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A Project Report On

'Single Phase Sine Wave Inverter'

Submitted in partial fulfillment of

The requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering


Electrical Engineering

Submitted by

ThummarNilesh                     (131020109071)

Vaniya Paras                           (131020109077)

Parmar Sunil                           (141023109013)

Under the guidance of

Internal Guide

Asst. Prof. M.M.Baraiya

Submitted to


Department of Electrical Engineering

OM Engineering College - Junagadh

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad                   



Date:-   /   /

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled 'Single Phase Sine Wave Inverter' has been carried out by ,

ThummarNilesh                     (131020109071)

Vaniya Paras                           (131020109077)

Parmar Sunil                           (141023109013)

 under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering Department (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017.

Internal Guide Name & Sign

Asst. Prof. M.K. Anandpara External examinor Sign

Head of the Department

Asst. Prof. H.V.Domadia


Date:-   /   /

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled 'Single Phase Sine Wave Inverter' has been carried out by VANIYA PARAS N under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering Department (8th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2017.

Internal Guide Name & Sign

Asst. Prof. M.k Anandpara External Guide Name & Sign

Vidhyapati singh

Head of the Department

Asst. Prof. H.V.Domadia

1) Certificate

    2) Table of content

    3) Acknowledgement

    4) Abstract


(1) Introduction to ATP


2.1 Introduction of inverter

2.2 Types of inverter

1) Square wave inverter

2) Modify square wave inverter

3) Pure sine wave inverter

2.3 Pulse with modulation (PWM)

1) Single pulse modulation

2) Multi pulse modulation

3) Sinusoidal pulse modulation

2.4 Component of single phase sine wave inverter


3.1 Inverter diagram

3.2 Define problem

  1) harmonic distortion

  2) switching losses

3.3 Problem solution

 1) circuit diagram

 2) Simulation


1) Canvas report

    Business  model canvas


1) Future scope

2) Conclusion

3) Reference

Figure of table


Figure 2.2.1              square wave inverter                         12

Figure 2.2.2              modified square wave inverter          13

Figure2.2.3               pure sine wave inverter                     14

Figure2.3.1               single pulse modulation                    16

Figure2.3.2               multi pulse modulation                     17

Figure2.3.3               sinusoidal pulse modulation             18

Figure2.4.1               transformer                                       19

Figure2.4.2               heat sink                                            20

Figure2.4.3               MOSFET                                           21

Figure2.4.4               capacitor                                            22

Figure2.4.5               resister                                               23

Figure2.4.6               diode                                                  24

Figure2.4.7                transistor                                           25

Figure2.4.8                555 timer ic                                      26

Figure3.1.1                inverter diagram                               29

Figure3.1.2                circuit diagram                                32     

Figure3.1.3                simulation                                        33

Figure4.1                   key activity                                      34

Figure4.2                   key partner                                       35

Figure4.3                   key resources                                   35                                       

Figure4.4                   value proposition                             36

Figure4.5                   customer relation ship                      37

Figure4.6                   channel                                             38

Figure4.7                   cost structure                                    39

Figure4.8                   revenue stream                                 39

Figure4.9                   customer segment                            40



We here by take the opportunaity to express our deep sense of gratitude to Asst.Prof. M.K Anandpara (faculty Of Electrical Engineering  Department)  for his kind support and timely guidance given to us for reaching our destination with perfection . We are thankful to him for his suggestions and ideas to make this project work even better.

We are very much thankful to Asst. Prof. H.V.Domadia (HOD of Electrical Engineering  Department)  who permitted us to work on the topic and extended his kind support and help for the same the enthusiasm shown by him in our project proved to be a great source of inspiration.

We are thankful to all the teaching and non-teaching staff members and friends who helped us directly and indirectly for the successful completion of this work.

We are also thankful to others for their literature review for all  kind support and guidance

Thanking All,

Thummar nilesh                (131020109071)

Vaniya parasn                    (131020109077)

Parmar sunil                       (141023109013)


This application report describe the implementation of the inverter kit that is use a DC-AC. The kit has nominal input DC and its output is AC which can be fed to the load. They convert the DC stored in the batteries of the AC voltage which is provided to connect load in the event of a power failure. Output AC voltage will be of pure sine wave. To get that sine wave we will use PWM technique. So, by using this technique the input DC power will be converted into Perfect AC sine waveform to use it in further load.

Chapter no :- 1.

1.1 Introduction of ATP

All time power private Limited (ATP) is since 1996 small scale company and found by two technical engineer from Kolkata.   

Founded by two technical experts as a partnership firm in 1996 today the Company has developed into a privet limited company, with design of high quality inverter and UPS for different applications. The plant is located at Ghandhinagar in the state of Gujarat, India. At ATP facilities are built over two types inverters and manufacture. The environment around the company is very natural which gives respect to environment and friendly company.

ATP manufactures only square wave inverter. It is a use only less power load and it have been Short time electricity provide. If customer requirement is less time work of inverter so the new implementation to design new inverter

' The Inverter that company supplies to various segment of market:

' Industry

' Hospital

' College

' Home


2.1 Introduction of inverter

' The inverter can be design for different application of input and output. Inverter has convert to DC to AC use electronic drive and many field. If the conventional electricity in battery use than output is desirable.

' Inverter application is commercial side, hospital, college, industries more then used. It is the inverter have square wave and modify square wave inverter are also available in market. The pure sine wave inverter available but some problem face. First of all price is high output is not proper and some problem are create. If the pure sine wave inverter is positive and negative sinusoidal waveform.         

2.2 Types of Inverter

' Square wave inverter

' Modified sine wave inverter

' Pure sine wave inverter

2.2.1 Square wave inverter

              Figure 2.2.1 Square wave

' This type inverter produce of square waveform.

' Square wave inverter wave form is fixed output as well as rated voltage.

' Square wave inverter not smoothly work.

' This inverter output by using switching is suddenly zero when switching losses is more.

2.2.2 Modified square wave inverter:-

Figure 2.2.2 Modified square wave inverter


' This type inverter is quasi sine wave inverter.

' A modified sine wave inverter actually has a wave form like a square wave inverter with include a extra step.

' They also have some parts of the wave form are not 50 Hz which can make clock run fast.

2.2.3 Pure sine wave inverter:



               Figure 2.2.3 Sine wave

' Pure sine wave inverter is the best compare to the square wave and modify square wave inverter.

' This inverter less humming noise that equipment heating is less.

' If the operating time is less as compare to square wave inverter or modify square wave inverter.

' This inverter need a desirable output in sinusoidal form.

' As a operation with very low harmonic distortion and clean power like utility supply electricity.

2.3 Inverter

2.3.1 Function of single phase sine wave inverter

' The main function of inverter is smoothly convert DC to AC voltage.  

' It needs to generate the pure sine wave waveform.

2.3.2 pulse width modulation (PWM)

' Pulse with modulation technique are characterized by constant amplitude pulse.

' The width of this pulse is however modulate to obtain inverter output voltage control and to reduce its harmonic content.

' The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low.

' Pulse with modulation use a rectangular pulse wave is modulated resulting and variation of the average value of the wave form.

' Different PWM techniques are as used.

(1) Single pulse modulation

(2) Multi pulse modulation

(3) Sinusoidal pulse modulation

(1) single pulse modulation

Figure 2.3.1 single pulse modulation

' Single pulse with modulation control there is only one pulse or half cycle and the output voltage RMS is change by very easy with of the pulse.

' The gate signal are generate by comparing the rectangular control signal of amplitude Vc with triangular carrier signal Vcar.

' Control signal determine the fundamental frequency of ac output.

(1) multi pule modulation :

  Figure 2.3.2 multi pule modulator

' This method of pulse modulation is an extension of single pulse modulation.

' In multiple pulse modulation several equidistant pulse per half cycle are used.

' Simplification the effect of using two

symmetrically spaced pulses per half cycle.

(2) Sinusoidal pulse modulation :

   Figure 2.3.3 sinusoidal pulse modulation

' In this method of modulation several pulses per half cycle are used as in case of multiple pulse modulation

' In pulse width is equal for all the pulses

' But in the pulses is a sinusoidal function of the angular position of the pulse in a cycle.

2.4 Component of single phase sine wave inverter

' Transformer :-

' It is the provide a inverter circuit step down to step up power.

           Figure 2.4.1 Transformer

' Transformer is a working principal on electromagnetic induction. It is the input of voltage step down .to given output voltage step up.

' The transformer in a two limbs. First limbs in a one side wound fires is a primary winding and second side is a wound a secondary winding.

' When the give supply in a transformer primary side so produce magnetic flux and link the secondary side and produce EMF.

' Transformer are only change the voltage but they are not change frequency.

' Heat sink :-

' It is temperature maintain are used

' When the increase temperature of MOSFET that time heat sink operate and decrease temperature of MOSFET.

' Heat sink  is provide cooling of MOSFET  

                     Figure 2.4.2 Heat sink

' Shown in figure in the heat sink slot provide for cooling purpose.

' This cooling is a air type cooling system by using fan.


' Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor.

               Figure 2.4.3 MOSFET

' MOSFET is a most important part of the inverter.

' MOSFET is use a controlling circuit.

' When the  in given supply that time controller is produce repeating sequence and gate the output of given MOSFET.

' This MOSFET rating are 100W.

' Our circuit it we used 2 MOSFET.

' They MOSFET design extremely efficient and reliability device

' MOSFET switching frequency is maximum 100 MHz.

' Rugged

' Requirement of low drive

' Fast switching for silicon Gate

' MOSFET is mainly two type

(1) Enhancement type MOSFET

(2) Depletion type MOSFET

' Feature :-

' Fast switching capability

' 175''C working temperature

' Reverse capacitance is law

' Application:-

' High efficiency dc to dc converter

' High power high speed are used  

' Capacitor :-

' Mainly three types of capacitor

(1) Fixed capacitor

(2) Polarized capacitor

(3) Variable capacitor

' A capacitor is electronic device that is used to store electrical energy.

' They are only used to store the electrons and they are not capable of producing them.

' Capacitor is a two terminal one terminals a positive and second terminal negate

' Resistor :-

      Figure 2.4.5 Resistor

' Resistor is type of electrical component.

' The Resistor are limited and regulate the current in an electrical circuit.

' The resistor is working on a principal of a ohm's law.

' Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device

' Diode :-

              Figure 2.4.7 Diode

' Diode is a mostly us a switch.

' The diode current flow to only forward direction.

' A diode is a device which only allow unidirectional flow of current if operated within specify voltage level.

' Transistor (NPN):-

                      Figure 2.4.8 transistor

' The transistor is mainly used in circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is following by the power supply.

' The regulator is a connected with capacitor connected in parallel to the input terminal and output terminal

' 555 timer IC :-

' The Lm555 timer Ic is highly stable device for generating accurate time delay.

' Normally ON and Normally OFF working.

' 555 timer Ic most important equipment in our inverter they control and safety of circuit.

' It is mainly tested Vcc=5v and Vcc=15v.

' Application:-

' Accurate timing on condition

' Pulse generation

' Pulse with modulation


Figure 2.4.8 555 timer ic

' Pin configuration table

Pin I/O Description

No Name

5 Control voltage

I Controls the threshold and trigger levels. It determines the pulse width of the output  waveform An external voltage applied to this pin can also be used to modulate the output waveform

7 Discharge I Open collector output which discharges a capacitor between intervals (in phase with output). 7 I It toggles the output from high to low when voltage reaches 2/3 of the supply voltage

1 Ground O Ground reference voltage

3 o/p O Output driven waveform

4 Reset I Negative pulse applied to this pin to disable or reset the timer. When not used for reset 4 I purposes, it should be connected to VCC to avoid false triggering

6 Threshold I Compares the voltage applied to the terminal with a reference voltage of 2/3 Vcc. The 6 I amplitude of voltage applied to this terminal is responsible for the set state of the flip-flop

2 Trigger I Responsible for transition of the flip-flop from set to reset. The output of the timer depends 2 I on the amplitude of the external trigger pulse applied to this pin.

8 V+ I Supply voltage with respect to Ground.

' Feature :-

' Temperature detect stability excellent

' Operating supply voltage 1.5 volt

' Extremely low reset

Chapter :- 3

  (1)Inverter diagram:-


The circuit mainly consisting of a 555 timer IC, Transistors Transformer. The 555 timer IC is powered by a 12V battery.

 It will generate Alternating non sinusoidal output wave form at the instant we giving supply Voltage (12V). Primary we generated Alternating Voltage from direct Current (Battery)

The output from these transistors are again fed to the input (primary) of a Set up Transformer. This will up convert the input Voltage to desired level (230V).

The frequency of power supply is determined by Resistors R1, R2 and C, connected with 555 timer IC. You can even change them with your requirement.

We using 50Hz power supply, so it is enough to use 10K, 150K and 0.1mF for R1, R2 and C respect.

(2) define problem :-     

Sine wave inverter is use to many application but there in a few problems create like a harmonic distortion switching losses and resistance heating. This problem is a decrease our efficiency and inverter life and distorted our output.

' Problem description

    This inverter in a mainly problem is a given above

(1)Harmonic distortion

' If MOSFAT repeating sequence is not properly work.

' MOSFAT switch is not properly operates.

' Frequency can be change that harmonic can be produce.

' It is shown in non-sinusoidal wave form.

' Harmonic current can cause losses in the ac system.

' In produce the harmonic if voltage fluctuation damage of electrical equipment.

(2)Switching losses

' Switching losses is mainly switch is more time operate to losses produced.

' At that time switching frequency is wide range losses are include.

' The running condition of inductive load is more time when losses is more.

' The energy dissipated in each transition need to be multiply by the frequency to obtain the switching losses.

' Temperature increase switching losses in all minority carrier devices specifically MOSFET and diode.

  3.2:- Problem solution

' Harmonic distortion in single phase pure sine wave inverter if the frequency maintain to output voltage is important.

' If the normal condition battery is always fully charge.

' Generally filter circuit use that harmonic will be reduce.

' Filter circuit is design depends on load we use LC filter RC filter.

' If the MOSFET repeating sequence is adjustable when switching losses can be overcome.

Circuit diagram :-

' Construction :-

' Our project circuit in we us four MOSFET

' There in a two is a input and two is a output

' MOSSFET connected is with a lode inductive or resistive and either connected scope.

' And the carrier signal connected  with MOSFET this is a produce repeating  sequence

' When the supply is given than output is produce in scope

' And we connect one reference current source with plus or minus error signal and one divide source is connected with modulating signal block.

' Working :-

' The circuit in a four MOSFET is in supply 12 volte battery.

' The carrier signal bloke are produce repeating  sequence their note gate is produce to opposite or different signal give in a two MOSFET and give to the MOSEFT and then after MOSSFET is operate and produce output.

' Simulation :-

Chapter:- 4



' Key Activity

Figure (4.1)

' In this we are included for what value our customer are really willing to pay and what they are currently pay as per types fixed prizing and dynamic prizing like negotiation list prize and licensing as below:

                              a) Price as per customer requirement

                               b) Price dependent as per customer  

                               c) License agreement

' key partner

Figure (4.2)

' In this we are included our key partners and our key suppliers as below:

                                             a) Domestic purpose

                                              b) All industry

                                              c) Substation

' Key Resources

Figure (4.3)

' In this we are included type of resources referred like physical, intellectual, human and financial as below:  

                                             a) Patten

                                             b) Research paper

                                             c) MATLAB software

' Value Proposition

Figure (4.4)

' It includes value do we deliver to the customer and which one of our customer's problem we are helping to solve.

' What bundles of product and services we are offering to each customer segment and a customer needs we are satisfying.  

' In this we are included below functions:

                                                               a) Smooth performance

                                                               b) Economic solution

                                                               c)  Benefited decision

' Customer Relationship

Figure (4.5)

' In this we are included what type of relationship does each of our customer segments expect us to establish and maintain with them which as below:

                                             a) Self making

                                             b) Customer information

                                             c) One time investment

' Channels

Figure (4.6)

' In this we are included through which channel our customer segments

Wants to be reach as below:

    a) Direct proposition

                             b) Advertising



' Cost structure

Figure (4.7)

' In this we are included most important cost inherent in our business model which a resources are most expensive as below:

                                 a) Manufacturing cost

                                 b) Transformer cost  

                                      c) Designing cost

                                      d) MOSFET protection cost  

' Revenue stream

Figure (4.8)

' In this we are included for what value our customer are really willing to pay and what they are currently pay as per types fixed prizing and dynamic prizing like negotiation list prize and licensing as below:

                          a) Price as per customer requirement

                          b) Price dependent as per customer  

                          c) License agreement

' Customer Segments

Figure (4.9)

' In this we are included our most important customer for whom we are creating values as below:

                                   a) Inverter manufacturing

                                   b) Inverter design

                                   c) Implementation

Chapter 5:- Future scope

' We have made easy to made inverter.

' Switching losses loses decrees.

' Harmonic distortion.

' Conclusion

If the single phase sine wave inverter is use any time any were. Electricity is cut off than emergency time used inverter. And this type inverter is more than time accurate compare to square wave inverter.


' Search & Refer the research paper

' LM 555 timer base inverter low power pure sinusoidal  out-put

' Design and implementation of solar inverter for pure sine wave

' Refer  the power electronic books

P.S. Bimbhra

K.B khanchandani

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