertical distance represents the physical distance between the activities, or the space buffer. LSM allows better representation of scheduling information than the conventional CPM or bar charts in terms of space constraints and productivity rates, and it also graphically depicts the start and the end times and locations of activities so that work continuity and progress direction can be easily monitored.   

A daily graphic schedule is also used to further improve communication of scheduling information on a daily basis at the crew level. The graphic schedule shows, intuitively, activities in their actual location on the site layout drawing for a specific day. A set of graphic schedule charts is usually prepared for each day for a period of three to five weeks. In addition to activity location, interference among activities and site logistics can be easily captured in the chart.

Figure 5 - Sample of a Linear scheduling Method (al, 2008)

' Should-Can-Will Analysis.

In LSM, activities are positioned in a time and space coordinate system, along with their production rates. Time and space buffers among activities and activity productivity rates can be graphically evaluated to determine what can be done. Other constraints may also be recorded manually in a LSM chart or a graphic schedule for constraint analysis.

' Work Continuity. In LSM, activities performed by the same crew can be represented as line segments in the same style. The line segments that are not connected indicate interruptions in the crew's performance, which means that work continuity can be graphically examined and manipulated.

' Pull-driven Scheduling. LSM allows planners to pull activities to a later start time so that waiting can be eliminated. An activity and its predecessors can be grouped and moved together in LSM for pull-driven scheduling.

' Team Approach for Scheduling. A master schedule does not show detail assignments, for which the last planners are responsible. Look-ahead schedules must allow subcontractors, superintendents, and foremen, as last planners, to easily expand the master schedule and add their detailed assignments. In LSM, production lines that represent assignments can be easily added or deleted, and LSM and graphic scheduling can be used to analyze the overall impact of these assignments on the master schedule.

' Simplicity. LSM and graphic scheduling are easy to prepare and understand. Superintendents and foremen can schedule their work using either computers or pencil and paper.

1.1.16 AREAS OF LEAN TO FOCUS ON

Some elements to think about when using lean for improvement ideas include the following:

' Remove intermediaries: Dealing directly to authorized persons and decision makers.

' Use substitution or alternatives: this is concerned with time and cost improvement in many activities.

' Reduce or recycle : to reduce the time of removing wastes it is much better to recycle and reuse in other activities , ex: plywood can be used for shuttering for concrete works then shuttering for linear joints. Etc.

' Eliminate the things that are not used or necessary: ex: collective tanks can be instead of using both collective tank and septic tank.

' Do tasks in parallel : starting un related activities at several areas

' Smooth work flow: minimizing obstacles and immediate problem solving.

' Minimize handoffs: no need to through the ball in others courts if you can take a solving decision.

' Use pull systems: as described previously, to work on meeting client needs accordingly.

' Develop alliances

' Implement cross training

' Optimize the level of inspection

' Focus on preventive maintenance of tools and equipment

' Standardize

' Develop contingency plans

' Reduce the number of components

' Use visual job site displays to communicate project information: this can help to monitor the current project status and focus on the future plan according to time schedule by arranging activities to fulfill the plan.

1.1.17 Benefits realized by Lean Construction implementation in different Countries    

The construction industry has recently seen improvements in the projects performance in terms of value, quality, time and cost as a result of introducing lean thinking to the industry and using different lean techniques/principles. Lean thinking has proven to deliver tangible benefits to the performance and delivery of construction projects in different countries and organizations around the world. (Sweifi, 2013)

Table 2 shows summary for the realized benefits achieved in different countries after implementing lean construction approach. The main focus was on the implementation of lean principles in concrete works.  

The improvements in the construction field in several countries around the world due to lean thinking have been reported in this research to develop a trend for lean benefits as shown in figure 6. The improvements achieved in Nigeria and Brazil, being developing countries, by applying Lean construction management can be taken as a guide for the improvements that lean approach can achieve in Egypt. Fig. 6 shows that the improvement accomplished by Brazil and Nigeria in reducing the project duration is 25% and 31% respectively. Hypothetically and due to the several similarities in their economic situation, Egypt can successfully implement lean construction and achieve similar results to those achieved in Brazil and Nigeria (IMF, n.d.). This improvement will vary between 25% and 31%. (Sweifi, 2013)

Table 2-Countries Using Lean Approach in Construction & the realized benefits (performance Improvement) (Sweifi, 2013)

Country % of improvement  (Duration Reduction) Used Lean techniques

United States (US) 16% Last Planner System, Visualization management & First run studies, 5S, and fail safe for quality & safety

Brazil 25% Last Planner System

Nigeria 31% Last Planner System, Visualization management & Huddle meetings

United Kingdom (UK) 37% Just-in-time, collaborative planning, visual management, prefabricated material, Waste elimination, 5S, theory of constraints.

Sweden 79% Last Planner System, continuous improvement, Value Stream Mapping, Pull approach, reduce batch size, Just-in-time, collaboration, and prefabricated material.

Chapter 2 Fast Track Projects

FAST TRACKING AND CRASHING PROJECTS

2.0 Fast Track Projects

2.1.1 Fast Tracking Projects

Strategic fast tracking is distinguished by its primary purpose as a "results-driven" management process, focusing heavily on the practical realities of getting projects done (and done properly) in the real world - where project "conditions" are so often complicated by a lack of time, resources, funding and unrealistic stakeholder expectations. (Toolkit, 2015)

The primary objective of strategic fast tracking is to streamline the project management work effort, to save time and allow the project team to focus on results over process. It accomplishes this goal in four (4) primary ways:

1- It provides a planning, governance and decision making roadmap to guide the project team. This eliminates the need to 're-invent the wheel', provides benchmarks for timely actions and decision making, and as fast tracking is consistently applied, these capabilities will improve, further increasing efficiency and productivity.

2- It forces a focus on negotiated priorities to 're-size' the project work effort so that demands and capabilities are properly aligned.

3- It minimizes project management 'overhead' by consolidating key management obligations into high priority, multi-purpose deliverables.

4- It promotes stakeholder engagement, cooperation and collaboration to ensure shared expectations and informed consent. (Toolkit, 2015)

Fast tracking and crashing are two schedule compression techniques that help you shorten the duration of your project. Fast tracking does not involve any cost but it increases risks. On the other hand, crashing does not introduce much risk but it is a costly affair. With crashing it is also possible that you will not yield an effective work output because you may not get skilled resources, and even if you get them, it takes some time for them to settle down. You cannot bring a bunch of people together and expect them to perform immediately. Therefore, perform due diligence before going for crashing, because sometimes it may increase the cost significantly with a poor reduction in schedule compression.

There are many reasons you may want to compress the schedule.

The first reason is that your project is late, and you are running corner to corner to bring your project back on track.

Another reason may be that you intentionally want to shorten the duration of the project, although your project is on track.

To bring the project on schedule you will use schedule compression techniques such as fast tracking and crashing.

A delay in the project may happen due to many reasons, such as:

' Schedule was unrealistic

' You did not get the promised resources

' Any unforeseen incidents occurred

' Due to force majeure

Other times it might happen that, although you are on track, you want to compress the schedule because:

' The client wants to complete the project early.

' You see an opportunity to get another project if you are able complete the project early.

' Your competitor is about to launch a new product; therefore you have to hasten to launch your product sooner.

So you see there are many cases in which you will want to compress your schedule.

In project management you can use two techniques, i.e. fast tracking, and crashing, to shorten the schedule when no change in scope is required.

These are important techniques in project management, and you must be aware of them. Also they are very important from a PMP exam point of view. You may see a few questions from this topic on the exam; therefore, understand these techniques well.

In fast tracking, you review the critical path to find out which sequential activities can be performed parallel or partially parallel to each other.

2.1.2 Fast Tracking Overcomes Obstacles and Avoids Pitfalls

Projects are a challenge by their very nature - even without all the obstacles and pitfalls that can get in the way of successful results.  In fact, obstacles and pitfalls are an inevitable part of the project management process. That's why strategic fast tracking takes a proactive approach, to overcome and avoid the kind of unwanted circumstances that can get in the way of productive work (limiting what your team is able to deliver).  Specifically, strategic fast tracking focuses on the following types of obstacle/pitfall conditions:

' Undefined vision, goals, scope and work effort.

' Unrealistic stakeholder expectations.

' Insufficient stakeholder buy-in and acceptance.

' Disengaged, disinterested stakeholders.

' Lack of tangible, measureable sponsor support and guidance.

' Constantly changing demands.

' Misaligned scope (inconsistent or not reflective of actual business needs).

' Weak and/or insufficiently visible sponsorship.

' Misplaced focus on project "process" over project "benefits".

' Misplaced and/or undefined project and customer priorities.

' Insufficient oversight to quickly identify potential problems and conflicts.

' Unnecessary management overhead (not tied to a need, benefit or result).

' Unexplored alternatives and consequences (if the project does not turn out as planned).

' Failure to anticipate and address stakeholder resistance and objections.

' Failure to properly balance project demands and performing organization capabilities.

2.1.3 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)

CPM calculates The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project , the earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer. It determines 'critical' activities (on the longest path) through which the Project manager and the planner can decide and prioritize activities for the effective management and to shorten the planned critical path of a project by:

' Pruning critical path activities

' Fast tracking (performing more activities in parallel)

' Crashing the critical path (shortening the durations of critical path activities by adding resources).

There are approaches to determine the critical path method stated  as three phases

A- Phase 1

' Break project into operations necessary for completion

' Determine sequential relationship of operations

B- Phase 2

' Create time estimates for each operation

' Determine earliest possible start date, earliest possible

C- Phase 3

' Establish time-cost relationship

' Establish scheduling variations

' Determine most favorable balance between time-cost

' Normal Start ' normal time, least cost

' All-Crash Start ' least time, higher cost

Figure 7 How to determine the Critical Path of a project

It is clearly described as shown in the above figure how to determine the critical path of a project, then the total process must be re-checked again to figure out the activities that can be crushed or overlapped to shorten the period and determine the float on your time schedule.

Some Definitions has to be clear to work on the CPM as follows:

' Critical path is the sequence of activities which add up to the longest overall duration. It is the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date (there is no float on the critical path). A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path.

' Float (slack) - amount of time that a task can be delayed without causing a delay to:

A- Subsequent tasks (free float)

B- project completion date (total float)

' Critical activity ' activity with zero float

' Resource leveling ' iterative process of assigning crews to activities in order to calculate their duration.

For all activities in the project there is something called the Activity Identity Box?

This box shows the Early Start (ES), Early Finish (EF), Late Start (LS), Late Finish (LF) and the duration needed to accomplish the activity. Through this box the Project Manager and the Planner can determine when and where to crush the time schedule. (Magallon, 2009)

It is important to understand that you will review the activities on the critical path only, because on other paths, activities have floats. There is no need to shorten the duration of those activities; if you do so, you are only giving those activities more float.

Moreover, you also need to check other paths whose durations are near the critical path duration, because if the duration of your current critical path becomes shorter than any other path, it will no longer be a critical path. If any other path has a duration equal to the critical path, it will be very risky for the project because you now have to manage two critical paths.

Once you find out which activities can be fast tracked, you will start working on them to reduce the schedule.

The benefit of fast tracking is that it does not cost you any extra money; however, it comes with some increase in risks, because you are performing many activities in parallel which were originally planned in sequence.

Usually sequential activities can sometime be fast tracked by 33%. This mean if the previous activity is 66% completed, you can start next activity. Here, both activities will be partially overlapped. Although it will increase the risk, the level of risk impact will be within acceptable limits.

Fast tracking helps you reduce the duration of the schedule up to some limits; if you continue to fast track after this limit, it may increase the risk and cause possible rework.

Figure 8 Activity Identity Box (Magallon, 2009)

Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing: (Magallon, 2009)

' Tasks which must be carried out

' Where parallel activity can be carried out

' The shortest time in which a project can be completed

' Resources needed to achieve a project

' The sequence of activities, scheduling, and timings involved

' Task priorities

Figure 9 Example of project duration as a Fast Track

2.1.4 Crashing

Crashing is another schedule compression technique where you add extra resources to the project to compress the schedule.

In crashing, you will review the critical path and see which activities can be completed by adding extra resources. You try to find the activities that can be reduced the most by adding the least amount of cost. Once you find those activities, you will apply the crashing technique to them.

While doing crashing, you will keep tab of the other paths as well, because it is also possible that the duration of other paths could become equal to the duration of your critical path.

When you start this schedule compression process, initially you will get more reduction in duration with less cost input; however, as you continue with this process, the cost increases at a very fast rate with a smaller reduction in time.

A few examples of crashing techniques are:

Giving overtime

Bringing more resources

Motivating team members with monetary rewards

In schedule crashing, you do whatever it takes to shorten the duration. However, note that you cannot apply this technique to all activities. For example, in concrete work you have to wait until the concrete dries before you can start your next activity.

Figure 10 Example of Crashing project Time Schedule

2.1.5 Difference between Fast Tracking and Crashing

The following are a few differences between fast tracking and crashing:

' In fast tracking, activities are re-planned to perform in parallel or partially parallel, while in crashing you add additional resources to the activities to finish them early.

' Fast tracking does not cost you extra money; on the other hand crashing costs you extra money.

' Fast tracking increases risks; however, in crashing there is no significant increase in risks.

2.1.6 When Should You Use Fast Tracking or Crashing?

This depends on the situation and requirements. For example, if the client wants you to complete the project earlier and is ready to pay for the additional cost, you will go for crashing.

However if the project is delayed due to some unforeseen conditions and you have to bring the project back on schedule, you will go for fast tracking because it does not require extra money.

There is another case: when you may have to pay a penalty to the client for any delay. Here you will compare the cost of the penalty with the cost of crashing, and if this analysis shows you that it is better to go with crashing, you will go for it.

Generally speaking, when you start compressing the schedule you start with fast tracking, because this process does not require additional costs. Once you're done with fast tracking, you try crashing if necessary.

2.1.7 Summary

Fast tracking and crashing are two schedule compression techniques that help you shorten the duration of your project. Fast tracking does not involve any cost but it increases risks. On the other hand, crashing does not introduce much risk but it is a costly affair. With crashing it is also possible that you will not yield an effective work output because you may not get skilled resources, and even if you get them, it takes some time for them to settle down. You cannot bring a bunch of people together and expect them to perform immediately. Therefore, perform due diligence before going for crashing, because sometimes it may increase the cost significantly with a poor reduction in schedule compression.

Chapter 3 Case Study

INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY

NESAJ RESIDENTIAL COMPOUND

Al-Rakah District, AL Khobar ' KSA.

Owner: Al Fawzan Group

Designer: SCADO - Saudi Consulting and Design Office

Project Management: IPMC ' International Projects Management co.

Consultant: ECG (Engineering Consultants Group)

Contractor:  Varies

3.0 Preamble:

This project is a Residential Compound owned by Nesaj for Development one of Al Fawzan Group companies. The Compound consists of 248 units divided as Luxury Stand Alone villas, Town Houses, Apartments Buildings, Studio Buildings and a Club House. It is planned that this Compound to be one of the leading Luxurious Compounds in the Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia.

The whole project will be executed as Concrete Sub-Structure works and Precast Buildings designed as Precast bearing walls and Hollow core slabs for stories.

The Client had hired a professional team of Project Management co. and Consultancy firm to achieve his fast track project within the time frame and budget. These teams to spend efforts to keep the project on track and without budget or time overrun.

Project Time Frame: 24 Months

Project Budget: 350 Million Saudi Riyals as Lump sum contracts

Figure 11- Nesaj Apartment Buildings

Figure 12- Nesaj Town Houses

Figure 13- Nesaj Street view

3.1.1 Project Criteria:

The project had been divided into a number of phases, each phase consists of a building type in addition of Infra-Structure works as follows:

1- Phase 1: Town Houses and the Start of Infra-Structure works

2- Phase 2: Stand Alone Villas.

3- Phase 3: Apartments Buildings.

4- Phase 4 : Club House, Services Buildings and Plants

5- Phase 5:  Landscape and Hardscape.

Figure 14- Nesaj Club House

3.1.2 Project Management Methodology:

The PM of the project has approved a policy of dividing the scope of work on several contractors so it will be easily to negotiate for the prices of execution of defined scopes as well as avoiding the risk of delaying the project that could occur due to hiring a General contractor that might have a certain problem causing a certain delay.

This could be defined as one of Lean Construction Methodology as well as fast tracking concept by dividing the scope of work to a number of concurrent activities to improve the quality and minimizing the defects without extra cost or budget overrun.

Due to the un readiness of all design drawings and tender documents of the whole phases at the time of starting the project, the PM had planned to issue each phase separately for tender and bidding on a certain time as per the Master Time schedule of the project, so each phase to be prepared and started on the exact time as planned to avoid time and budget overrun.

3.1.3 Project Status:

The Project is on delay since phase 1 had complete 140 days instead of 105 days to be completed as planned due to several reasons related to all involved parties (Stake holders) as described in the following table.

Table 3 Project Status and the role of each Party

Responsible Party Causes of Delay Impact Result

Client 1- Delayed signing of contracts for contractors.

2- Delayed down payments release.

3- Modifications during the execution of works.

4- Involved in reviewing Shp.Dwgs of Precast.

5- Lack of communications and internet

6- Involved in site mobilization.

1- Booming Initial Start of Contractor then pulling down the progress till Finalizing the Documents.

2- Contractor's cash flow problems.

3- Executed work either to be modified or demolished and restarted.

4- Lack of knowledge for PM and Consultant, discrepancies happened @ MEP works.   Project on Delay

Designer

 ( SCADO) 1- Late Delivery of IFC drawings.

2- Poor coordination between design disciplines.

3- Discrepancies on drawings.

4- Missing / insufficient data and details.

5- Poor experience on precast projects. 1- Initial start of phases delayed.

2- Extra time for shop drawings review.

3- Extra time for submitting proposals or modifying the design / issuing several revisions.

4- Insufficient details submitted by contr. And miss-understandings of dwgs. And relations.

5- Too many modifications to comply with precast. 1- Time impact

2- Variations and claims.

PM 1- Vague scope of work issued for bidding.

2- Choosing lump sum contracts.

3- Incomplete packages issued for bidding.

4- Starting several activities that barely can work on parallel.

5- Loosing communication channels with consultant.

6- Forcing contractors to under quote work prices.

7- UN-fixed organization charts of contractors staff. 1- Missed items in scope of works.

2- Lack of coordination between disciplines.

3- Too much effort to coordinate and avoid conflicts or stoppage of works.

4- Irritating climate of work and competitive field.

5- Heading to acceptable work quality, forcing consul. To comply with it. 1- Variations and claims.

2- Problems and stoppage of works to solve interference problems between contractors.

3- Battle Field with consultant and noncooperation.

4- Low quality of work.

Consultant 1- Lack of experience regarding such projects.

2- Trying to overcome PM.

3- Problem making instead of solving.

4- Aggressive attitude with all parties.

5- Poor coordination.

6- Bad organizing and poor documentation.

7- Studying the dwgs. , specs , and BOQ's did not take place.

8- Forcing contractors to request over time for late work inspections. 1- UN aware of procedures and recommended inspections.

2- Bad communication with other parties.

3- Too many problems with contractors resulting the stoppage of works.

4- UN professionality at handling works.

5- Several mistakes at executed work

6- Too many conflicts and wrong executed works.

7- Loosing of documents. 1- Project delayed.

2- Mistakes occurred.

3- Too much fights with contractors.

4- Loosing of prestige as a consultant.

5- Un- acceptable quality of works at some locations.

Contractors 1- Under quoting of scope.

2- Insufficient organization chart.

3- Lack of experience on such projects.

4- Un-professional team.

5- Unskilled labors.

6- Unskilled and low classification sub-contractors.

7- Lack of resources.

8- Deviating from T.sch.

9- Delay of procurements.

10- Focusing on claims and variations.

11- Low quality of shp.dwgs. 1- Bad quality

2- Work efficiency is below acceptance.

3- Subjected to penalties.

4- Warning letters issued for de-scoping.

5- Termination of some sub-contractors.

6- Un-finished works.

7- Too much repair of works to reach recommended quality. Work delayed and all parties fighting to recover the delay.

3.1.4 Lean Construction Methodology as a Corrective Action Plan

Due to the above listed circumstances the PM decided to implement Lean Methodology to recover the delay through eliminating the wastes concerned with time and budget using the following steps:

1- Dividing Phase 2 to more than activity and subject each activity to a Contractor as listed:

' Two contractors from the previous phase 1 was subjected to substructure works on phase two. This plan saved time for prices negotiations, and explaining the scope of work since the contractor was already familiar with the previous one.

' Contractors already gained experience with the scope of work and requirements of the consultant which saved a lot of debates to be started all over again.

' Eliminating the waiting time for materials submittals approvals since the same contractors had already obtained approvals previously. Contractors to re-submit the same materials on a new cover for the new contract attached to the previous approved submittal for on spot approval.

' Eliminating the transportation and mobilization time since the resources of both contractors are already present on site.

' Improving the quality of work due to previous experience gained through phase 1.

' The PM suggested to fully construct a mockup villa as a turn-key unit, this will raise all the contradictions that might appear during finishes and coordination problems.

' Helping the client to see what he will have at the time of handover.

' Finishing a material approvals can be finalized on spot by the client and purchase orders will be placed earlier.

' Updating the time schedule due to the actual time needed to finalize the Mockup.

' Standardizing the works and convert it to a systematic work without the need of any further debates or technical discussions.

3.1.5 Lean Methodology effects

After following the plan done by the PM and a strict monitoring for all involved parties, much more improvement occurred as for project time and quality.

' Subjecting the previous contractors allowed Phase two execution had recovered a reasonable amount of the delayed time since phase two was planned to take 120 days and it was executed in almost 95 days saving 25 days out of 35 total delay time.

' The repeated activities for the same workmanship improved the quality and reduced the time of executing the works.

' Bidding with the same contractors give the option to fix the prices as previous phase whish saved money and time.

3.1.6 Conclusion

The implementation of Lean Construction Methodologies on the project had improved the performance to a quiet reasonable limit as it had recovered almost the delayed time of the project avoiding more problems and time overrun, as well as improving the quality of work due to the repeating of previous jobs with the same existing teams. And for the main target it kept the project within the planned budget avoiding cost overrun.

Chapter 4 Case Study

CONSTRUCTION IN EGYPT

A CASE STUDY

4.0 The Construction Industry in Egypt

4.1.1 Preamble:

After 25th January Revolution the Egyptian construction industry was severely affected by the rapid raise in materials and energy costs, which caused the construction development business to drop and investors to pull back due to the instability of currency rates and this raise in prices.

Being in the investor's shoes you will have to think of how a project can be executed in a very short period (Fast Track), within available budget limits and with an acceptable quality, not to risk investing in a project which would need a long time of execution that can suddenly be destroyed due to currency or prices sudden raise.

Here comes the role of project management professionals who would work hard on fulfilling the ambition of an investor taking the whole risk of reputation destroy in case of not achieving these targets. Therefore a new way of thinking has to appear and followed to minimize all the non-added value elements of the projects to achieve that hard target and minimize the risks that would appear. (Sweifi, 2013)

Project: Asfour Charity Hospital for Cardiac and Burns

Owner:  Crystal Asfour Group

Location: Shubra Al-Kheima, Cairo ' Egypt

Project Management and General Consultant: N.E.C.B (Nile Engineering & Consulting Bureau, Dr. Farouk Al kadi)

Architectural Consultant: AL Afify Consulting Office

Structural Consultant: M.A.S Engineering Consultants.

Geotechnical Consultants: N.E.C.B

MEP Consultants: Allied Consultants

HVAC Consultants: Allied Consultants

Medical Consultant:  Prof.Dr. /Bassel Tewfik

Coordinator of Medical Project: Dr. Osama Hussein

General Contractor: AL Fath Group (Shatat Contractors)

Construction time: 36 Months

Budget: 431 Million EGP. For Construction works - 1.3 Billion with Medical equipment

Contract Type:  Re-measured

4.1.2 Asfour Charity Hospital for Cardiac and Burns

This Hospital was designed to be the biggest burns hospital all over the world and the Third Cardiac Hospital in the Middle East, the Hospital serves 520 beds which is a huge number as mentioned.

The Hospital consists of several buildings:

1- Main Building

2- Mechanical Services Building

3- Water tank

4- Ambulance And First Aid Building

5- External Clinics

6- Landscape

7- Lot parking.

This paper will discuss partially the delay of the project and the roots then focus on implementing Lean Methodologies and the effect appears.

4.1.3 Scope of Work Activities by Contractor

4.1.4 Prior Execution:

' Protocol and communication matrix settlement.

' Shop Drawings submittals.

' Materials submittals.

' Quantities surveying.

' Survey works and levels.

' Placing purchase orders for long lead items.

4.1.5 Materials delivery and fabrication

' Steel rebar delivery on site

' Inspections by consultant

' Steel Rebar fabrication

' Installation

4.1.6 Concrete works

' Formworks

' MEP works installation and inspections

' Shuttering.

' Inspection

' Concrete casting

' De-shuttering

' Surface preparation

' Damp proofing

' Backfilling.

4.1.7 Finishing Works

' Finishes Shp.Dwgs Submittal and approvals

' Finishing Materials approval

' Purchase orders

' Materials delivery and storage.

' Installation.

' Medical requirements approvals

' Coordination

' Shp. Dwgs for Medical

' Materials approval

' Purchase orders

' Materials delivery and storage

' Installation.

In this Case Study, the Monitoring and control process was highlighted in the process map. The project was over budget and behind schedule due to the passive attribute of the traditional project control process.

4.1.8 The reasons behind the time and cost overrun

' The long time taken by the Engineer/owner to approve the Baseline schedule which hinders the Contractor from updating the schedule properly

' The method of control based on the monthly updates of the schedule and the budget which means that the corrective actions are taken after the problem occurrence by one month leading to successive delays in the other project activities.

' The passive nature of the project control which highlights the problem after its occurrence (e.g. realizing that the completion date was delayed after the monthly update or that there are losses in the project after updating the monthly cost report). No actions were taken to prevent the occurrence of the problem and no appropriate analysis was done for the root causes of the problem to avoid it in the future. It was all about instant solutions for the problems.

' The extreme delay in Medical equipment approval and placing the purchase orders.

' The delay in approving finishing materials.

' Lack of skill of workmanship.

' Bad Communication matrix and responsibilities handoffs.

' Modifications done by client took too much time.

' Delay of monthly payments.

As a result of the above mentioned reasons the project was totally time, and budget overrun beyond limits. It almost took 5 years instead of 3 years as planned to complete the project.

The extended period caused the budget overrun and the contractor to face severe cash flow problems which caused the relocating of his skilled workmanship and resources to other working projects. This relocating dropped down the quality since the replacements were not as the same level of skill and experience.

Replacing the working team as for the consultants due to several work stoppage by the client caused a severe damage to the time schedule due to the loss of information and history which requires extra time to cover the whole situation and be on track.

The PM decided to overcome this delay and stoppage by releasing the skeleton works and put the under study or modified locations and zones On Hold.

4.1.9 Lean Methodology principles and applications

In this project Lean principles should have been applied to save time, cost and quality, it could be applied on several items and activities to eliminate wastes as follows.

4.1.9.1 Establishing the Current state Map

Based on the above process for the different work phases, a current state map was established and all the existing activities and its durations were plotted including the Value Added, Non-value .added activities.

The current status of the project was presented as well as the actual status to clearly and easily compare and figure out the delay of the project. The total payments was presented to highlight the remaining budget available to check if it is achievable to complete the project with the remaining budget or other solutions to be applied to manage the present budget and fulfill the client's requirements.

Due to the shortage of the available budget the Project Manager advised the client to go to imported ready-made items instead of local made that will take too much time and extra cost. (ex.: steal doors, metal doors, non-medical furniture, bed head units and operation theatre doors).

The importing of these items saved a lot of cost and time as it was delivered as planned at the desired cost due to large bulk orders that saved lots of money after negotiations.

4.1.9.2 Developing the Future State Map

Future state mapping (FSM) is typically developed to map a process after incorporating Lean principles so that work flows efficiently through streamlined processes. Appropriate Lean tools are then used to support the implementation of the improved process (e.g. problem solving, 5S, visual management etc...) (O'Connor & Swain, 2013) .

At this case the Project Manager studied the current situation perfectly and suggested a future plan for execution as phases. The PM and the client studied the plan and agreed on a sequence for phases delivery that serves the client's financial plan and that could save money to pump it into another phases, such that the PM planned to fully complete the external clinics which was not a part of the charity hospital so it can start operating earlier and finance the other phases of the project.

Fast tracking methodology for the phases was designed as an updated time schedule to execute the activities in parallel in addition of crashing the timing of some activities

 Figure 15 - Phase 1 (External Clinics)

Figure 16 - Phase 2 (Cardiac Emergency)

Figure 17 - Phase 3 (X-ray and Laboratories)  

Figure 18 - Phase 4 (Intensive Care)

Figure 19 - Phase 5 (Patients' rooms and Pharmacy)  

Figure 20- Phase6 (Operation theatres, Kitchen and Laundry)

Figure 21 - Phase 7- (Intensive Care 2)  

Figure 22 - Phase 8 (Patients' Room)

Figure 23- Phase 9 (Cardiac Catheter Operation)  

Figure 24 - Phase 10 (VIP entrances , Receptions and Lobbies)

Figure 25 -Phase 11 (Patient's rooms 4th flr. up to 7th flr.)

4.1.10 Lean Construction at the Operation Level  

Observations at the operation level involve monitoring work procedures, movement of resources, and information available on the job site. Various types of waste were observed in the sample project that are similar to those that have been identified in many other similar studies; they include crane waiting, double handling of materials, and rework. Suggestions have been made to redesign work procedures and to eliminate or reduce the different types of waste.  

Wastes was defined simply as follows in the project:

1- Waiting: activities was starting as a normal sequence, which could be overlapped or work on parallel. The waiting for furniture suppliers contracts signing and cost negotiations as well as their low production rates to deliver requested items.

2- Inventory areas: contractor conquered a large are of the plot to store the materials which were delivered as scheduled but was not installed due to the delay.

3- Assigning workmanship for tasks that are away from their skills and experience due to work stoppage and the existence of excessive resources at site.

4.1.10.1 Lean Plan:

' The project manager adopted the lean thinking at the operation level by releasing the independent activities for the contractor to start execution that gave him a good push to save his cash flow.

' Contractor was instructed to start working on certain activities in parallel.

' Imported furniture, equipment, and materials saved time and budget.

' Minimizing the risk of defected furniture, equipment or materials, saved budget and time as well as improving the quality.

' Eliminating the wastes mentioned by re allocating the resources and reducing the storage areas since stored materials were pulled for installation.

4.1.10.2 Results:

1- Due to Lean methodology application on this project it was successfully delivered as per the corrective plan done by the PM within a controlled budget.

2- Client started operating his building in a reasonable time.

3- Starting operating the external clinics before the rest of the hospital highlighted the problems of operation that were handled at the rest of the building.

4- Partial operation of the building gave benefit of financing the remaining works.

5- Proving that Lean Construction Methodology improved the performance and kept the project within time frame and budget.

CONCLUSIONS

&

RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Conclusions

This paper studied lean construction and its application in concrete construction projects at both the operation and project levels.

A- At the project level,

' Lack of coordination among contractors was cited as one of the major factors contributing to project delays.

' The last planner concept and look-ahead scheduling were implemented in LSM and graphic schedule formats, which improved communication and coordination among subcontractors.

' The computerized solution greatly reduced the time required to produce LSM and daily graphic schedules, which, allowed contractors to prepare longer periods of look-ahead schedules and to communicate their schedules in electronic formats.

B- At the operation level.

' A systematic approach to waste identification, operation re-design, and employee training was applied to eliminate waste in field operation.

' Lean principles can be applied at both project and operation levels of a construction project through an empirical study.

' The implementation of lean approach on the construction process managed to reduce the overall duration of the process by improving the way of management.

' The awareness of Project Manager with lean principles applications and tools helps in improving the project performance and saves budget.

' Hiring skilled workmanship and perfect assigning improves the quality of work.

' Breaking down the activities if the project and working in parallel as a fast track concept combined with lean principles improves time saving and budget control as well as quality.

' Defining the defects and wastes helps eliminating it easily and avoid repetition.

' Good communication between stakeholders and involved parties improves the project performance.

' High level coordination prior project start prevents time and budget overrun.

6.0 Comparison between the Two Case studies

Lean Methodology Tool Applied Case Study 1 ' Nesaj Compound Project Case Study 2 ' Asfour Hospital Effect of Tool

1- Dividing activities TO phases or distributed on more than one contractor a- Gave the opportunity to get best prices due to competition.

b- Allowed the activities to go on parallel.

c- Reduced Risk of work stoppage in case of cash flow problem or miss-communicating with consultant or coordination. a- Controlled the budget

b- Gave opportunity to start phase 1 on time to support the finance of the remaining phases Tool was very effective , saved cost and time

2- Eliminating waste ( Waiting time) a- Using same submittals of materials since same contractors were working on the two phases.

b- Saved mobilization time in case of awarding new contractors.

a- Contractor executed works on areas which were not subjected to modifications.

b- Reduced time of storing materials on site. Tool was very effective , saved cost and time

3- Building a Mockup a- Approving all materials for the whole project once.

b- Fixing all materials and submittals.

c- Client was aware of the final product.

d- Coordination done over coming all obstacles and contradictions.

e- Figuring the exact cost and time to finalize each activity to update the time schedule.

f- Standardizing the work and converting it to systematic work to reduce defects. a- Approving all materials for the whole project once.

b- Fixing all materials and submittals.

c- Client was aware of the final product.

d- Coordination done over coming all obstacles and contradictions.

e- Figuring the exact cost and time to finalize each activity to update the time schedule.

f- Standardizing the work and converting it to systematic work to reduce defects. Excellent time and cost control

4- Extending contracts to next phases for the same contractors. a- Controlled budget

b- Controlled time of execution

c- Experience gained on execution and site conditions.

d- Experience gained on consultant requirements and standards. a- General Contractor completed the project -  N/A Tool was very effective , saved cost and time

5- Current status Map and Future Map a- Helped to minimize the defects and perform corrective actions on spot.

b- Helped to recover delay of project.

c- Highlighted the reasons of delay immediately. a- Helped to re-allocate resources to push delayed areas to meet schedule.

b- Helped to highlight the current delay and causes to be recovered.

Tool was very effective , saved cost and time

6- Using imported materials/furniture / equipment a- Reduced cost

b- Saved time since it was imported as bulk

c- Inventory delivered on time and saved storing zones.

d- Improved quality a- Reduced cost

b- Saved time since it was imported as bulk

c- Inventory delivered on time and saved storing zones.

d- Improved quality Excellent tool.

7- Last planner System a- Implementing day by day plan was very effective

b- Look ahead plan helped contractor to arrange his resources.

c- Gave evaluation of contractors' capability to recover his delay. a- Implementing day by day plan was very effective

b- Look ahead plan helped contractor to arrange his resources.

c- Gave evaluation of contractor's capability to recover his delay. Excellent tool.

8- Linear scheduling method a- N/A a- Allowed better presentation for schedule

b- Highlighted area of float on schedule. Very good tool

Lean construction methodology and its application in concrete construction projects at both the operation and project levels were perfect and helped to recover the projects delay on time schedule as well as minimizing the risk of budget overrun.

7.0 Recommendations

A- To Clients:

' For decreasing delay in project decrease the change in drawing during the construction.

' Client interference in project must be limited to the finishing material approvals at the time of construction and modifications must be limited to the level of working drawings before issuing the IFC drawings.

' All involved parties in the construction phase must be selected properly based on their own experience regarding the tasks they are assigned for.

B- To Project Management :

' Lean production principles and tools to be applied to construction industry to control the outcomes through the control of the entire construction processes.

' For reducing delay managerial and technical staff should be acquired for site management and supervision.

' Look ahead schedules monitoring and updating is a must to keep the project on track.

' Work scope must be crystal clear and mentioned on the contractual documents without any possible confusion that might occur.

' Monitoring must be reasonable ' too much monitoring results aggression and problems, weak monitoring results late problems solving.

' Being adopted in similar countries, lean construction to be applied in construction projects in Egypt by increasing the awareness of the engineers about this approach.

' Future research should quantify the benefits of lean applications by collecting and analyzing performance data from actual construction projects.

' The data analysis should objectively and quantitatively measure the effectiveness of lean applications and assist future decision making on investing in lean construction concepts.

C- To Consultant:

' Coordination must be done properly prior the construction phase.

' Experienced staff in similar types of projects to be assigned for similar tasks and jobs.

' Consultant to concentrate on problem solving and technical support only without interfering in managerial responsibilities.

' Following projects' specifications, detailed drawings and BOQ is a must without requesting extra quality or a higher standards than mentioned on contractual documents.

D- To Contractor :

' It is necessary for contractor that by increasing number of labors productivity in construction increased.

' It is suggest that vendor must give imbursement to contractor at time because it is liability of contractor to manage the economic record and due to which work growth is efficient.

' For reducing delay in project contractor must have knowledge about his resources strength and obtain up-to-date Machinery, and try to obtain new equipment for construction.

' Assigning skilled workmanship to reduce defects and rework.

' Following consultant's instructions to avoid rework and delay.

' To highlight any problems or obstacles that might appear within a reasonable timing to be studied by the authorities and solved prior reaching the start date of the activity.

8.0 Future research

It is recommended to combine Lean Construction and Six-Sigma concepts together in addition to the sustainability principles which will maintain one big effective methodology to provide a sustainable fast track building project with a high quality, reasonable budget and perfectly timed.

Combining the three principles will arise a new Era of construction in Egypt and worldwide.

Bibliography

al, D. L. (2008). Applying Lean Construction to Concrete Construction Projects. USA: Lean Construction Institute.

Ansell, M., Holmes, M., Evans, R., Pasquire, C., & Price, A. (2007). Lean Construction Trial on a Highways Maintenance Project. Proceedings IGLC-15, Michigan, USA.

Ballard, G. (2000). Lean Project Delivery System. Lean Construction Institute.

Ballard, H. G. (2000). The Last Planner System of Production Control. Faculty of Engineering, The University of Birmingham.

BRE. (2003). Construction Lean Improvement Programme. UK.

Conte, A. S. (2002). Lean Construction: From Theory To Practice. IGLC-10. Gramado, Brazil.

Derry, P. H.-S. (2012). FAST TRACK TO SUCCESS PROJECT MANAGEMENT. USA , : Pearson Education Limited 2009.

Eriksson, P. E. (2010). Improving construction supply chain collaboration and performance:a lean construction pilot project. Volume 15 '' Number 5 '' 394'403.

GUIDE, P. (2008). The Project Management Body Of Knowledge 4th Edition. Pennsylvenia , USA: The Project Management Institute. Inc.

Howell, G. A. (1999). What is Lean Construction . Proceedings IGLC-7. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Howell, L. K. (2000). REFORMING PROJECT MANAGEMENT: The Role Of Planning , Execution & Controlling. USA: Lean Construction Institute.

IMF. (n.d.). http://www.imf.org/external/country/index.htm.

Kilpatrick, J. (2003). Lean Principles. Utah Manufacturing Extension Partnership.

L.Koskela. (1992). Application of New ProductionPhilosophy to Construction. Stanford: Stanford University.

Leonard, D. (2016, May 15). Lean & six-sigma in construction. Retrieved from Professional Builder: http://www.probuilder.com/blog/lean-six-sigma-construction

Magallon, J. S. (2009, February 4). Critical Path Method. VDC Seminar.

McKenzie, E. (2009, Nov 20). Lean VS. Six Sigma - What is the Difference ? Retrieved from Ultimus : http://www.ultimus.com/Blog/bid/33875/Lean-vs-Six-Sigma-What-s-the-Difference

O. Salem, J. S. (2005). Site Implementation and Assessment of Lean Construction Techniques. Lean Construction Journal Vol 2 # 2 October.

O'Connor, R., & Swain, B. (2013). Lean tools and techniques-an introduction. CIRIA.

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Shires, M., Munn, B., & Thompson, B. (2005). Lean Construction ' Project Experience. Report of a workshop organised by the Construction Productivity Network in association with CLIP, BRE & Constructing Excellence.

Sicat, S. (2012, November 29). http://www.fgould.com/north-america/articles/lean-approach/. Retrieved April 27, 2013

Simonsson, P., Bj''rnfot, A., Erikshammar, J., & Olofsson, &. T. (2012). 'Learning to see' the Effects of Improved Workflow in Civil Engineering Projects. Lean Construction Journal: pp 35-48.

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APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE

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Edit this form

5 responses

Publish analytics

9.0 Summary

9.1.1 Section 1 : Personal Information

Name:

usama afify

Mohamed Abdel MAwgoud

Tony

Ahmed ammar Douglas Murphy

Age:

40

46

36

44

24

Occupation:

architect technical managet Project Manager

Management Consultant

Technical office manager

Construction Programmer

Total Years Of Experience :

16

21 Years

15

22

6

9.1.2 Section 2 : Questionnaire

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes 5 100%

No 0 0%

Other 0 0%

https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI?

9.1.3 list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

Excellent: 1 3 60%

2 2 40%

3 0 0%

4 0 0%

Poor: 5 0 0%

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

Excellent: 1

2

3

4 poor: 5 21

2

1

0

0 40% 2

40%

20%

0%

0% 3 4 5

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

Excellent: 1 3 60%

2 1 20%

3 0 0%

4 1 20%

Poor: 5 0 0%

Option 1 4 100%

in Brief tell us how do you think lean principles could improve projects management

lean principles help in project management as its change the project activities to template '' designed processes which save the materials, effort and minimize the time loosing, maintain the budget ,raise the quality performance improvement

Coordination, error mitigation or prevent and improve productivity must lead to improve projects management.

Through decreasing wastage and therefore cost. Also create more efficient management systems to improve work flow

why do you think Lean Construction is effective in meeting Client's needs at the time of handing over

lean construction is effective in meeting client's needs time wise because it emphasizes collaboration, reliability of scheduling and delivery of the most value from the client's perspective '' while consuming the fewest resources.

Value get importance

Improving quality and meeting delivery time with the optimistic cost are the most client needs or constraints so meeting this impossiple trenty must satisfy the client.

It focuses on meeting individual clients needs allowing a more tailored custom fit solution and higher quality highers

As Manager, Would you try applying lean Principles at your business?

Yes

Yes these principals line up with Lean Construciton, and are highly beneficial

9.1.4 Number of daily responses

10.0 The Efceny of Implementing Lean Construction Principles in Fast Track Projects

This Form is for research purposes to obtain Master's Degree , Your cooperation is highly appreciated , All answers and personal information are totally secured and condential.

Thanks & Best Regards....

Arch./ Mohamed Saeed

Construction Manager  

IPMC - International Projects Management Co.

Section 1 : Personal Information  

Name: *

usama afy

Age: *

40

Occupation: *

architect technical managet

Total Years Of Experience : *

16

Section 2 : Questionnaire  

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes

No

Other:

10.1.1 https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI? list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.

11.0 The Efceny of Implementing Lean Construction Principles in Fast Track Projects

This Form is for research purposes to obtain Master's Degree , Your cooperation is highly appreciated , All answers and personal information are totally secured and condential.

Thanks & Best Regards....

Arch./ Mohamed Saeed

Construction Manager  

IPMC - International Projects Management Co.

Section 1 : Personal Information  

Name: *

Mohamed Abdel MAwgoud

Age: *

46

Occupation: *

Project Manager

Total Years Of Experience : *

21 Years

Section 2 : Questionnaire  

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes

No

Other:

11.1.1 https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI? list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.

12.0 The Efceny of Implementing Lean Construction Principles in Fast Track Projects

This Form is for research purposes to obtain Master's Degree , Your cooperation is highly appreciated , All answers and personal information are totally secured and condential.

Thanks & Best Regards....

Arch./ Mohamed Saeed

Construction Manager  

IPMC - International Projects Management Co.

Section 1 : Personal Information  

Name: *

Tony

Age: *

36

Occupation: *

Management Consultant

Total Years Of Experience : *

15

Section 2 : Questionnaire  

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes

No

Other:

12.1.1 https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI? list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.

13.0 The Efceny of Implementing Lean Construction Principles in Fast Track Projects

This Form is for research purposes to obtain Master's Degree , Your cooperation is highly appreciated , All answers and personal information are totally secured and condential.

Thanks & Best Regards....

Arch./ Mohamed Saeed

Construction Manager  

IPMC - International Projects Management Co.

Section 1 : Personal Information  

Name: *

Ahmed ammar

Age: *

44

Occupation: *

Technical ofce manager

Total Years Of Experience : *

22

Section 2 : Questionnaire  

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes

No

Other:

13.1.1 https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI? list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.

14.0 The Ef''ceny of Implementing Lean Construction Principles in Fast Track Projects

This Form is for research purposes to obtain Master's Degree , Your cooperation is highly appreciated , All answers and personal information are totally secured and con''dential.

Thanks & Best Regards....

Arch./ Mohamed Saeed

Construction Manager  

IPMC - International Projects Management Co.

Section 1 : Personal Information  

Name: *

Douglas Murphy

Age: *

24

Occupation: *

Construction Programmer

Total Years Of Experience : *

6

Section 2 : Questionnaire  

Do you know what is Lean Principles ?

Yes

No

Other:

14.1.1 https://youtu.be/wfsRAZUnonI? list=PLWbrmgPPTauYUzvP9sfCTODzCcT36xDuvPrinciples of Lean

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project time schedule ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Budget ?

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent poor

To which level you think Lean could Manage Project Quality

1 2 3 4 5

Excellent Poor

This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.

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