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ABSTRACT

The aim of developing this project is to generate the power using solar panel. The main advantage of this project is, when the power is cutoff the stored power is used. This project is mostly used in rural area and in the villages. Because there is more power cutoff of electricity in villages. For saving the power we use battery as storage device. This project is practically highly feasible (easy) in economic point of view and has an advantage of generating power using renewable source. This project gives reliable, durable, accurate and efficient way of generating the power using solar panel.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Now days the electricity is becoming most important, without electricity not a single electrical or electronic appliances can work.  But the major shortage of electricity or cutoff of the electricity is in the rural areas. Because of the unexpected cutoff of electricity, the farmer phases difficulty in farming. To reduce their difficulty and make their farming easy. Here we will generate the electricity with the help of solar energy and the solar energy is the one of the renewable energy source. Our domain is to generate electricity with the help of solar energy. In this with the help of sun rays we generate electricity.

Here first of all we should know how the solar panel works? Here in solar panels there are many blocks which are equally implemented in their entire area of solar panels. We can also call as solar cell. These solar cells are also known as photovoltaic cell. The conversation of the energy into electricity (one form of energy into another form of energy). The photovoltaic cell work on the principle of photo electric effect in this the sun rays falls on the solar panel in that the ray will emit the electron.

The silicon is also known as semiconductor material it is used in manufacturing or designing of the solar panels. The sun light in the form of photons which radiates from the sun rays and the rays will heat the silicon atoms of solar cell. So the 'n-type' silicon pare jumps over to fill the gap in the 'p-type' silicon that means the 'n-type' silicon becomes (+ve) charged & 'p-type' silicon becomes (-ve) charged by creating electric filed across the cell so the electric field will generate the power.

Here we have make tracking system which will track the sun ray for generation of the electricity. To store the voltage there will be a battery. Our system will also operate, when there will be cutoff.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 LITERATURE SURVEY:

2.1.1 PAPER: 1

'ARM BASED SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM', K. Sreenivasa Rao, M. Mahesh (Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, AITS, India), International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug. 2012. [1].

 Keywords: Solar collector, Light Dependent Resistor (LDR), ARM7TDMI processor.

OVER VIEW:

' We all know that with the help natural resource we can generate the electricity.

' This system can be used for different appliance.

' In this system there is the collector which will collect the charge or we can say it will store the charge which is gain from the solar panel.

' To get the proper power in this we have used the controller which will operate the whole system.

' There is also the tracking system which makes the system work efficient.

SUMMARY:

' This project reports a 'LPC2148 Based Improved Structure of Solar Tracker'. The Monitoring controller based on the closed loop algorithm is designed and implemented with ARM7 TDMI processor based LPC2148 controller in embedded system domain.

2.1.2 PAPER: 2

'HIGH-PERFORMANCE ALGORITHMS FOR DRIFT AVOIDANCE AND FAST TRACKING IN SOLAR MPPT SYSTEM', Ashish Pandey, Member, IEEE, Nivedita Dasgupta, and Ashok Kumar Mukerjee, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, vol. 23, no. 2, June 2008 [3].

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, energy conversion, maximum power point tracking.

OVER VIEW:

' Here the solar array which is to be operated continuous at the maximum power point.

' There is a gradient ascent method which is used in optimization theory.

' According to this algorithm which is introduced between performances of the system and tracking also.

' Due to change in the atmospheric condition the algorithm may have a capability to drift the system fare from the maximum power point.

' The solar array is expensive besides that it also non efficient.

SUMMARY:

' Algorithms have been proposed and tested to overcome inadequacies of the generic P&O algorithms. A variable step size Delta P&O algorithm is proposed to eliminate dynamics versus tracking tradeoff. By introducing an auto tuning mechanism to adjust scaling factor, all ad hoc measures required during design time are eliminated

2.1.3 PAPER: 3

'BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE FOR ENABLING INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR POWER GENERATION', Cody A. Hill, Member, IEEE, Matthew Clayton Such, Member, IEEE, Dongmei Chen, Member, IEEE,Juan Gonzalez, Student Member, IEEE, and W.Mack Grady, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, vol. 3, no. 2, June 2012 [5].

Keywords: Battery energy storage systems, photovoltaic, renewable, smart grid, solar.

OVER VIEW:

' Here is the system which is used to store the power.

' This system is capable for observing and delivering the real power.

' This system is being used more to integrate the solar power in to the grid.

' We should focus on the energy stability.

' The storage control system can also be integrated with the energy to make the renewable resources economical.

' There is variety of modes for the operation of the battery energy storage system in grid tied solar application.

' There are modes for real time system.

' This system is basically for storing purpose.

SUMMARY:

' Integration of energy storage systems into the smart grid to manage the real power variability of solar by providing rate variation control can optimize the benefits of solar PV. frequency regulation via droop control response reduces integration challenges associated solar PV. Coupling solar PV and storage will drastically increase reliability.

2.1.4 PAPER: 4

'OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED COOLING, HEATING AND POWER GENERATION BY A SOLAR SYSTEM', Sepehr Sanaye, Ahmadreza Sarrafi, Renewable Energy, Volume 80, August 2015 [8].

Keywords: Combined cooling heating and power generation, concentrated photovoltaic's, Solar energy system.

OVER VIEW:

' Here in this paper we have shown the applications of solar system.

' With the help of solar system we will perform different tasks.

' Here with the help of solar system we will generate electricity.

' With the help of solar system we will do cooling & heating process.

' Here the optimum value of design parameter with maximizing the objective functions.

' Sensitivity analysis of effects of changes in fuel and electricity prices as well as equipment investment costs on optimum values of design parameters were also investigated.

' The equipment selection results for a solar energy system connected to the remote area & disconnected to remote area.

SUMMARY:

' Energy and Economic analysis of a solar system to supply cooling, heating and electrical loads as well as domestic hot water demand of a building was performed in this study. Considering two objective functions, the optimization was implemented using NSGA-II for a given load variation during a year (8760 h). The design parameters of the solar system were the required number of collectors including new type of CPVT and the traditional types of PV and ET as well as the thermal storage volume and capacity of batteries.

CHAPTER 3

BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig: 3.1.1 Block Diagram.

3.2 DESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Here we are using Arduino Uno R3 board in that board the microcontroller is ATmega328. Secondly, we are using maximum light sensing circuit, in that it will sense the light which is falling on the LDR. We will use light sensing circuits in both directions. Here in the Arduino board as per the coding the controller will check the resistance value of both sensing circuits, then it will consider only high value which is occupied by any one of the light sensing circuit. Now the servo motor will get command through Arduino Uno board to rotate the solar panel according to the movement of sun direction. We are using three solar panels which will be connected in series.

The solar panels will be mounted on the solar tracking structure. The servo motor will be attached at its required position. The light sensing circuits will be also mounted on the solar tracking circuit and this scenario is called as the mechanism of the solar tracking system. The solar panels will rotate 1800. The solar panel generates 4.7 volts each and it will be in DC.

In the structure of solar panel there are many solar cells which are connected with each other after observing the ray it converts solar energy into electrical energy. To store the generated voltage, we will use battery. This generated voltage will be store in the battery. The battery storing capacity will be 12 V. With the help of pump driver circuit the pump will run. To make easy for farmer to operate the pump we will use GSM (Global Switching for Mobile). With help of GSM the farmer can easily operate the ON and OFF operation at anytime and anywhere. The pump will get supply from the battery, which will be charging continuously from the solar panels.

 When we give 230v AC power supply at input terminal of the step-down transformer and at output terminal side which is connected with a bridge rectifier and at the output of the bridge rectifier we get 12v DC supply. The output of rectifier is given to the voltage regulator which is   IC LM7805 which provides 5v at the output. We are using two batteries which will work simultaneously. One battery is for the pump and another battery is for the system. If the main supply get cutoff, then to make system working continuously another battery which is already charged and is in standby mode the relay will directly switch the battery supply to the system to make it run continuously and generate electricity. Also, the battery which is used to make system continuous, that battery will be charged parallel when the AC supply will be ON.

CHAPTER 4

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

&

FLOW CHART

4.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig: 4.1.1 Circuit Diagram.

4.2 FLOW CHART:

Fig: 4.2.1 Flow Chart.

CHAPTER 5

HARDWARE

5.1 HARDWARE MODULES:

5.1.1 ARDUINO UNO ATMEGA328:

Fig: 5.1.1.1 Arduino uno ATmega328.

Fig: 5.1.1.2 Atmega328 pin diagram.

' Arduino is the open-source hardware. An Arduino board consists of an AVR microcontroller ATmega328.  The boards use single-row pins or female headers that facilitate connections for programming and incorporation into other circuits. These may connect with integrate-on modules termed shields. Multiple, and possibly stacked shields may be individually addressable via an IC serial bus. Most boards include a 5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator or ceramic resonator. Some designs, such as the Lily Pad, run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to categorical form-factor restrictions. Arduino microcontrollers are pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash recollection. The default boot loader of the Aduino UNO is the optiboot boot loader. Current Arduino boards are programmed via Macrocosmic Serial Bus (USB), implemented utilizing USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232.

' We are using Arduino uno board. The specifications are as follows:

Table 1. Technical specification of Arduino uno board

Technical specification of Arduino uno board

Microcontroller ATmega328P

Operating Voltage 5V

Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V

Input Voltage (limit) 6-20V

Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)

PWM Digital I/O Pins 6

Analog Input Pins 6

DC Current per I/O Pin 20 mA

DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA

32 KB (ATmega328P)

Flash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328P)

of which 0.5 KB used by boot loader

SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328P)

EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328P)

Clock Speed 16 MHz

5.1.2 GSM MODULE (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE):

Fig: 5.1.2.1 GSM Modules.

' GSM is a mobile communication modem; it is stands for global system for mobile communication (GSM).  It is widely used mobile communication system in the world. GSM is an open and digital cellular technology utilized for transmitting mobile voice and data accommodations operates at the 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz frequency bands.

' GSM system was developed as a digital system utilizing time division multiple access (TDMA) technique for communication purport. A GSM digitizes and reduces the data, then sends it down through a channel with two different streams of client data, each in its own particular time slot.

' It can facilely habituate to data transmission and voice communication and can carry 64kbps to 120Mbps of data rate.

' Built in Network Status LED.

' Input Voltage: 5V-12V DC.

' The Modem is designed with RS232 Level converter circuitry.

' Low power consumption: 1.0mA (sleep mode).

' Control via AT commands.

' Operation temperature: -40''C to +85 ''C.

5.1.3 SERVO MOTOR:

Fig: 5.1.3.1 Servo Motor.

' A servo motor, which can push or rotate an object with great precision. If you operate to rotate and object at some concrete angles or distance, then you utilize servo motor.

' It is just composed of simple motor which run through servo mechanism. If motor is utilized is DC powered then it is called DC servo motor, and if it is AC powered motor then it is called AC servo motor.

' Due to these features they are being utilized in many applications. A servo consists of a Motor (DC or AC), a potentiometer, gear assembly and a controlling circuit.

' First of all we utilize gear assembly to reduce RPM and to increment torque of motor. Verbalize at initial position of servo motor shaft, the position of the potentiometer knob is such that there is no electrical signal engendered at the output port of the potentiometer.

' Input Voltage is 4.8V - 6.0V.

' Rotation Speed of the motor is 0.14sec/60degrees (4.8V), 0.12sec/60degrees (6.0V).

' Its rotation is of 0o  to 180o.

5.1.4 MAXIMUM LIGHT SENSING CIRCUIT

For this circuit we are using two components which are LDR and the Resistor

Fig: 5.1.4.1 Maximum Light sensing circuit

5.1.4.1 LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR):

Fig: 5.1.4.1.1 LDR.

' We have used miniature cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell.

' Photo conductivity is an optical phenomenon in which the materials conductivity is increased when light is absorbed by the material.

' Input Voltage is 5V.

' Resistance 400ohm to 400Kohm.

' Sensitivity about 3msec.

' The LDR is used a sensor in sensor circuit.

5.1.4.2 RESISTOR:

Fig: 5.1.4.2.1 Resistors.

' The resistor use to reduce the current flow & at the same time to lower the voltage level

' A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component.

' We have used 10Kohm resistor It is used to limit the current flow

' It is used with LED

' It used with LDR

5.1.5 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Fig: 5.1.5.1 Power Supply Circuit.

' For this circuit we are using 3 major components which are step down transformer, rectifier, voltage regulator and capacitor.

5.1.5.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

Fig: 5.1.5.1.1 Resistors.

' A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a voltage in a second coil.

' At the input side we give 230V AC and at the output side we get 12V AC.

5.1.5.2 RECTIFIER

Fig: 5.1.5.2.1 Diode.

Fig: 5.1.5.2.2 Rectifier

' A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification.

' We have used Schottky diode. It has a voltage drop of 0.15-0.45V.

' At the output side of the rectifier we get 12V DC

5.1.5.3 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Fig: 5.1.5.3.1 LM7805

' We have used IC LM7805 as a voltage regulator.

' Here, Pin - 1 (Input Pin): The Input pin is the pin that accepts the incoming DC voltage, which the voltage regulator will eventually regulate down to 5 volts. Pin - 2 (Ground): Ground pin establishes the ground for the regulator.  Pin - 3 (Output Pin): The Output pin is the regulated 5 volts DC.

' With the help of voltage regulator we will get 5 volt at the output

5.1.5.4 CAPACITOR

Fig: 5.1.5.4.1 Capacitor.

' A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field.  

' While capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors of a circuit in sufficiently close proximity, a capacitor is specifically designed to provide and enhance this effect for a variety of practical applications by consideration of size, shape, and positioning of closely spaced conductors, and the intervening dielectric material.

' We have used 1000''F capacitor.

5.1.6 BATTERY:

Fig: 5.1.6.1 Battery.

' We will store the solar energy or voltage in the battery, which is generated by the solar panel. The storage capacity is 12V.

5.1.7 SOLAR PANEL:

Fig: 5.1.7.1 Solar Panel.

' The panel is used to grasp the sun rays which fall on the cell & they generate the electricity.

' Each cell generate equal amount of voltage simultaneously.  

' Each module is rated by its DC output power which is 4.7V and 0.135 Ma.

' The films as made of silicon.

' The dimension is 11.5cm x 17.5 cm.

' The electricity is generated efficiently.

CHAPTER 6

SOFTWARE

6.1 SOFTWARE:

6.1.1 ARDUINO IDE:

' Here we will use Arduino IDE software.

' We will right two programs, one will be for tracking purpose and second one will be for operating the pump.

' The IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment.

' The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform application written in the programming language Java. It originated from the IDE for the languages Processing and Wiring.

' It includes a code editor with features such as text cutting and pasting, searching and replacing text, automatic indenting, brace matching, and syntax highlighting, and provides simple one-click mechanisms to compile and upload the programs to an Arduino board.

' It also contains a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a hierarchy of operation menus

' .A program written with the IDE for Arduino is called a sketch. Sketches are saved on the development computer as text files with the file extension. ion. Arduino Software (IDE) pre-1.0 saved sketches with the extension .pde.

' The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring.

' The Arduino IDE supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which provides many common input and output procedures.

' User-written code only requires two basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that are compiled and linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution.

' The Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board's firmware.

Fig: 6.1.1.1 Arduino 1.6.5 Software.

Fig: 6.1.1.2 Arduino 1.6.5 Software.

6.1.2 THE ARDUINO CODING FOR TRACKING PURPOSE, WITH THE HELP OF THIS CODING THE WHOLE TRACKING MECHANISM WILL BE OPERATED.

Fig: 6.1.2.1 Program for tracking mechanism

6.1.3 THE ARDUINO CODING FOR PUMP OPERATION, WITH THE HELP OF THIS CODING THE PUMP WILL BE OPERATED EASILY ANYWHERE AND AT ANY TIME AND EFFICIENTLY.

 Fig: 6.1.3.1 Program for operating the pump easily

CHAPTER 7

FINAL PROJECT

7.1 FINAL PROJECT:

Fig: 7.1.1.1 Final Project

 .

Fig: 7.1.1.2 Maximum light sensing circuit.

Fig: 7.1.1.3  Part no. 01 of project.

Fig: 7.1.1.4 Part no. 02 of project.

Fig: 7.1.1.5 Project Hardware.

Fig: 7.1.1.6 SMS .

7.1.1 DESCRIPTION

' We are using maximum light sensing circuit, in that it will sense the light which is falling on the LDR.

' The servo motor will get command through Arduino Uno board to rotate the solar panel according to the movement of sun direction.

' The solar panel generates 4.7 volt each and it will be in DC.

' To store the generated voltage we will use battery. This generated voltage will be store in the battery.

' With the help of pump driver circuit the pump will run. To operate the pump we will use GSM (Global Switching for Mobile). The pump will get supply from the battery, which will be charging continuously from the solar panels.

' With the help of power supply circuit we will give supply to GSM and Arduino.

' We are using two batteries which will work simultaneously. One battery is for the pump and another battery is for the system.

' If the main supply get cutoff then to make system working continuously the another battery supply to the system to make it run continuously.

7.1.2 SUMMARY

' Our project depends on renewable and non renewable resources of energy. Using solar panels we stored power into battery through tracking system. Using power we operate DC pump through pump driver circuit. We can ON and OFF DC pump through GSM, send message Motor on or Motor off, from GSM to Arduino control to pump. We can on and off DC pump without going to farm. Our system also works. When the electricity get cut using parallel battery the system will go continually.

7.1.3 UNIQUE FEATURE

1. Auto switching between two power supplies occurs on real time basis.

2. It has two power supply renewable and non renewable.

3. We can turn on appliance according to our demand and for particular time.

CHAPTER 8

ADVANTAGES

8.1 ADVANTAGES:

' It is easy to install.

' Easy to operate the system.

' System works efficiently.

' Use of the renewable energy.

' Generate the voltage efficiently.

' It does not generate pollution.

' The system is simple.

' Maintenance cost is less.

CHAPTER 9

APPLICATION

9.1 APPLICATION:

' Useful in village.

' Useful in hospital.

' Useful in industries.

' Useful in collages.

' Useful in school.

' Useful in satellite.

' Useful for house- hold purpose.

' We can use in electric car also.

' Used in street light system.

CHAPTER 10

CONCLUSION

10.1 CONCLUSION:

With the help of our project we will be able to counter the electricity problem of the rural areas. Here we have implemented a tracking system in which we can grasp the maximum power from the sun rays by continuous tracking as per the direction of the sun and generate more electricity efficiently without any pollution. With the help of GSM we can operate any appliance at any time. This project is applicable to provide electricity in village areas & for emergency time when power is cutoff.

APPENDIX: A

REFERENCE

REFERENCE:

RESEARCH PAPERS:

1) 'ARM BASED SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM', K. Sreenivasa Rao, M. Mahesh (Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, AITS, India), International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug. 2012.

2) 'TIME OPERATED SOLAR TRACKING FOR OPTIMUM POWER GENERATION', Asst.Prof.K.Sambasivarao, P.Harish, V.N.V.Ramana, M.V.S.Krishnateja ,International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research,Volume4, Issue 5, May-2013

3) 'HIGH-PERFORMANCE ALGORITHMS FOR DRIFT AVOIDANCE AND FAST TRACKING IN SOLAR MPPT SYSTEM', Ashish Pandey, Member, IEEE, Nivedita Dasgupta, and Ashok Kumar Mukerjee, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, vol. 23, no. 2, June 2008

4) 'POWER-ADAPTIVE COMPUTING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOLAR-ENERGY-POWERED EMBEDDED SYSTEMS', Qiang Liu, Member, IEEE, Terrence Mak, Member, IEEE, Tao Zhang, Xinyu Niu, Wayne Luk, Fellow, IEEE, and Alex Yakovlev, Senior Member, IEEE,IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems,  Volume: 23, Issue: 8, Aug. 2015

5) 'BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE FOR ENABLING INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR POWER GENERATION', Cody A. Hill, Member, Matthew Clayton Such, Dongmei Chen,Juan Gonzalez, and W.Mack Grady, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, vol. 3, no. 2, June 2012

6) 'FIELD MEASUREMENT OF AN IMPLEMENTED SOLAR POWERED BS-BASED WIRELESS MESH NETWORK', ZUBAIR MD. FADLULLAH, TOTA NAKAJO, HIROKI NISHIYAMA, YASUNORI OWADA, KIYOSHI HAMAGUCHI, AND NEI KATO, IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 22, no. 3, June 2015

7) 'SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM DESIGN OPTIMIZATION BY SHADING ANALYSIS TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION FROM LIMITED URBAN AREA', Ravi Rachchh, Manoj Kumar, Brijesh Tripathi, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 115, 1 May 2016.

8) 'OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED COOLING, HEATING AND POWER GENERATION BY A SOLAR SYSTEM', Sepehr Sanaye, Ahmadreza Sarrafi, Renewable Energy, Volume 80, August 2015

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1) 'Solar fundamentals', Becky campbell, Daisy chung, solar electric power association, volume - 1, pp. 5 ' 13.

2) 'Wireless communications principles and practice', Theodore s. Rappaport, pearson, second edition, pp.1 ' 18, year 2014.

WEBSITE:

1) https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno

2) https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software

3) http://proteus-7-professional.software.informer.com

APPENDIX: B

PSAR

Sr No. Title Patent No. Inventor

1) Solar power generation system EP 2 555 077

 A2 Kawamoto Shinya & Endo Tamotsu

2) Solar power source with textured solar concentrator US6043425

 A Chahriar Assad

3) Hybrid solar energy generating system US4700013

A Soule David E

4) Method of concetrating solar energy US8569616

B2 Guha Supratik, Hobbs Philip C, Martin Yves C, Sandstrom Robert L & Van Kessel Theodore G

5) Mobile solar energy system US20120057281

 A1 Lee Chiayu

6) Solar panel with internal tracking US20140026942 A1 Jason Lee

7) Solar energy diffuser US5735262 A William H Houtman

8) Portable solar cell charging device US8134332 B2 Lin Kuolen, Lin Chenhsiang, Wang Hwaiming, Hsu Ken & Cheng Chihhung

9) Power converter integrated solar cell module US6593521 B2 Kobayashi Takuma

10) Solar assembly having removable solar panel US8684554 B2 Jensen William Mark & Doty Heath A

11) Conversion of Solar Energy US20130206209 A1 John Beavis Lasich

12) Solar energy storage device with angle-adjustable solar panel US20110023931 A1 Jueichao Chen

13) 3-phase solar converter circuit and method US7539029 B2 Luerkens Peter, Wendt Matthias, Duerbaum Thomas & Van Der Broeck Heinz

14) Solar collector reflector system US8371287 B2 Fleischmann Lewis W

15) Solar power management system US6624350 B2 Nixon David & Cusack Pat

16) Real-time Solar Tracking System US20150076319 A1 Hefei Zhang

17) A solar AC power generation H05K7/20 Hyounggurn Kim

18) Solar collector tracking system US6123067 A Warrick James C

19) SOLAR BATTERY CONTROLLER US20160261141 A1 Maeno Seigen

20) Solar energy system US20150159914 A1 Dennis Michael

  APPENDIX: C

PDE

APPENDIX: D

CANVAS

APPENDIX: E

DATA SHEET

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